Tag Archives: Burkina Faso

Amelanchier humilis

 
Botanical Name : Amelanchier humilis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species: A. humilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Low serviceberry

Habitat : Amelanchier humilis is native to Eastern N. America – Vermont to Alberta and south to New York and Iowa. It grows on the rocky or sandy shores and banks, often calcareous.

Description:

Amelanchier humilis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 3 m (9ft). The fruit, which is a pome, is very dark, almost black. It is edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit has a sweet taste, with slight apple flavor. The leaves are egg-shaped, up to 5 cm (2 inches) long.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are often found growing on calcareous soils in the wild. Hardy to about -25°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. This species produces suckers freely, forming thickets. Closely related to A. stolonifera. Hybridizes with A. stolonifera, A. arborea and A. bartramiana. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet. A very pleasant flavour, the fruit is juicy with a hint of apple in the taste and contains a few small seeds at the centre. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_humilis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+humilis

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii)

Botanical Name :Butyrospermum parkii
Family: Sapotaceae
Genus: Butyrospermum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Species: B. parkii
Syn. B. paradoxa ,Vitellaria paradoxa
Common Names  : Shea Butter , Vitellaria,Karité,shea tree, vitellaria


Habitat
:Indigenous  to Africa, occurring in Mali, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Burkina Faso and Uganda.


Description:

The tree is perennial and starts bearing the first fruits when it is 10–15 years old; full bearing is attained when the tree is about 20–30 years. It produces nuts for up to 200 years after reaching maturity.

The fruits resemble large plums and take 4–6 months to ripen. Average yield is 15–20 kilograms of fresh fruit per tree, with optimum yields up to 45 kg. Each kilogram of fruit gives approximately 400 grams of dry seeds.

Botanical Details:Trees or shrubs , usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets ; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual , usually in sessile axillary clusters , rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate . Calyx a single whorl of usually 4–6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2–4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages . Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube , as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous . Style 1, often apically lobed . Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.

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The shea fruit consists of a thin, tart, nutritious pulp that surrounds a relatively large, oil-rich seed from which is extracted shea butter.

Constituents: vitamins a, e, and f, fatty acids: oleic- 60.5% palmitic- 5.0% linoleic- 7.9% stearic- 45.24%
Edible Uses:
The Shea tree is an African traditional food plant. It has been claimed that that the tree has potential to improve nutrition, boost food supply in the ” annual hungry season”,[1] foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.

Medicinal Uses:
Common Uses: Abrasions/Cuts * Aches & Pains * Eczema * Facial and Skin care * Hair Care/Shampoo * Insect Bites/Rashes * Natural Skin Care-Oils & Herbs *
Properties: Anti-inflammatory* Emollient* Skin tonic* Vulnerary*
Parts Used: Nut oil.

Shea butter is becoming more popular here in the West as we discover its marvelous uses in skin care. Shea is rich in vitamins, minerals and fatty acids that rejuvenate and hydrate skin and hair. Use shea butter alone or in homemade skin preparations to treat damaged skin, help heal wounds, or just pamper yourself with a whole body treatment.

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Pure shea butter has a soft, pliable texture, is naturally cream colored and has a pleasant nutty scent. Bleached and refined shea butter does not retain its medicinal properties, so be sure to obtain it from a reputable vender that specializes in natural products. (Like Mountain Rose;)

Shea Butter is naturally rich in Vitamins A, E, and F, as well as a number of other vitamins and minerals. Vitamins A and E help to soothe, hydrate, and balance the skin. They also provide skin collagen which assists with wrinkles and other signs of ageing. Vitamin F contains essential fatty acids, and helps protect and revitalize damaged skin and hair. Shea Butter is an intense moisturizer for dry skin, and is a wonderful product for revitalizing dull or dry skin on the body or scalp. It promotes skin renewal, increases the circulation, and accelerates wound healing.

You may click to see:
From Ghana to Sonning :
Africa hopes for anti-wrinkle cash cow :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail396.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butyrospermum_parkii
http://www.sheabuttermarket.com/shea_buttter_market_values.htm
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/V/Vitellaria_paradoxa/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butyrospermum_parkii

http://www.bbc.co.uk/berkshire/content/articles/2006/02/20/shea_butter_feature.shtml

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Some Health Quaries & Answers

Storm in a teacup

Q: I have a ceramic mug that I bought from a street vendor. When I drink tea out of it I get a taste of clay

A: Try drinking the beverage through a straw. If you can still taste the ceramic, discard the mug. Hot liquids can dissolve some of the clay and glaze. Some of these may be contaminated with dangerous heavy metals like lead. This is particularly true of poor quality stuff.

Breast-feeding & contraception

Q: I am breast feeding my four-month baby and want to use some safe and reliable form of contraception. I do not like the idea of an intrauterine contraceptive device.

A: You could ask your husband to use condoms from the beginning to the end of intercourse. If this does not appeal to both of you, or is not feasible, you can opt for progesterone injections. They are sold under the trade name Depo Provera. The injection has to be given every 12 weeks under medical supervision. Another option is “progesterone only” pills, the trade name of which is Cerazette. Unlike conventional oral contraceptive pills, these have to be taken every day. Both the injections and tablets can cause irregular menstruation. After one year (when you stop breast-feeding), you can switch to oral contraceptive pills.

Frequent itching

Q: I have recurrent itching in my vagina and it has been diagnosed as a yeast infection. Despite repeated treatment it comes back.

A: Recurrent infection is likely to occur if the normal vaginal Ph changes. This occurs if the normal bacterial flora of the vagina changes. This can occur during pregnancy, diabetes, urinary tract infection, with the use of oral contraceptive pills or antibiotics. Vaginal douching or washing with too much soap can also cause a similar problem. Treatment is with medications like fluconazole (tablet) or clotrimazole (vaginal pessaries and creams).

Relapses are common as the organism is now becoming increasingly resistant to the common medication. Unless the underlying cause is treated, relapses will occur. Relapses can also occur if your partner has diabetes which is not very well controlled.

Sleepless nights

Q: I am 64 years old and have difficulty sleeping at night. I started taking alprazolam 0.25 mg at night. Now I find that even with 0.5 mg I do not get any sleep.

A: Alprazolam can be addictive if used as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug without medical supervision. Eventually higher doses may be needed for the same quality of sleep. It can also cause dizziness and loss of balance, particularly if you suddenly get up in the night. Other less addictive prescription medicines are available. Your doctor will be able to prescribe medication to help you sleep that will not react with any of the other medication that you might be taking for other illnesses like diabetes or hypertension. It is better to avoid “sleeping pills” altogether as far as possible. Try —

· Not sleeping in the daytime

· Exercising in the morning and evening

· Drinking a glass of warm milk at night.

Heat boils

Q: I have developed boils on my legs. They are painful and pus comes out if I squeeze them. I have this problem every summer. I am not diabetic.

A: Our skin has a number of harmless commensal bacteria living on it. If small cuts and breaks occur in the skin as a result of scratching, these bacteria can enter the body and produce superficial boils. You need to keep your skin clean by bathing twice a day. Use a germicidal soap like Neko which is bactericidal. Apply the soap using a loofah or plastic scrubber. Avoid using talcum powder. Apply an antiseptic skin ointment (without steroids) like Neosporin or Soframycin on the boils after a bath. Do not break or squeeze the boils. If you develop fever consult a physician.

Lower testes

Q: My right testes appears to be larger than the left one.

A: The two halves of the body are not same. There may even be differences between your right hand and the left one. In most people the right testicle not only hangs lower but may also be larger. As long as there are no lumps or pain, you can leave it alone. If you are really worried, do an ultrasound scan to make sure there is no hernia or hydrocoele.

Nan or Lactogen?

Q: My son is nine months old. Should I give him Nan or Lactogen?

A: Children should be weaned on to solid foods after six months. Substituting tinned milk for breast milk is not the answer. They can be started on soft home-cooked solids such as cooked rice, dal and vegetables like potato. Eventually, by the age of one, they should be on the same diet as the family. Tinned precooked cereals and biscuits should be avoided.

 

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata,India)

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Bhumiamla / Phyllanthus niruri

Botanical Name:Phyllanthus niruri
Family:Phyllanthaceae
Genus:Phyllanthus
Species:P. niruri
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:Malpighiales

Common names : Chanca Piedra in Spanish, Bhumyamalaki in Ayurveda, and Quebra-Pedra in Portuguese, Keezha Nelli  in Tamil, Nela Nelli  in Kannada,Keezhar Nelli in Malayalam and Nela Usiri in Telugu. It has many other common names in assorted languages, including dukong anak, dukong-dukong anak, amin buah, rami buah, turi hutan, bhuiaonla, and Meniran (in Indonesia).

Habitat : Common in central and southern India extending to Sri Lanka.
Historical aspects:
Charaka mentions the plant. In ayurveda the expressed juice of the fresh plant is given for a sluggish liver and also for chronic liver diseases. It is commonly and widely used for dysentery and intestinal colic. Phyllanthus niruri, also called “stonebreaker” due to its strong roots, is native to South America. The plant is dried into an extract that acts as a diuretic and an astringent.

Description:  The annual herb is 30-60cm high, quite glabrous, stem often branched at the base, angular. Leaves numerous subsessile distichous often imbricating, elliptic oblong obtuse.Stem is angular with numerous distichous, elliptic-oblong leaves. Stipules present, very acute. Flowers yellowish, very numerous, axillary, the male flowers 1-3, female flowers are solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks. The flowering time in Indian conditions is July to August.

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Pharmacognoy:
It is safe lipotropic drug and its primary action is on the liver. Blumberg showed in inhibition of DNA polymerase of Hepatitis b virus and a viral-agglutinating activity. The characteristics have been well studied.

Phytochemistry
:
In the aerial parts, three crystalline lignans including phyllanthine and hypophyllanthine have been found. Five flavonoids have been identified, quercetin, astralgin, quercitrin, and rutin. Four leucodelphinidine alkaloids were separated from the leaves and stems one of then being and enantiomorph of securinine.

Medicinal Uses:
A clinical study with Phyllanthus niruri, indicated that it may reduce the levels of urinary calcium.  A subsequent study of 150 patients over a 6-month period indicated that an extract of this herb reduces the incidence of stone formation, and concluded, “Regular self-administration of P. niruri after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones results in an increased stone-free rate that appears statistically significant for lower caliceal location. Its efficacy and the absolute lack of side effects make this therapy suitable to improve overall outcomes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower pole stones.”  A more recent rat study found that Phyllanthus niruri has been shown to interfere with many stages of stone formation, reducing crystals aggregation, modifying their structure and composition as well as altering the interaction of the crystals with tubular cells leading to reduced subsequent endocytosis.”

Ayurvedic properties :
Guna: Laghu, Ruksha.
Rasa
: Tikta, kashaya.
Veerya: Sheeta.Vipaka: Katu.
Dosha: Kaphapittaghna
karma: Kasaswasahara, Dahaprashamana, Rochana, Yakrutottejaka, kandughna.

Safety:
With the formulation and dosage used no adverse reactions have been reprted.

Cinical Usage:
The fresh root is used for the treatment of viral hepatitis.the plant is also used as a diuretic in oedema.it is also used to increase appetite and locally to relieve inflammations.

Healing Options:
Phyllanthus has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over 2,000 years and has a wide number of traditional uses.

This includes employing the whole plant for jaundice, gonorrhea, frequent menstruation, and diabetes and using it topically as a poultice for skin ulcers, sores, swelling, and itchiness

CHANCA PIEDRA (Phyllanthus niruri) is a composite name, “chanca” meaning “to break” in Quechua and “piedra” meaning “stone” in Spanish. It is the popular name given to several small shrub-like plants in the Phyllanthus genus (botanical family Euphorbiaceae), including Phyllanthus niruri, and Phyllanthus stipulatis. These two species have the same medicinal effects and look identical, except for their seeds, by which the botanist can tell them apart. A third species, Phyllanthus amarus, has been considered identical (perhaps not a different species at all) to Phyllanthus niruri. These species of Phyllanthus have been proven in scientific research to have antihepatotoxic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, febrifugal, and hypoglycemic activity.*

Liver Disorders/ Jaundice :
The herb stimulates the liver and is useful in liver and spleen disorders. It can be used in jaundice and enlargement of liver. The leaf should be administered with black salt and ginger every morning for 10 days in the treatment of such disorders.

Loss of Appetite:
Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice is very useful in Loss of appetite . It is a major component of many popular liver tonics which increase Appetite & locally to relieve inflammations.

Oedema:
The plant is also used as a diuretic in oedema. Powdered leaves & roots – pulverized & made into poultice with rice-water useful in oedematous swelling and ulcers.

Formulation and Dosage:
Juice: 10-20 ml b.i.d
Herb powder: 3-6 gms b.i.d

Ayurvedic supplements made from Bhumiamla:
Livgood
Livrol Syrup
Arogyavardhini Bati

Liver Tonic Livogod
Herbal Liver Tonic for cirrhosis,alcholic ilver and jaundice

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_niruri
allayurveda.com

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Indian Neem Plant (Azadirachta indica)

 

Botanical Name: Azadirachta indica
Family:
Meliaceae (mahogany)
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Sapindales
Genus:
Azadirachta
Species:
A. indica

Other common names: Pride of India, Azadirachta, Nim, Margosa, Holy Tree, Indian Lilac Tree, Bead Tree
Vernacular names:
_____________________

Names for this plant in various languages include;
Arabic – Neeb, Azad-darakhul-hind, Shajarat Alnnim
Assamese – Neem
Bengali – Nim
English – Margosa, Neem Tree
French – Azadirac de l’Inde, margosier, margousier
German – Indischer zedrach, Grossblaettiger zedrach
Gujarati – Dhanujhada, Limbda
Hausa – Darbejiya, Dogonyaro, Bedi
Hindi – Neem
Kannada – Bevu
Kiswahili – Muarubaini
Khmer – Sdau
Malay – Mambu
Malayalam – Aryaveppu
Manipuri – Neem
Marathi – Kadunimba
Myanmar – Burma- Tamar
Nepal – Neem
Nigerian – Dongoyaro
Persian – Azad Darakth e hind, neeb, nib
Portuguese – Nimbo, Margosa, Amargoseira
Punjabi – Nimmh
Sanskrit – Arishta, Pakvakrita, Nimbaka
Sinhala – Kohomba
Sindhi – Nimm
Somali – Geed Hindi
Tamil – Veppai , Sengumaru
Telugu – Vepa
Thai – Sadao
tulu-besappu
Urdu – Neem

Habitat: Azadirachta indica  is native to India and the Indian subcontinent including Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

Description:
Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), and rarely 35–40 metres (115–131 ft). It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide and spreading. The fairly dense crown is roundish and may reach a diameter of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft) in old, free-standing specimens. The neem tree is very similar in appearance to its relative, the Chinaberry (Melia azedarach).

The opposite, pinnate leaves are 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15.7 in) long, with 20 to 31 medium to dark green leaflets about 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in) long. The terminal leaflet is often missing. The petioles are short.

The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged in more-or-less drooping axillary panicles which are up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree, bear from 150 to 250 flowers. An individual flower is 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) long and 8–11 millimetres (0.31–0.43 in) wide. Protandrous, bisexual flowers and male flowers exist on the same individual tree.

The fruit is a smooth (glabrous), olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly roundish, and when ripe is 1.4–2.8 centimetres (0.55–1.10 in) by 1.0–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in). The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.3–0.5 centimetres (0.12–0.20 in) thick. The white, hard inner shell (endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two or three, elongated seeds (kernels) having a brown seed coat.

 

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Commercial plantations of the trees are not considered profitable. Around 50,000 neem trees have been planted near Mecca to provide shelter for the pilgrims.

Warning: The neem tree is very much lookalike to the Chinaberry, whose fruits (and everything else) are extremely poisonous.

Medicinal and other uses:

Neem Leaf is said to be India’s best-kept secret, and for thousands of years this “Pride of India”

has treated more than one hundred health problems! It is said to be one of the most important detoxicants in Ayurvedic medicine and is also believed to be a potent antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and parasiticide that combats infections of all kinds. In addition, Neem is used to facilitate digestion, support heart health, improve the urinary tract and treat fevers and pain. Important, new research claims that Neem will help diabetics and combat invasive disease.

Neem Leaf is a bitter tonic herb that nourishes and strengthens the digestive tract and is excellent for digestive disorders. Because it is believed to work wonders for the gastrointestinal tract (the passage along which food passes for digestion, including esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small and large intestines), Neem is often taken to correct problems of the stomach and bowels and is effective in easing nausea, indigestion, gastritis, intestinal distress, hyperacidity, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. It also appears to reduce gastric secretions and aids in eliminating toxins and harmful bacteria from the system, thereby reducing stomach discomfort.

In the treatment of constipation, Neem Leaf is thought to be an effective purgative, especially in larger doses, but because it is also a soothing demulcent, it is not a harsh laxative, and its use is thought to regulate bowel function. It has also been used as an anthelmintic, which destroys and expels intestinal worms, perhaps because of its effective laxative and parasiticidal properties.

Neem Leaf is thought to support heart health in several ways. Recent studies have shown that the leaf extract, nimbidin, significantly lowers serum cholesterol levels, which helps to reduce blood clots. Nimbidin also causes blood vessels to dilate and may be responsible for lowering blood pressure and improving blood circulation. These actions are thought to reduce the risk for arteriosclerosis, stroke and heart attack. Moreover, it is also thought to slow rapid heartbeat and inhibit irregularities of the rhythms of the heart (arrhythmia).

Neem Leaf is said to improve many urinary tract disorders, especially burning urination. The leaf extract, sodium nimbidinate, acts as a diuretic, promoting the flow of urine, and this action helps to relieve phosphaturia (excess phosphates in the urine) and albuminuria (escess albumin in the urine), which can be caused by chronic congestion of the kidneys. The increased urine helps to flush the kidneys and further cleanse toxins from the system.

The tannin in Neem Leaf acts as an astringent, and as such, it has been used to remedy diarrhea and dysentery.

Neem Leaf is said to be one of the finest detoxicants available that clears pollutants from the body. The herb’s antiseptic qualities are said to cleanse the blood of harmful bacteria that cause infections. Moreover, cleaner blood is invaluable for improving skin conditions, and Neem Leaf has been famous for its beneficial effects in cases of skin diseases and problems, including eczema, psoriasis, septic sores, infected burns, boils, acne and scrofula.

Supporting Neem’s traditional role as an antibacterial (twig) toothbrush, modern studies confirm its important role in total oral hygiene. Neem’s antimicrobial and antiseptic properties are effective in reducing plaque, caries, gingival scores and pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria in the mouth. A mouthwash prepared from Neem extract was found to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans,

an oral pathogen (bacteria) responsible for dental caries and was effective in reversing mouth ulcers (incipient carious lesions).

Recent research is being conducted into the use of Neem Leaf for diabetes. A number of insulin-dependent diabetics were able to reduce their insulin considerably when treated with Neem Leaf extract and Neem oil. The general impression is that Neem may enhance insulin receptor sensitivity and may work well on Type II diabetics.

Neem Leaf is a virtual living pharmacy and is a powerful antibacterial and antifungal. Its quercetin content (a polyphenolic flavonoid) helps to combat infections and certain fungi. Neem is believed to destroy the fourteen most common fungi that infect the human body, such as athlete’s foot, nail fungus, intestinal tract fungi and a fungus that is part of the normal mucous flora that may get out of control and lead to lesions in the mouth, vagina, skin, hands and lungs.

As an antiviral, Neem Leaf has been used to combat smallpox, chicken pox, and recent tests have shown that it may be effective against herpes virus and the viral DNA polymerase of hepatitis B virus.

Neem has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat malarial fevers, and recent experiments have shown that one of the Neem’s components, gedunin, is as effective as quinine against malaria. It is also used to control trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness or Chagas’ disease), caused by a parasite that lives inside nerve and muscle cells. Neem is also considered effective in reducing fever, relieving pain and reducing inflammation.

Neem Leaf is said to be an expectorant that loosens and expels phlegm and congestion from the respiratory system and has been used to relieve dry cough, nasal congestion, bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tuberculosis, pleurisy and other respiratory disorders.

Neem has been used effectively as a contraceptive since the first century B.C., when an eminent Ayurvedic physician wrote of its use for this purpose. It is a highly potent antibacterial, spermicidal, parasiticide, antifungal and antiviral, and in cases of sexual contact, current studies claim that it may help to prevent AIDS, gonorrhea, trichomonas, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted conditions. Whether ingested or used topically in the vagina, the leaves and oil have been effective in killing human spermatozoa. Many women in Madagascar chew Neem leaves every day, which is believed to prevent pregnancies, and in cases of unwanted pregnancies, it is thought to be capable of inducing a miscarriage (it is a uterine stimulant that has also been used to stimulate suppressed menstruation). Neem Leaves have been used as a vaginal douche to heal wounds caused during delivery and disinfect the vaginal passage.

When used externally, Neem Leaf is used as an eyewash for the treatment of night blindness, in shampoos for hair loss and premature graying. Used topically, its antiseptic, insecticidal and antiviral properties are believed efficacious against septic sores, warts, infected burns, ringworm, lice, boils, ulcers, indolent ulcers, glandular swellings, wounds, smallpox, syphilitic sores and eczema. Its anti-inflammatory qualities will also relieve painful joints and muscles.
Neem Leaf is said to be India’s best-kept secret, and for thousands of years this “Pride of India” has treated more than one hundred health problems! It is said to be one of the most important detoxicants in Ayurvedic medicine and is also believed to be a potent antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and parasiticide that combats infections of all kinds. In addition, Neem is used to facilitate digestion, support heart health, improve the urinary tract and treat fevers and pain. Important, new research claims that Neem will help diabetics and combat invasive disease.
Neem is perhaps the most useful traditional medical plant, mostly available in India.Each part of the neem tree has tremendus medical properity and is thus commercially exploitable.It is considered as a most valuable sourse of unique biological product for the development of different kinds of medicines against various diseases and also for the industrial products.Its phermacological value is vast.

Various parts of neem tree have been used as a tradtional Ayurbedic medicine in India from time immemorial. It’s leaf,root,flower and fruit togather cure blood morbidity,bilary afflictions,itching,skin ulsers,burning sensations. We can have various use of neem in our day to day life:-
* Mix pure, dried neem leaf powder with vaseline in the ratio of 1:5. This combination can be used to repel insects including mosquitoes. It can also be used to treat skin disorders, minor cuts, burns, wounds, etc.

* Boil neem leaves with water and add to bath water along with rose water to cure itching, excessive perspiration, etc.

* Boil 10 freshly cleaned neem leaves along with cotton in a litre of water for approximately 10 minutes. Keep it aside to cool. Use this to rinse your eyes in case of conjunctivitis, itching, etc.

* Use pure neem oil mixed with coconut and sandalwood oil for treating hairfall, premature greying, lice, dandruff and scalp infections.

* To treat a sore throat without antibiotics, gargle with neem leaf water to which honey is added.

* For acne, pimples and skin infections, apply pure neem leaf powder mixed with water to the affected area.

* In case of sinusitis, use pure neem oil as nasal drops. Use 1-2 drops in the morning and evening.

* Boil 40-50 neem leaves in 250 ml for 20 minutes. Cool, strain, bottle, refrigerate and store to use as an astringent.

* Chewing four to five neem leaves regularly helps in cases of hyperacidity and diabetes. It also purifies blood.

* Neem oil has anti-fungal properties. Putting two drops of neem oil in the ear once daily, at bedtime, helps to cure fungal infection of the ear.

* For jaundice, juice of neem leaves (15-30 ml) and half the quantity of honey taken on an empty stomach for seven days is recommended.

* Prevent breeding of mosquitoes by adding crushed neem seeds and neem oil to all breeding areas. Neem products ensure complete inhibition of egg laying for seven days.

* Add 30 ml of neem oil to one litre of water. Mix well. Add one ml of Teepol and spray immediately for plant protection.

* To ward off mosquitoes, add five to 10 per cent neem oil to any oil and light as a candle.

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Other uses:
Construction: The juice of this plant is a potent ingredent for a mixture of wall plaster, according to the Samar??ga?a S?tradh?ra, which is a Sanskrit treatise dealing with ?ilpa??stra (Hindu science of art and construction).

Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics such as soap, shampoo, balms and creams as well as toothpaste.

Toothbrush: Traditionally, slender neem twigs (called datun) are first chewed as a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner. This practice has been in use in India, Africa, and the Middle East for centuries. Many of India’s 80% rural population still start their day with the chewing stick, while in urban areas neem toothpaste is preferred. Neem twigs are still collected and sold in markets for this use, and in rural India one often sees youngsters in the streets chewing on neem twigs. It has been found to be as effective as a toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation.

Tree: Besides its use in traditional Indian medicine, the neem tree is of great importance for its anti-desertification properties and possibly as a good carbon dioxide sink.

Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose foods.

Neem blossoms are used in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to prepare Ugadi pachhadi. A mixture of neem flowers and jaggery (or unrefined brown sugar) is prepared and offered to friends and relatives, symbolic of sweet and bitter events in the upcoming new year, Ugadi. “Bevina hoovina gojju” (a type of curry prepared with neem blossoms) is common in Karnataka throughout the year. Dried blossoms are used when fresh blossoms are not available. In Tamil Nadu, a rasam (veppam poo rasam) made with neem blossoms is a culinary specialty.

Cosmetics : Neem is perceived in India as a beauty aid. Powdered leaves are a major component of at least one widely used facial cream. Purified neem oil is also used in nail polish and other cosmetics.

Bird repellent: Neem leaf boiled in water can be used as a very cost-effective bird repellent, especially for sparrows.

Lubricant : Neem oil is non-drying and it resists degradation better than most vegetable oils. In rural India, it is commonly used to grease cart wheels.

Fertilizer : Neem has demonstrated considerable potential as a fertilizer. Neem cake is widely used to fertilize cash crops, particularly sugarcane and vegetables.

Plant protectant : Ploughed into the soil, it protects plant roots from nematodes and white ants, probably as it contains the residual limonoids.
In Karnataka, people grow the tree mainly for its green leaves and twigs, which they puddle into flooded rice fields before the rice seedlings are transplanted.

Resin : An exudate can be tapped from the trunk by wounding the bark. This high protein material is not a substitute for polysaccharide gum, such as gum arabic. It may, however, have a potential as a food additive, and it is widely used in South Asia as “Neem glue”.

Bark : Neem bark contains 14% tannin, an amount similar to that in conventional tannin-yielding trees (such as Acacia decurrens). Moreover, it yields a strong, coarse fibre commonly woven into ropes in the villages of India.

Honey : In parts of Asia neem honey commands premium prices, and people promote apiculture by planting neem trees.

Soap : 80% of India’s supply of neem oil is now used by neem oil soap manufacturers.[26] Although much of it goes to small-scale speciality soaps, often using cold-pressed oil, large-scale producers also use it, mainly because it is cheap. Additionally it is antibacterial and antifungal, soothing and moisturising. It can be made with up to 40% neem oil. Generally, the crude oil is used to produce coarse laundry soaps.

Against pox viruses : In India, people who are affected with pox viruses are generally made to lie in bed made of neem leaves and branches. This prevents the spreading of pox virus to others and has been in practice since early centuries.
Known Hazards: Neem oil can cause some forms of toxic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy if consumed in large quantities

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neem

http://www.herbalextractsplus.com/neem-leaf.cfm?gclid=CJ_HpOPxg40CFQI5PwodGRGcoQ

http://www.mansha-enterprises.com/organic-products.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azadirachta_indica