Tag Archives: Burma

Zanthoxylum ailanthoides

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. ailanthoides
Order: Sapindales

Common Name: Ailanthus-like prickly ash

Habitat : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is native to E. Asia – S. China, Japan. It grows in Mountains, C. and S. Japan.

Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in).Branchlets and inflorescence rachises glabrous, with prickles. Leaves 11-27-foliolate; leaflet blades opposite, narrowly lanceolate but subovate basally on rachis, 7-18 × 2-6 cm, abaxially grayish green or glaucescent, oil glands numerous, midvein adaxially impressed, secondary veins 11-16 on each side of midvein, base symmetrically or subobliquely rounded, margin crenate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, many flowered. Flowers 5-merous, subsessile. Perianth in 2 series. Sepals broadly triangular, ca. 0.8 mm. Petals pale yellowish white, ca. 2.5 mm. Male flowers: stamens 5; rudimentary gynoecium disciform, 2- or 3-lobed. Female flowers (3 or)4-carpelled. Fruit pedicel 1-3 mm; follicles pale reddish brown but pale gray to brownish gray when dry, ca. 4.5 mm in diam., oil glands numerous, impressed when dry, apex not beaked. Seeds ca. 4 mm in diam. Flower in. Aug-Sep, and Fruit in Oct-Dec.


The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. A rather frost-tender species, it is not hardy in most of Britain but succeeds outdoors in the mildest areas of the country. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed – cooked. A pungent flavour, it is used as a condiment. A red pepper substitute. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed. Young leaves. No more details are given.

Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Carminative; Stimulant.

The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is antitussive, carminative, and powerfully stimulant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Symplocos paniculata

Botanical Name : Symplocos paniculata
Family: Symplocaceae
Genus: Symplocos
Order: Ericales

Common Names: Asiatic Sweetleaf, Sapphire-berry

Habitat :Symplocos paniculata is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Himalayas. It grows in the forests and shrubberies at elevations of 1000 – 2700 metres, Pakistan to S. W. China and Burma. Slopes in mixed forests at elevations of 800 – 2500 metres.

Symplocos paniculata is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft).

It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile. ...CLICK  & SEE  THE  PICTURES  
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Requires an acid soil and a sunny position. Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained fertile neutral to acid soil. One report says that plants are hardy to about -10°c, though it is also said that they can survive quite harsh winters outdoors in Britain but that they need a warm, sunny protected position and a hot summer if they are to fruit well. The fruits are sometimes spoiled by frosts. The flowers are sweetly fragrant. Self-sterile, it needs cross-pollination with a different plant in the same species if seed and fruit are to be produced. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires stratification and is best sown in a cold frame in late winter, it can take 12 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in individual pots in a cold frame. Roots are formed in about 4 weeks. Good percentage.
Edible Uses:... Fruit – cooked. Used in jams, jellies and sauce[183]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is astringent, cooling and tonic. It is useful in the treatment of menorrhagia, bowel complaints, eye diseases and ulcers. It is also used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums. The juice of the bark is applied externally to sprains and muscular swellings.
Other Uses: …Dye; Mordant; Wood…..A yellow or red dye is obtained from the leaves and bark. We have no specific information for this species but many species in this genus contain alum and can be used as mordants when dyeing. Wood – white, soft to moderately hard. close grained, liable to twist and split when seasoning. Of possible use in turnery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Sisymbrium altissimum

Botanical Name :Sisymbrium altissimum
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Sisymbrium
Species: S. altissimum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms:  S. pannonicum. S. sinapistrum.

Common Name :Jim Hill mustard, after James J. Hill, a Canadian-American railroad magnate, Tall mustard, Tumble mustard, tumbleweed mustard, tall sisymbrium, and tall hedge mustard.

Habitat :Sisymbrium altissimum is native to the western part of the Mediterranean Basin in Europe and Northern Africa and is widely naturalized throughout most of the world, including all of North America. It was probably introduced into North America by a contaminant crop seed. The plant grows in soils of all textures, even sand.

Sisymbrium altissimum is an annual herb L growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). Stems is erect, branched distally, (2-)4-12(-16) dm, sparsely to densely hirsute basally, glabrous or glabrate distally. Basal leaves rosulate; petiole 1-10(-15) cm; blade broadly oblanceolate, oblong, or lanceolate (in outline), (2-)5-20(-35) cm × (10-)20-80(-100) mm, margins pinnatisect, pinnatifid, or runcinate; lobes (3-)4-6(-8) on each side, oblong or lanceolate, smaller than terminal lobe, margins entire, dentate, or lobed. Cauline leaves similar to basal; distalmost blade with linear to filiform lobes. Fruiting pedicels usually divaricate, rarely ascending, stout, nearly as wide as fruit, (4-)6-10(-13) mm. Flowers: sepals ascending or spreading, oblong, (cucullate), 4-6 × 1-2 mm; petals spatulate, (5-)6-8(-10) × 2.5-4 mm, claw 3.5-6 mm; filaments 2-6 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2.2 mm.


The plant germinates in winter or early spring. The blooming time is lengthy, and after maturity the plant forms a tumbleweed.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. Fruits narrowly linear, usually straight, smooth, stout.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Succeeds in most soils.

Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Young leaves and shoots – raw or cooked. A somewhat hot flavour, they can be used as a flavouring in salads or cooked as a potherb. Seed – ground into a powder and used as a gruel or as a mustard-like flavouring in soups etc.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiscorbutic;  Astringent.

The leaves and flowers are antiscorbutic and astringent.The leaves and flowers have medicinal properties that has been used to cause tissue to contract. They also contain an agent that is effective against scurvy.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


Enhanced by Zemanta

Chukrasia tabularis

Botanical Name : Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.
Family : Meliaceae
Synonyms :       Chukrasia velutina (M.Roem.) C.DC. (1878).Chikrassia tabularis A. Juss.
Vernacular names : Chickrassy, Chittagong wood, Burma almondwood, East Indian mahogany (En).
Common Names :-

(Bengali) : boga poma, chikrassi, pabba
(Burmese) : kinthatputgyi, tawyinma, yinma
(English) : Burma almond wood, chickrassy, chittagong wood
: voryong
(Lao (Sino-Tibetan)) : nhom, nhom hin, nhom khao
(Malay) : cherana puteh, repoh, suntang puteh, surian batu
(Tamil) : agil, maleivembu
(Thai) : fakdap, siat-ka, siay-ka, yom-hin
(Trade name) : chickrassy
(Vietnamese) : l[as]t hoa

: Chukrasia tabularis originates from tropical Asia (from India and Sri Lanka eastwards to Borneo and China). It has been planted in many countries outside tropical Asia, in Africa in Nigeria, Cameroon and northern South Africa, and elsewhere e.g. in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Australia.

Deciduous, medium-sized to large tree up to 30(–40) m tall; bole branchless for up to 20(–25) m, with a diameter of up to 120 cm, with convex buttresses up to 1.5 m high or without buttresses; bark surface rusty brown or deep brown, deeply fissured or cracked, with lenticels, inner bark reddish; crown spreading. Leaves alternate, up to 50 cm long, paripinnate with up to 24 leaflets in larger leaves; stipules absent; petiole 4–9 cm long; leaflets alternate, shortly stalked, ovate to oblong, asymmetric, 4–17.5 cm × 2–6.5 cm, apical ones largest, acute to acuminate at apex, entire, glabrous to pubescent, pinnately veined. Inflorescence an axillary panicle, often appearing terminal, up to 30 cm long. Flowers functionally unisexual, regular, 4–5-merous, sweetly scented; pedicel 2–4 mm long; calyx shallowly cup-shaped, c. 3 mm in diameter, with short lobes; petals free, narrowly oblong to spatulate, 1–1.5 cm long, contorted, cream-coloured to yellowish, often tinged pink; stamens 8–10, filaments united into a cylindrical tube, with the anthers attached to the margin; ovary superior, flask-shaped, pubescent, 3– 5-celled, style slender, stigma head-shaped. Fruit an ovoid or ellipsoid capsule (2.5–)3.5–5 cm long, woody, opening by 3–5 valves from the apex, valves splitting into 2 layers, many-seeded. Seeds c. 12 mm long, flat, with large terminal wing. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons leafy; first 2 leaves opposite, subsequent ones arranged spirally, seedling leaves often imparipinnate and bipinnate with incised or lobed leaflets.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES…>….(01)..(1).…....(2)....

Medicinal Uses:
A bark extract has powerful astringent properties and is used as a febrifuge and to treat diarrhoea.

The different parts of C. tabularis (leaves, bark, fruits) are having both ethnobotanical and medicinal significance along with biopesticidal activity. The biological activities of plant are due to the abundance of phenolic compounds including different terpenoids and limonoids. During recent years, bioactivities of extracts and pure compounds isolated from C. tabularis have been increasingly investigated. The dire need for such a review arises as the plant is included in the list of threatened species due to its high exploitation for timber utilization.

Other Uses
In tropical Asia, especially India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand and southern China, the wood is highly prized for high-grade cabinet work, decorative panelling, interior joinery such as doors, windows and light flooring, and for carving, toys and turnery. It is also used for light to medium-heavy construction work, e.g. for posts, beams, scantlings and planks, and for railway sleepers, ship and boat building, furniture, musical instruments, packing cases, sporting goods, lorry bodies, mallet heads, anvil blocks, brush wares, drawing equipment, rifle butts, veneer and pulp.In India Chukrasia tabularis is planted as a shade tree in coffee plantations, and in Vietnam and Malaysia as an ornamental tree.

Fuel: The wood can also be used as a fuel. Timber: Heartwood is pale reddish-brown, yellowish-red to red, darkening to dark yellowish-brown, reddish-brown to medium dark brown on exposure, sharply differentiated from the yellowish-white, pale yellowish-brown, pinkish-brown or greyish-brown sapwood; dark streaks may be rather prominent. The density is 625-800 kg/cubic m at 15% mc. The grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy, producing a rose figure; texture moderately fine but uneven. Freshly cut wood has a fragrant odour, but dried wood has no characteristic odour or taste. Planed surfaces have a high lustrous satiny sheen.  The wood peels well and gives exceedingly fine veneer. It is suitable for commercial and moisture proof plywood. Gum or resin: A yellow, transparent gum exudes from the trunk and is marketed in admixture with other gums. Tannin or dyestuff: The flowers contain a red and a yellow dye. The young leaves and bark contain 22% and 15% of tannin respectively.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Chukrasia tabularis


Callicarpa arborea Roxb

Botanical Name : Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
Family : Verbenaceae
Common Names :Khoja, Bormala,Guren (Np), Maaraa (Rai), Bori (Tha.)

Habitat :Mixed forests on mountain slopes; 1000-2500 m. Guangxi, SE Xizang, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].250-2000 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan).

Trees ca. 8 m tall; branchlets, inflorescences, and petioles densely tomentose, hairs stellate or verticillately branched. Leaf blade elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or ovate, 13-37 X 7-13 cm, leathery, abaxially densely yellow-brown stellate tomentose, adaxially dark green and shiny, base cuneate to rounded, margin entire. Cymes 6-11 cm across; peduncle 4-angled, longer than petioles. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate or nearly so, outside densely gray stellate tomentose. Corolla purple, ca. 3 mm. Stamens much longer than corolla. Ovary densely stellate tomentose. Fruit purple-brown, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Dec.
Click to see the picture

Medicinal Uses:


The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Enhanced by Zemanta