Categories
Herbs & Plants

Iris kemaonensis

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Btanical Name :  Iris kemaonensis
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Iris
Section: Pseudoregelia
Species: Iris kemaonensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Iris duthiei Foster
*Iris kamaonensis Wall.
*Iris kingiana Foster
*Iris tigrina Jacquem. ex Baker

Common Name: Kumaon iris

Habitat : Iris kemaonensis is native to East Asia – Himalayas from India to Bhutan and western China. It grows on alpine pastures at elevations of 3500 – 4200 metres.
Description:
Iris kemaonensis is a perennial flowering plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The leaves are variable in size, they can grow up to between 6–20 cm (2–8 in) long, and between 0.2 and 1 cm wide, at blooming time. Before the plant produces fruit or seed capsules, they extend up to between 34–45 cm (13–18 in) long, taller than the flowers. They are light green, greyish green or yellowish green. They are glaucous, and linear, with a rounded apex. In mild areas, it is semi-evergreen, but generally they are deciduous.
It has a slender short stem, that can grow up to between 5–12 cm (2–5 in) tall.
The stem has 2 to 3 green, lanceolate, (scarious) membranous, spathes (leaves of the flower bud). They can be between 5–6 cm (2–2 in) long and between 1 and 1.8 cm wide. They are scarious (membranous) and acuminate (pointed) at the tips. They can sheath or cover the base of the stem.
It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
The stems hold 1 or 2 terminal (top of stem) flowers, which bloom in late spring, between May and June, (in UK and Europe) and between April and July, (in India).

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The scented flowers, are 4–8 cm (2–3 in) in diameter, they come in shades of purple, from lilac, to lilac-purple, to pale purple. The flowers are spotted, or blotched with a dark colour. They are mottled like the skin of a reptile. The flowers are very similar in form to Iris hookeriana, but similar in shade to Iris kashmiriana.
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the ‘falls’ and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the ‘standards’.[17] The falls are spatulate (spoon shaped), or obovate, between 3.5–5 cm (1–2 in) long and 1.5 cm wide. They have ovate blades.[3][16] In the centre of the petal is a dense beard of white hairs, with yellow, or orange tips. The upright standards are oblanceolate, elliptic,[8] or obovate shaped, are between 4–5 cm (2–2 in) long and 1 cm wide. The standards are paler than the falls.

It has pedicels that are between 1 and 1.5 cm long trumpet shaped perianth tube that 5–7.5 cm (2–3 in) long, which is longer than spathe.[8] It has 2.5-3.2 cm long and 5-6mm wide, style branches, it is dark in the centre and paler at the edges. It has small triangular crests.[3] It has 2-2.3 cm long stamens, 6 cm long ovary, blue filaments, lavender anthers and white pollen.

After the iris has flowered, it produces an globose seed capsule, that is 2–2.5 cm (1–1 in) long, and 1.5 – 1.8 cm wide. They have short beak, taper to a pointed apex and dehisce (split open) laterally. Inside the capsule, are pyriform seeds, which are reddish brown, which have a milky yellow or cream aril (appendage). The seed capsule grows on stems, that are about 45 cm long, above the height of the leaves. This habit is similar to Algerian Iris (Iris unguicularis).
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Requires a sunny position and a well-drained soil containing lime. Prefers a pH between 6 and 7.5 or higher. The rhizome is compact and non-stoloniferous. Closely related to Iris dolichosiphon. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done after flowering, though it can be done at almost any time. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Medicinal Uses:
The flowers of Iris kemaonensis are used in Tibetan herbal medicine. They are described as having an acrid taste. They are analgesic and ophthalmic, and are used in the treatment of tinnitus (pain in the ears) and to treat weakening of the eyesight.

The seeds of the iris are also used in herbal medicine in Tibet, they also have an acrid taste, are analgesic and are anthelmintic and vermifuge. They are used in the treatment of colic pains, when due to intestinal worms. They are also used to treat hot and cold disorders of the stomach and intestines, and also the pain, below the neck and shoulders.

The roots and the whole of the iris is a stomachic, which can be used on scabies and urticaria.  The roots and leaves of the plant are diuretic, and used to treat bronchitis, dropsy and various liver complaints. When broken down into a powder, they are used to treat sores and pimples. The roots of the plant, are used to treat urinary disorders and kidney troubles. The seeds are used to treat coughs and colds.  In India, they are also used as spasmolytic, febrifuge and antidote for opium addiction.
Known Hazards: Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised[65]. The roots are especially likely to be toxic. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_kemaonensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+kemaonensis

Categories
Fish

Shrimp

Fire shrimp
Image by Marcia_Salviato via Flickr

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Scientific classification:-

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom
: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Suborder
: Pleocyemata
Infraorder: Caridea


Description:

Shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. Adult shrimp are filter feeding benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important food source for larger animals from fish to whales. They have a high resistance to toxins in polluted areas, and may contribute to high toxin levels in their predators. Together with prawns, shrimp are widely caught and farmed for human consumption.

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Etymology
The term shrimp originated around the 14th century with the Middle English shrimpe, akin to the Middle Low German schrempen, and meaning to contract or wrinkle; and the Old Norse skorpna, meaning to shrivel up.

Life cycle:-
Most shrimp mature and breed only in a marine habitat, although there are a small number of freshwater species. The females lay 50,000 to 1 million eggs, which hatch after some 24 hours into tiny nauplii. These nauplii feed on yolk reserves within their body and then undergo a metamorphosis into zoeae. This second larval stage feeds in the wild on algae and after a few days metamorphoses again into the third stage to become myses. At this stage the myses already begin to appear like tiny versions of fully-developed adults and feed on algae and zooplankton. After another three to four days they metamorphose a final time into postlarvae: young shrimp having all the characteristics of adults. The whole process takes about 12 days from hatching. In the wild, the marine postlarvae then migrate into estuaries, which are rich in nutrients and low in salinity. There they grow and eventually migrate back into open waters when they mature. Most adult shrimp are benthic animals living primarily on the sea floor.

Common shrimp species include rock, pink, royal red brown, white and snapping shrimp. Depending on the species and location, they grow from about 1.2 cm (0.5 in) to 30 cm (12 in) long, and live between one and 6.5 years.

Distinction from prawns:-

Biological:-
Arthropods can be subdivided into several classes, one of which is the Malacostraca.

This class contains about half of the crustaceans. The members of this class have a primitive body plan that can be described as shrimp-like, consisting of a 5-8-7 body plan. They have a small carapace that encloses the head and the thorax, and have a muscular abdomen for swimming. They also have a thin exoskeleton to maintain a light weight. These general characters are common in all members of the class.

The class can be further divided into the decapods, which are even still divided into the dendrobranchiates (prawns) and the carideans (shrimp and snapping shrimp).

The prawns have sequentially overlapping body segments (segment one covers the segment two, segment two covers segment three, etc), chlelate (claw like) first three leg pairs, and have a very basic larval body type.

The shrimps also have overlapping segments, however, in a different pattern (segment two overlaps segments one and three), only the first two leg pairs are chelate, and they have a more complex larval form.

Biologists distinguish the true shrimp from the true prawn because of the differences in their gill structures. The gill structure is lamellar in shrimp but branching in prawns. The easiest practical way to separate true shrimps from true prawns is to examine the second abdominal segment. The second segment of a shrimp overlaps both the first and the third segment, while the second segment of a prawn overlaps only the third segment.

Commercial and culinary:-

While in biological terms shrimps and prawns belong to different suborders of Decapoda, they are very similar in appearance. In commercial farming and fisheries, the terms shrimp and prawn are often used interchangeably. However, recent aquaculture literature increasingly uses the term “prawn” only for the freshwater forms of palaemonids and “shrimp” for the marine penaeids.

In the United Kingdom, the word “prawn” is more common on menus than “shrimp”; while the opposite is the case in North America. The term “prawn” is also loosely used to describe any large shrimp, especially those that come 15 (or fewer) to the pound (such as “king prawns”, yet sometimes known as “jumbo shrimp”). Australia and other Commonwealth nations follow this British usage to an even greater extent, using the word “prawn” almost exclusively. When Australian comedian Paul Hogan used the phrase, “I’ll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you” in an American television advertisement[7], it was intended to make what he was saying easier for his American audience to understand, and was thus a deliberate distortion of what an Australian would typically say.

In Britain very small crustaceans with a brownish shell are called shrimp, and are used to make potted shrimp. They are also used in dishes where they aren’t the primary ingredient.

For more knowledge You may click & see:->
*List of shrimp and prawn species
*List of freshwater aquarium shrimp
*Crangon crangon – the common brown shrimp or prawn (B.E.) much consumed in Europe

*Shrimp baiting
*Krill
*Dried shrimp
*Snapping shrimp
*The Shrimp Girl by William Hogarth
*New Zealand freshwater shrimp

Very Good, Tasty   & Healthy food:
As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, iodine and protein but low in food energy. A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol, from 122 mg to 251 mg per 100 g of shrimp, depending on the method of preparation. Shrimp consumption, however, is considered healthy for the circulatory system because the lack of significant levels of saturated fat in shrimp means that the high cholesterol content in shrimp actually improves the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides.

You may click to see :
The Amazing Health Benefits of Eating Shrimp

Indians scientist turns prawn waste into health food
Healthy Shrimp Recipes  :->

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Allergy:
Some people may have Shrimp Allergy and for them it is always advicible not to eat it at  all and  he or she  should avoid all types of shell food as all shellfish are closely related, and they all include similar allergy-causing proteins called “tropomyosins.” This is especially true of shellfish that are in the same family. (There are two main families of edible shellfish: crustaceans, which include shrimp, lobsters, crabs and crayfish, and mollusks, which include oysters, scallops, clams and mussels.)

Shrimp and other shellfish are among the most common food allergens. They are not kosher and thus are forbidden in Jewish cuisine. However, according to some mazhab, shrimp are halal, and therefore are permissible in Islamic cuisine.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrimp and other different internet sites

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