Tag Archives: Carl Linnaeus

Hemiphragma heterophyllum

Botanical Name: Hemiphragma heterophyllum
Family : Scrophulariaceae
Genus : Monotypus
Species : Hemiphragma heterophyllum

Common names: Nash Jhaar (In Nepali)

Habitat : Hemiphragma heterophyllum is native to E. Asia – Western Himalayas. It grows on dry slopes, forest and scrub at elevations of 1800 – 4000 metres.
Description:
Hemiphragma heterophyllum is a perennial herb growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is diffusely creeping, villous. Stems slender, much branched, rooting from nodes. Leaves dimorphic. Stem leaves opposite, flat, orbicular. Branch leaves crowded, needlelike, involute. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx deeply 5-lobed to base, lobes narrow. Corolla white or rose, actinomorphic; lobes 5, subequal, as long as tube. Stamens 4, included, equal, inserted at base of corolla. Style shorter than or as long as stamens; stigma subulate or 2-lobed. Capsule septicidal lengthwise, valves entire or 2-parted. Seeds numerous; seed coat smooth.

Leaves on main stems with petiole 2-5(-10) mm or sometimes subsessile; leaf blade orbicular, cordate, or reniform, 0.5-2 cm, base truncate, subcordate, or cuneate, margin serrately 2-7-toothed, apex obtuse to acuminate, veins inconspicuous. Leaves on branches crowded, needlelike, sometimes linear-lanceolate upward, 3-5 mm. Flowers subsessile or short pedicelled. Calyx lobes narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 3-5 mm, subequal. Corolla white or rose, ca. 6 mm; tube short campanulate; lobes 5, orbicular to oblong, subequal, sometimes transparently punctate. Filaments filiform, adnate to corolla tube; anther locules apically confluent. Style ca. 1 mm. Capsule red, ovoid to globose, berrylike, fleshy, shiny, 5-6(-10) mm. Seeds pale yellow-brown, ovoid, to 1 mm.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Grows best in a warm, sheltered sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Plants are not very cold hardy, tolerating temperatures down to around -7°c. It succeeds outdoors in the milder areas of Britain but elsewhere needs protection from winter cold. A prostrate perennial, forming spreading carpets of growth.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division of plants in mid spring. Layering. Plants often produce new roots along the stems at the nodes. Cuttings
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw. The bright red ripe fruits are eaten fresh.

Medicinal Uses: The juice of the plant is applied to cuts and wounds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=news&newsid=821&lg=en
https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Nash%20Jhaar.html
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hemiphragma+heterophyllum

Plumbago zeylanica

Botanical Name : Plumbago zeylanica
Family: Plumbaginaceae
Genus: Plumbago
Species: P. zeylanica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonymous.:   Plumbago zeylanica is a species of plumbago with a pantropical distribution. Carl Linnaeus described the paleotropical P. zeylanica and neotropical P. scandens as separate species, but they are currently considered synonymous.

Common Names: Ceylon leadwort, Doctorbush or Wild leadwort
Vernacular Name:
Hindi……..Cheeta, Telugu……Chitramulamu, English……..Leadwort, Bengali…….Chita, Marathi……Chitramul, Gujrati……Chitro, Tamil……Chittiri,Chittira, Arabian…..Sheetaraj, Farsi…..Sheetar

Sanskrit Synonyms: Anala, Dahana, Pithi, Vahnisajnaka, Agni, Agnika, Jyothi, Nirdahana, Vahni, Sikhi, Vyala, Hutasana……..all these synonyms names suggest towards fire. As because it helps the digestion strength. While collecting the herb, usually the palms get burning sensation due to hotness of this herb.

Habitat : Plumbago zeylanica is native to India. Now it is cultivated in several places in the world.

Description:
Plumbago zeylanica is a herbaceous plant with glabrous stems that are climbing, prostrate, or erect. The leaves are petiolate or sessile and have ovate, lance-elliptic, or spatulate to oblanceolate blades that measure 5-9 × 2.5–4 cm in length. Bases are attenuate while apexes are acute, acuminate, or obtuse. Inflorescences are 3–15 cm in length and have glandular, viscid rachises. Bracts are lanceolate and 3-7 × 1–2 mm long. The heterostylous flowers have white corollas 17–33 mm in diameter and tubes 12.5–28 mm in length. Capsules are 7.5–8 mm long and contain are reddish brown to dark brown seeds……...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Cultivation:  Plumbago requires full sunlight to partial shade with warm temperatures. This plant thrives in well drained with slightly acidic soil. The plants require frequent fertilizers and after flowering the plants should be cut back to let them grow vigorously. It is cultivated extensively in throughout the India.
Main Chemical Constituents: Chitranone, Plumbagin, 3-Chloroplumbagin, droserone, Elliptinone, Zeylanone and Zeylinone, Maritone,
Plumbagicacid, Dihydrosterone, B-Sitosterol etc. etc.

Medicinal Uses:
Ceylon leadwort root is acrid and stimulates sweating. In Nigeria, the leaves are used in soup as a remedy against intestinal worms and fever. In Ghana the root is administered as an enema to treat piles. In the Ivory coast and Upper Volta, the root is used to treat leprosy. In Nepal, a decoction of the root is used to treat baldness. In Indian herbal medicine, the leaves and root are used to treat infections and digestive problems such as dysentery. The root is used as a vesicant, appetizer, used in skin diseases, diarrhea, dyspepsia, piles and anasarca. A paste of the root made in vinegar, milk or salt and water is an external application in leprosy and other skin ailments. It is also used in influenza and black-water fever. The root bark used as a tincture is a sudorific and antiperiodic. The milky juice of the plant is used in scabies and ulcers. The plumbago root is an emmenagogue and is used to procure abortion by a piece of the root being introduced to Cervex Uteri. Externally, a paste of the leaves and root is applied to painful rheumatic areas or to chronic and itchy skin problems. The paste acts as a counterirritant. By raising blisters and increasing circulation, it speeds the clearing of toxins from the affected area. It is stimulant and strengthens the stomach and aids its action. It increases digestive powders and stimulate appetite

Other Uses:
Plant extracts have shown potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti while showing no toxicity to fish.

Hexane extracts of Plumbago zeylanica have shown activity against canine distemper virus.

Hexane extract of plumbago zeylanicaPlumbagin shows Antimicrobial activity.

Methanol extract of plumbago zeylanicaPositive inotropic activity.

Enzymatic spectrum of herbal Plants Plumbago Linn.

Bioactive spectra of Plumbagin.

methanol extract of plumbago zeylanica shows effect on root- knot nematode Meloidogyne spp

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbago_zeylanica

Chitrak – Plumbago zeylanica – Benefits, Usage, Dose, Side Effects


http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.spicesmedicinalherbs.com/plumbago-zeylanica.html

Cup plant

Botanical Name: Silphium perfoliatum
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe:     Heliantheae
Genus:     Silphium
Species: S. perfoliatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Asterales

Synonyms:Indian Cup Plant. Ragged Cup.

Common Name :  Cup plant, Carpenter’s weed, cup rosinweed, compass plant,pilot wee, squareweed, Indian cup

Habitat:Cup Plant is native to eastern and central North America. It grows in sandy moist bottom lands, floodplains, near stream beds, in or adjacent to open woodland. Currently, it can be found in the following states: USA (AL, AR, CT, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (ON, QC)...click to see

Description:
Cup Plant is an erect herbaceous perennial plant with triangular toothed leaves, and daisy-like yellow composite flower heads in summer.The chief features of the genus are the monaecious radiate heads, the ray florets strap-shaped and pistil bearing, the disc florets tubular and sterile, and the broad flat achenes, surrounded by a wing notched at the summit and usually terminating in two short awn-like teeth which represent the pappus. Its distinctive character is rhizome, cylindrical, crooked, rough, small roots, and transversed section shows large resin cells. Taste, persistent, acrid. The most interesting of the species is the Compass plant, so named from its tendency to point to the North. This plant is also known by the names of Pilot plant, Polar plant, Rosin and Turpentine weed, and like the Cup plant of another species, Silphium Loeve, with tuberous roots, which are a native food in the Columbia valley, is cultivated in English gardens. The Cup plant derives its name from the cup-like appearance of the winged stalks of its opposite leaves which are united.

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The typical height of this plant ranges from 1–2.5 m (3–8 ft). The stem is stout, smooth, slightly hairy (glabrous) strongly 4-angled (square), like mint plants.The leaves are opposite, toothed and ovate. The petioles are widely winged and fused around the stem, forming a cup. The stem terminates in a single flower bud. All other species of Silphium present in Michigan do not have fused leaf bases.

Cultivation:
During the 1750s, the species was introduced to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, and has been prized as an ornamental plant since. It was named in 1759 by Carl Linnaeus. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit.

Edible Uses: During the spring, the tender young leaves were cultivated as an acceptable food source by cooking or a salad.

Medicinal Uses:
Chemical Constituents:Cup plant contains amino acids, carbohydrates (inulinin rhizomes), L-ascorbic acid, terpenes with essential oils, triterpene saponins, carotenoids, phenolic acid, tannins, and flavonoids.

The people of the Chippewas tribe used the root extract for back and chest pains, to prevent excessive menstruation, and to treat lung hemorrhage.The powdered form of Silphium perfoliatum L. has diaphoretic and tonic properties. It can help alleviate the symptoms of fevers, dry cough, asthma, spleen illness, heart and liver disease. The extract from the leaves of the plant has shown to lower cholesterol and triglycerides levels in blood. Studies show that the presence of phenolic acids is responsible for the species’ antiseptic activity to stimulate generation of IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, it stimulates bile production of the gall bladder.  Roots are used in an oral preparation to increase sweating, to reduce fever, to induce abortion and as an expectorant in the treatment of pulmonary diseases.

Other Uses:
Cup plant is considered to have a high feed value for meat and milk producing farm animals because of its longevity and high protein levels.

The plant produces a resin that has an odor similar to turpentine. The plant contains a gum and resin; the root has been used medicinally. The resin has been made into chewing gum to prevent nausea and vomiting. Native Americans would cut off the top of the plant stalk and collect the resinous sap that was emitted from the plant. The resin was used for a chewing gum to freshen breath. The Winnebagos Tribe believed that a potion made from the rhizome would provide supernatural powers. The people belonging to the tribe would drink this potion before hunting.

The long blossoming season and abundance of flowers provides a rich source for bees and the cultivation of honey.

This species can be targeted by a fungus called Sclerotinia during the summer. During cool temperatures in autumn, the fungus Botrytis will cause the flower buds to wilt and turn black before blooming. Eggs of the Gall wasp are deposited within the stems of this plant. Consequently, the developing larvae feed within the stems. Goldfinches feed on the seeds of Silphium perfoliatum and drink the water collected by the “cups” on the stems. The fact that this species is able to form dense colonies, it provides a good shelter for birds. Herbivores such as cattle and sheep will eat the leaves the plant especially those of young plants.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cuppl129.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silphium_perfoliat

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Datura stramonium

Botanical Name : Datura stramonium
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Datura
Species: D. stramonium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Common Names:Jimson weed or datura

Habitat : Original habitat is obscure,but is believed to have originated in the Americas, it is found in many areas of the world, occasionally in S. Britain.Grows in  dry waste ground and amongst rubble or the ruins of old buildings.

(The native range of Datura stramonium is unclear. It was scientifically described and named by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753, although it was earlier described by many herbalists, such as Nicholas Culpeper. Today, it grows wild in all the world’s warm and moderate regions, where it is found along roadsides and in dung heaps. In Europe, it is found as a weed on wastelands and in garbage dumps.

The seed is thought to be carried by birds and spread in their droppings. It can lie dormant underground for years and germinate when the soil is disturbed. People who discover it growing in their gardens, and are worried about its toxicity, have been advised to dig it up or have it otherwise removed)

Description:
Datura stramonium is a foul-smelling, erect annual, freely-branching herb that forms a bush up to 2–5 ft (1–1.5 m) tall.

The root is long, thick, fibrous and white. The stem is stout, erect, leafy, smooth, and pale yellow-green. The stem forks off repeatedly into branches, and at each fork forms a leaf and a single, erect flower.

The leaves are approximately 3-8 inches long, smooth, toothed, soft, irregularly undulate. The upper surface of the leaves is a darker green, and the bottom is a light green. The leaves have a bitter and nauseating taste, which is imparted to extracts of the herb, and remains even after the leaves have been dried.

click to see the pictures

Datura stramonium generally flowers throughout the summer. The fragrant flowers are trumpet-shaped, white to creamy or violet, and 2.5 to 3.5 in. long, and grow on short stems from either the axils of the leaves or the places where the branches fork. The calyx is long and tubular, swollen at the bottom, and sharply angled, surmounted by 5 sharp teeth. The corolla, which is folded and only partially open, is white, funnel-shaped, and has six prominent ribs. The flowers open at night, emitting a pleasant fragrance and providing food for nocturnal moths.

The egg-shaped seed capsule is walnut-sized and either covered with spines or bald. At maturity it splits into four chambers, each with dozens of small black seeds.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender.

Cultivation: 
Succeeds in most moderately good soils but prefers a rich light sandy soil or a calcareous loam, and an open sunny position. Plants often self-sow when well sited. The thornapple is cultivated commercially as a medicinal plant. It can become a weed in suitable conditions and is subject to statutory control in some countries. This species is extremely susceptible to the various viruses that afflict the potato family (Solanaceae), it can act as a centre of infection so should not be grown near potatoes or tomatoes. Grows well with pumpkins. The whole plant gives off a nauseating stench.

Propagation: 
Sow the seed in individual pots in early spring in a greenhouse. Put 3 or 4 seeds in each pot and thin if necessary to the best plant. The seed usually germinates in 3 – 6 weeks at 15°c. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Especially in areas with hot summers, it is worthwhile trying a sowing outdoors in situ in mid to late spring…..click & see

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne;  Anthelmintic;  Antiasthmatic;  Antidandruff;  Antiinflammatory;  Antispasmodic;  Hallucinogenic;  Hypnotic;  Mydriatic;  Narcotic.

The thornapple is a bitter narcotic plant that relieves pain and encourages healing. It has a long history of use as a herbal medicine, though it is very poisonous and should be used with extreme caution. The leaves, flowering tops and seeds are anodyne, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, mydriatic and narcotic. The seeds are the most active medicinally. The plant is used internally in the treatment of asthma and Parkinson’s disease, excess causes giddiness, dry mouth, hallucinations and coma. Externally, it is used as a poultice or wash in the treatment of fistulas, abscesses wounds and severe neuralgia. The use of this plant is subject to legal restrictions in some countries. It should be used with extreme caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner since all parts of the plant are very poisonous and the difference between a medicinal dose and a toxic dose is very small. The leaves should be harvested when the plant is in full flower, they are then dried for later use. The leaves can be used as a very powerful mind-altering drug, they contain hyoscyamine and atropine. There are also traces of scopolamine, a potent cholinergic-blocking hallucinogen, which has been used to calm schizoid patients. Atropine dilates the pupils and is used in eye surgery. The leaves have been smoked as an antispasmodic in the treatment for asthma, though this practice is extremely dangerous. The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to have a bitter and acrid taste with a cooling and very poisonous potency. Analgesic, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory, they are used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal pain due to worm infestation, toothache and fever from inflammations. The juice of the fruit is applied to the scalp to treat dandruff.

It is anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, good for swellings and healing wounds  Traditional medicinal uses include placing a folded leaf behind the ear to allay motion-sickness, or applying a fresh leaf poultice externally to allay the pain of rheumatic or glandular swellings. Leaves and seeds were once smoked with Mullein for treating asthma.

Specifics: Body pain: Grind the roots and leaves of Datura stramonium into a paste. Add the latex of Jatropha gossyifolia in it. Then fry this paste with mustard oil. Massage this oil an all over the body only once before going to bed at night.  Earache: Pound a fruit of Datura stramonium and extract the juice. Warm this juice gently and put 2 to 3 drops of this juice inside the aching ear only once.  Elephantiasis: Grind all the following into a paste: the roots of Datura stramonium, the seeds of Brassia juncea and the bark of Morangia oleifera. Smear this paste locally on legs once daily for one month and bandage by a cloth.  Rheumatism: Boil all the followings in mustard oil: the young branch of Datura stramonium, the bark of Vitex negundo, few pieces of Ginger and garlic. Massage this oil on joints twice daily for a week.

Other Uses:
Hair;  Repellent.: The growing plant is said to protect neighbouring plants from insects. The juice of the fruits is applied to the scalp to cure dandruff and falling hair.

Spiritual Uses:
For centuries, Datura stramonium has been used as a mystical sacrament which brings about powerful visions (lasting for days) and opens the user to communication with spirit world.

The ancient inhabitants of what is today central and southern California used to ingest the small black seeds of datura to “commune with deities through visions”. Across the Americas, other indigenous peoples such as the Algonquin, Cherokee, Marie Galente and Luiseño also utilized this plant in sacred ceremonies for its hallucinogenic properties. In Ethiopia, some students and debtrawoch (lay priests), use D. stramonium to “open the mind” to be more receptive to learning, and creative and imaginative thinking.

The common name “datura” has its roots in ancient India, where the plant was considered particularly sacred — believed to be a favorite of the Hindu god Shiva Nataraja

Known Hazards: All parts of Datura plants contain dangerous levels of the tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine which are classified as deliriants, or anticholinergics. There is a high risk of fatal overdose amongst uninformed users, and many hospitalizations occur amongst recreational users who ingest the plant for its psychoactive effects.

The amount of toxins varies widely from plant to plant. There can be as much as a 5:1 variation across plants, and a given plant’s toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and the local weather conditions. Additionally, within a given datura plant, concentrations of toxins are higher in certain parts of the plant than others, and can vary from leaf to leaf. When the plant is younger, the ratio of scopolamine to atropine is approximately 3:1; after flowering, this ratio is reversed, with the amount of scopolamine continuing to decrease as the plant gets older.  This variation makes Datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug. In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of Datura was critical in order to minimize harm. An individual datura seed contains about 0.1 mg of atropine, and the approximate fatal dose for adult humans is >10mg atropine or >2-4mg scopolamine.

Datura intoxication typically produces delirium (as contrasted to hallucination); hyperthermia; tachycardia; bizarre behavior; and severe mydriasis with resultant painful photophobia that can last several days. Pronounced amnesia is another commonly reported effect. The onset of symptoms generally occurs approximately 30 minutes to an hour after smoking the herb. These symptoms generally last from 24 to 48 hours, but have been reported in some cases to last as long as 2 weeks.

As with other cases of anticholinergic poisoning, intravenous physostigmine can be administered in severe cases as an antidote

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datura_stramonium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Datura+stramonium
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

http://www.thoughtscreatereality.com/shiva.htm

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Digitaria sanguinalis

…Botanical Name : Digitaria sanguinalis
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Digitaria
Species: D. sanguinalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Synonyms: Panicum sanguinale Linnaeus, Syntherisma sanguinale (Linnaeus) Dulac

Common Names: Crabgrass, hairy crabgrass or large crabgrass

Habitat :Grows throughout the world. It is found  on waste places.

Description & Uses;
It is an annual grass with an inflorescence of up to nine very long, very thin, radiating branches atop its stems. Each branch is lined with pairs of very tiny spikelets. The inflorescences may be reddish or purplish.

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The seeds are edible and have been used as a grain in Germany and especially Poland, where it is sometimes cultivated.   This has earned it the name Polish Millet, and it was brought to the United States by some emigrants to serve as hand-foraged grain. The grass is also highly nutritious, especially before the plant exhausts itself producing seed. It is frequently sown in fields to provide graze for animals, or clipped and bundled as hay. Compared to other grasses, it has a relatively high protein percentage. Farmers will sometimes till patches in their pastures in the late spring, with the intent of encouraging crabgrass seed.

For human consumption, crabgrass necessarily must be harvested by hand, because it produces grain throughout summer, rather than simultaneously. Machine harvesting would require monthly passes, and even then much of the seed would go to waste. This said, crabgrass produces an exceptionally high amount of grain, it smothers other weeds, it acts as its own mulch, and it can survive both heat and drought. Its adaptability makes it a candidate for environmental small-farming.

Its usefulness to nineteenth-century homesteaders, however, has made its seed widespread, and today is considered an unattractive nuisance. Crabgrass takes advantage of low fertility and drought, since this tends to weaken other grasses. It is difficult to kill, as it will regenerate, and chemicals will likely harm surrounding grasses. The most efficient means of control is to pull patches, and keep the rest of the lawn watered and mowed at a height of two-three inches.

Cultivation:
Prefers a sandy soil. Requires a warm sheltered position. This species is occasionally cultivated, especially in Poland, for its edible seed. Special Features: Invasive.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in situ in the spring. Only just cover the seed.

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea. A folk remedy for cataracts and debility, it is also said to be emetic.

Other Uses: A fibre obtained from the plant is used in making paper.

Known Hazards : There is a report that the leaves might be cyanogenic.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitaria_sanguinalis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/digitaria_sanguinalis.html