Herbs & Plants

Buxus sempervirens

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Botanical Name :Buxus sempervirens
Family: Buxaceae
Genus: Buxus
Species: B. sempervirens
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Buxales

Synonym : Dudgeon.

Common Names :Common box, European box, or boxwood

Habitat : Buxus sempervirens is native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia, from southern England south to northern Morocco, and east through the northern Mediterranean region to Turkey. Buxus colchica of western Caucasus and B. hyrcana of northern Iran and eastern Caucasus are commonly treated as synonyms of B. sempervirens

Buxus sempervirens is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 1–9 m (3 ft 3 in–29 ft 6 in) tall, with a trunk up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in diameter (exceptionally to 10 m tall and 45 cm diameter). Arranged in opposite pairs along the stems, the leaves are green to yellow-green, oval, 1.5–3 cm long, and 0.5–1.3 cm broad. The hermaphrodite flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with no petals, and are insect pollinated; the fruit is a three-lobed capsule containing 3-6 seeds

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Box in its familiar dwarfed state is merely a shrub, but when left to grow naturally it will become a small tree 12 to 15 feet in height, rarely exceeding 20 feet, with a trunk about 6 inches in diameter covered with a rugged, greyish bark, that of the branches being yellowish. It belongs to the family Buxacece, a very small family of only six genera and about thirty species, closely related to the Spurge family – Euphorbiaceae. Only this evergreen species has been utilized in medicine.

Its twigs are densely leafy and the leaves are about 1/2 inch in length, ovate, entire, smooth, thick, coriaceous and dark green. They have a peculiar, rather disagreeable odour and a bitter and somewhat astringent taste. The flowers are in heads, a terminal female flower, surrounded by a number of male flowers. The fruit dehisces explosively the inner layer of the pericarp separating from the outer and shooting out the seed by folding into a U-shape.

Constituents:  The leaves have been found to contain besides a small amount of tannin and unimportant constituents, a butyraceous volatile oil and three alkaloids: (i) Buxine, the important constituent, chiefly responsible for the bitter taste and now regarded as identical with the Berberine of Nectander bark, (ii) Parabuxine, (iii) Parabuxonidine, which turns turmeric paper deep red. The bark contains chlorophyll, wax, resin, argotized tallow, gum, lignin, sulphates of potassium and lime, carbonates of lime and magnesia, phosphates of lime, iron and silica.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
The wood in its native countries is considered diaphoretic, being given in decoction as an alterative for rheumatism and secondary syphilis. Used as a substitute for guaiacum in the treatment of venereal disease when sudorifics are considered to be the correct specifics.

It has been found narcotic and sedative in full doses; emetico-cathartic and convulsant in overdose. The tincture was formerly used as a bitter tonic and antiperiodic and had the reputation of curing leprosy.

A volatile oil distilled from the wood has been prescribed in cases of epilepsy. The oil has been employed for piles and also for toothache.

The leaves, which have a nauseous taste, have sudorific, alterative and cathartic properties being given in powder, in which form they are also an excellent vermifuge.

Various extracts and perfumes were formerly made from the leaves and bark. A decoction was recommended by some writers as an application to promote the growth of the hair. The leaves and sawdust boiled in Iye were used to dye hair an auburn colour.

Dried and powdered, the leaves are still given to horses for the purpose of improving their coats. The powder is regarded by carters as highly poisonous, to be given with great care. In Devonshire, farriers still employ the old-fashioned remedy of powdered Box leaves for bot-worm in horses.

In former days, Box was the active ingredient in a once-famous remedy for the bite of a mad dog. The leaves were formerly used in place of quinine, and as a fever reducer

The timber, though small, is valuable on account of its hardness and heaviness, being the hardest and heaviest of all European woods. It is of a delicate yellow colour, dense in structure with a fine uniform grain, which gives it unique value for the wood-engraver, the most important use to which it is put being for printing blocks and engraving plates. An edge of this wood stands better than tin or lead, rivalling brass in its wearing power. A large amount is used in the manufacture of measuring rules, various mathematical instruments, flutes and other musical instruments and the wooden parts of tools, for which a perfectly rigid and non-expansive material is required, as well as for toilet boxes, pillrounders and similar articles.

‘The root is likewise yellow and harder than the timber, but of greater beauty and more fit for dagger haftes, boxes and suchlike. Turners and cuttlers do call this wood Dudgeon, wherewith they make Dudgeonhafted daggers.’

In France, Boxwood has been used as a substitute for hops and the branches and leaves of Box have been recommended as by far the best manure for the vine, as it is said no plant by its decomposition affords a greater quantity of vegetable manure.

Other Uses:
Slow growth of box renders the wood (“boxwood”) very hard (possibly the hardest in Europe) and heavy, and free of grain produced by growth rings, making it ideal for cabinet-making, the crafting of clarinets, engraving, marquetry, woodturning, tool handles, mallet heads and as a substitute for ivory. The noted English engraver Thomas Bewick pioneered the use of boxwood blocks for engraving.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


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Herbs & Plants

Buxus wallichiana

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Botanical Name:Buxus wallichiana Baill
Family: Buxaceae
Genus: Buxus
Species: Buxus wallichiana

Common Name : Papri, Papdi

Habitat :  In moist hills in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (Punjab, U.P., Kumaon) Nepal and Bhutan. North Himalayas; Kumaon, Wallich 7978 (K); Strachey and Winterbottom; Jumna valley, Jacquemont 694 (P).

An evergreen shrub or small tree, sometimes up to 10 m tall. Stem straight, bark ash grey, young shoots tetragonal, hirsute, hairs spreading. Leaves lanceolate oblanceolate or very narrowly obovate or elliptic oblong, 1.5-6 cm long, 0.8-l.2 cm broad, attenuate at the base, obtuse or somewhat emarginate or apiculate at the apex, glabrous except the hirsute petiole and midrib on upper side, veins conspicuous. Racemes 6-8 mm long, rounded. Floral parts akin to those of last species. Capsule ovoid, walnut brown, 7- 10 mm long, 5-6 mm in diameter, horns diver-gent, c. 2-3 mm long.

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It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Succeeds in almost any soil that is well-drained. Tolerates light shade and chalky soils[1, 200]. Tolerates a pH range from 5.5 to 7.4. This species is perfectly hardy in much of Britain, tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c, but it is very slow growing . The foliage is pungently scented, especially when wet.

Plants can be grown as a hedge, they are very tolerant of pruning but are slow growing.

Seed – stratification is not necessary but can lead to more regular germination. The seed is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. It usually germinates in 1 – 3 months at 15°c but stored seed can take longer. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of short side shoots with a heel, September in a frame. Difficult[182, 200]. Nodal cuttings in spring in a frame. Difficult

Medicinal Uses :
Bitter; Diaphoretic; Febrifuge; Purgative.

The wood is diaphoretic. The leaves are bitter, diaphoretic and purgative. They have proved useful in the treatment of rheumatism and syphilis. The bark is febrifuge.

Traditionally Buxus wallichiana is used as bittertonic, diaphoretic, anti-rheumatic, vermifuge, antihelmentic, analgesic, purgative, diuretic, antiepileptic, antileprotic and in hemorrhoids. This paper deals with the macroscopic, microscopic and powdered studies of Buxus wallichiana wood, along with this physical constants like ash values and extractive values and preliminary phytochemical analysis were studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis shows the presence of steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids.

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Other Uses:
The wood is uniformly light yellow to brownish yellow, smooth, hard, even tex¬tured, with silky lustre and without distinction between sap wood and heart wood. Boxwood is highly durable and is used for engravings, fine carving, turning and for manufacturing drawing, geometrical and musical instruments, snuff boxes and combs.

Scented Plants
Leaves: Crushed
The foliage is pungently scented, especially when wet.

Known Hazards:The leaves have been reported to be fatal to cattle and other browsing animals except goats. They taste bitter due to the presence of alkaloids like buxines.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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