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Herbs & Plants

Anthemis arvensis

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Botanical Name : Anthemis arvensis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Anthemis
Species: A. arvensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name : Corn Chamomile

Habitat : Anthemis arvensis is native to most of Europe, including Britain, south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. It is a locally common calcicolous plant of arable land and waste places throughout Britain.

Description:
Anthemis arvensis is a annual plant , growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in) by 0.3 m (1ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles, self.The plant is self-fertile.
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Stems – Herbaceous, erect to ascending, from fibrous roots, multiple from the base, branching, arachnoid pubescent (less so near base), carinate at apex, green to red in strong sun.

Leaves Alternate, pinnately divided. Divisions of leaf pinnatifid. Ultimate leaf divisions acute, minutely mucronate. Leaves to 5cm long, 2cm broad, sparse pubescent and punctate (use lens) adaxially, arachnoid pubescent below. Petiole with fimbriate divisions.

Inflorescence – Single pedunculate flower clusters terminating stems.

Involucre – 1.2cm in diameter, 4-5mm tall. Phyllaries in one or two series, slightly imbricated, to 5mm long, 2mm broad, scarious, with a green midvein, arachnoid pubescent externally, glabrous internally.

Ray flowers – Pistillate, fertile, +/-15 per head. Ligule white, -1.5cm long, 5-6mm broad, glabrous, 2-3-notched at apex, oblong. Corolla tube to 2mm long, greenish. Style bifurcate, exserted. Achene 1.5mm long in flower, light green, glabrous, truncate at base. Pappus none.

Disk flowers – Disk to 1.2cm broad, becoming globose with age. Corolla -3mm long, translucent at base, becoming yellow at apex, 5-lobed, expanded in apical 1/2. Lobes acute, to .6mm long, recurved. Stamens 5, adnate at base of corolla tube constriction. Filaments very short. Anthers yellow, included, 1.1mm long, connate around style. Style barely exserted beyond anthers, translucent-yellow. Stigmatic portion of style .5mm long. Achene translucent in flower, 1.3mm long, glabrous. Pappus none. Receptacle conic. Chaff thin, translucent, 3mm long, .4mm broad, slightly folded, glabrous, acuminate, linear.

Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position and a well-drained soil that is neutral to slightly acid. Succeeds in heavy clay soils.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown outdoors as soon as it is ripe. Most of the seed germinates in the autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
This species is considered to be one of the best febrifuge species indigenous to France. The flowers and leaves are used. Employed in fevers, colds, and to produce perspiration.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthemis_arvensis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://missouriplants.com/Whitealt/Anthemis_arvensis_page.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anthemis+arvensis

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Herbs & Plants

Nabalus serpentarius

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Botanical Name: Nabalus serpentarius
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Nabalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Prenanthes serpentarium.

Common Names; Lion’s Foot, Canker Weed

Habitat: Nabalus serpentarius is native to Eastern N. America – Massachusetts to New York, Florida, Alabama and Mississippi. It grows in fields and thickets.

Description:
Nabalus serpentarius is a perennial plant, growing to 1.5 m (5ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

It produces branching, tuberous roots and a flowering stem about 45-190 cm tall with milky latex sap. The stem is green or often purplish in color and glabrous or often rough-hairy in its uppermost portion. Its leaves are alternately arranged on the stem and become smaller in size toward the top. Their overall shape is typically longer than wide with pinnate lobes. Basal leaves may be trifoliate and further divided (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Very wide leaves may appear palmate (Milstead 1964). Milstead (1964) has sketched leaves of the American Nabalus species, and Nabalus serpentarius is distinguished from other species by leaves that are longer than wide and pinnately lobed. Identification of this species based on leaf shape may be possible if these characteristics are clear. Leaf petioles are often winged, especially the lower ones, and there may be fine, small hairs on the veins of the lower surfaces. Those plants with leaves entire or dentate and with short winged petioles are named forma simplicifolia (Fernald 1942; illustrated in Holmgren 1998). This form has been collected in Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia.

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Cultivation : Succeeds in shade or semi-shade in a moist but well-drained humus-rich neutral to acid soil.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in a greenhouse in spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Medicinal Uses:.…….Useful as a mouthwash or gargle.   The plant is said to be an antidote for snake bites.

Other Uses:.…..Repellent…….The juice of the plant repels snakes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabalus
file:///C:/Users/COOLE_~1/AppData/Local/Temp/sbpbrgsc.tmp/Nabalusserpentarius.pdf
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Nabalus+serpentarius

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Herbs & Plants

Calotropis procera

Botanical Name : Calotropis procera
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Genus: Calotropis
Species: C. procera
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names ; Calotrope, Apple of Sodom, Sodom apple, Stabragh, Kapok tree, King’s crown, Rubber bush, or Rubber tree, Akund Crown flower and Dead Sea Fruit

Bengali Name : Akondo

Habitat :Calotropis procera is native to North Africa, Tropical Africa, Western Asia, South Asia, and Indochina.
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Description:
Calotropis procera is a woody perennial shrub or tree with cork-like bark that carries white or lavender flowers. The branches are twisting and cork-like in texture. The plant has ash colored bark covered with white fuzz. The plant has silver-green large leaves that grow opposite on the stems. The flowers grow at the tops of apical stems and produce fruits....CLICK & SEE

The fruit of Calotropis procera is oval and curved at the ends of the pods. The fruit is also thick and, when opened, it is the source of thick fibers that have been made into rope and used in a multitude of ways…....CLICK & SEE 

Chemical properties:
The milky sap contains a complex mix of chemicals, some of which are steroidal heart poisons known as “cardiac aglycones”. These belong to the same chemical family as similar chemicals found in foxgloves (Digitalis purpurea). The steroidal component includes an hydroxyl group in the C3(bita) position, a second attached to the C14 carbon, a C/D-cis ring junction and an (alpha,bita)-unsaturated-v-lactone in the C17 position. In the plants, the steroidal component is commonly attached via a glycosidic link to a 2-desoxy or a 2,6-didesoxy sugar molecule. The features described are those required for toxicity but in addition there can be other substitutions into the steroid nucleus. These can be a C19-aldehyde in place of the more usual methyl group in this position as well as additional hydroxyl functions and sometimes epoxide structures.

In the case of the Calotropis glycosides, their names are calotropin, calotoxin, calactin, uscharidin and voruscharin (the latter two involve rare sugars with nitrogen and sulphur in the structures). The steroidal moiety (known as “calotropagenin”, formula C23H32O6) has one of the more unusual structures. The C-19 formyl (CHO) group is present and there is an additional secondary alcohol as well as the common C3 and C14 hydroxyl functions. The position of this third hydroxyl function remains in some doubt. It was apparently established by the Swiss group under Thadeus Reichstein as being in the C2 position with an equatorial configuration. However, this assignment does not explain some of the known features and behaviours of this molecule, in particular the absence of spin-spin coupling of the two axial protons associated with their geminal hydroxyl groups and the failure to react with iodate in a cleavage reaction which the presence of such a viscinal 1,2-diol would require.
Medicinal Uses:
Calotropis procera is considered a weed in its native India but has also been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. Ayurvedic medicine is a traditional Indian practice of healing. The Indian Journal of Pharmacology has produced a study on the effectiveness of extracted latex from Calotropis upon fungal infections caused by Candida. These infections usually lead to morbidity and are common in India so the promise of properties in Calotropis procera is welcome news.

Mudar root bark is the common form of Calotropis procera that is found in India. It is made by drying the root and then removing the cork bark. In India the plant is also used to treat leprosy and elephantiasis. Mudar root is also used for diarrhea and dysentery.

In India it has been used as a remedy for dysentery, diarrhea and other conditions, and topically for eczema. It has also long been used in India for abortive and suicidal purposes. Mudar root-bark is very largely used there as a treatment for elephantiasis and leprosy, and is efficacious in cases of chronic eczema.
Other Uses:
The wood yields a fibrous substance that is used for rope, fishing line and thread. It also has tannins, latex, rubber and a dye that are used in industrial practices.

Calotropis procera grows as a weed in many areas of India, but it is also purposefully planted. The plant’s root system has been shown to break up and cultivate cropland. It is a useful green manure and will be planted and plowed in before the “real” crop is sown.

Calotropis procera improves soils nutrients and improves moisture binding, an important property in some of the more arid croplands of India. The plant is tolerant of dry and salty conditions and can easily be established in over cultivated areas to help improve the soil conditions and reinvigorate the land.

The green globes are hollow but the flesh contains a toxic milky sap that is extremely bitter and turns into a gluey coating resistant to soap.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calotropis_procera

Information On Calotropis Procera


http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Coreopsis tinctoria

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Botanical Name : Coreopsis tinctoria
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Coreopsis
Species: C. tinctoria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name : Coreopsis, Golden tickseed, Atkinson’s tickseed, Dyer’s Coreopsis, Plains Coreopsis, Annual Coreops

Habitat : Coreopsis tinctoria is native to Central and Eastern N. America – Minnesota to Texas . It grows in moist low ground. Roadsides and waste places.

Description:
Coreopsis tinctoria is an annual plant,  growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a medium rate. It is in leaf 11-Apr . Leaves are pinnately-divided, glabrous and tending to thin at the top of the plant where numerous 1- to 1.5-inch (2.5-to 4-cm) flower heads sit atop slender stems. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jun to October. Flower heads are brilliant yellow with maroon or brown disc florets of various sizes. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It is noted for attracting wildlife. The small, slender seeds germinate in fall (overwintering as a low rosette) or early spring. …...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Specimen. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Prefers a fertile well-drained moisture retentive medium soil. Does well in sandy soils. Requires a sunny position. Established plants are drought resistant. A good bee plant. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – sow March in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed then it can also be sown in situ outdoors.

Edible Uses: ……. Coffee……This variety was formerly used to make a hot beverage until the introduction of coffee by traders. Women also use a infusion of whole plant of this variety, except for the root if they desire female babies.

Medicinal Uses:
Native Americans chewed the leaves for toothache, and applied a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises. The powdered root in warm water was used as a wash for sore eyes. A tea made of the root was used for stomachache, diarrhea, and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its effects lasting the length of the intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal inflammations. It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when drunk after a sprain or major bruise or hematoma will help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing. The tea will also lessen menstrual flow. A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.
Other Uses:
The Zuni people use the blossoms of the tinctoria variety to make a mahogany red dye for yarn.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plains_coreopsis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Coreopsis+tinctoria
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Osmorhiza longistylis

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Botanical Name; Osmorhiza longistylis
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Osmorhiza
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names; Aniseroot, Longstyle sweetroot, American sweet cicely, Licorice root, Wild anise, or Simply sweet cicely

Habitat : Osmorhiza longistylis is native to Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Ontario, Alabama, Tennessee, Kansas and Colorado. It grows in rich, often alluvial woods and thickets. Woods, often along the sides of streams in Texas.

Description:
Osmorhiza longistylis is a herbaceous perennial plant is about 1.2 m (4ft) ‘ tall, branching occasionally. The stems are light green to reddish purple, terete, and glabrous (var. longistylis) to hairy (var. villicaulis). The alternate leaves are ternately compound; the lower compound leaves are up to 9″ long and 9″ across, while the upper compound leaves are much smaller in size. Each compound leaf is divided into 3 compound leaflets; the terminal compound leaflet is the largest. Each compound leaflet is further divided into 3 subleaflets; the terminal subleaflet is the largest, sometimes appearing to be divided into 3 even smaller subleaflets. The subleaflets are 1-4″ long, ½-1½” across, and lanceolate to oval-ovate shape in shape; their margins are coarsely serrated-crenate or shallowly cleft. The upper subleaflet surface is yellowish green to green and nearly glabrous (var. longistylis) to moderately covered with appressed hairs (var. villicaulis).

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The petioles of compound leaves are light green to reddish purple and up to 6″ in length. The petiolules of leaflets are light green to reddish green and up to 2″ long, while those of subleaflets are nearly sessile to ¼” (6 mm.) long. The foliage of this plant releases a mild anise fragrance when it is rubbed. The upper stems terminate in compound umbels of white flowers about 1½-3″ across. There are about 3-6 umbellets per compound umbel on rays (floral stalks) up to 2″ long. An umbellet has 7-16 flowers that are clustered together on rays (floral stalklets) up to ¼” (6 mm.) long. Each flower (about 3 mm. across) has 5 white petals with incurved tips, 5 white stamens, a pistil with a divided white style (stylopodium), and an insignificant calyx that is light green. At the base of each compound umbel, there are several linear-lanceolate bracts with ciliate margins; they are up to 8 mm. in length. At the base of each umbellet, there are several linear-lanceolate bractlets with ciliate margins; they are also up to 8 mm. in length.

The blooming period occurs during the late spring or early summer, lasting about 2-3 weeks. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by 2-seeded fruits (schizocarps). While these fruits are still immature, the persistent divided style is 2.0-3.5 mm. in length (it is smaller than this when the flowers are still in bloom). The small seeds are narrowly ellipsoid-oblanceoloid, 5-ribbed, and slightly bristly along their ribs. The root system consists of a cluster of fleshy roots with a strong anise fragrance.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in any deep moisture-retentive soil in sun or dappled shade. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Well suited to naturalistic plantings in a woodland or wild garden. A sweetly aromatic plant.

Propagation:
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible, otherwise sow it in early spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

Root – raw or cooked. Very sweet, aromatic and fleshy. A spicy flavour similar to anise, the roots are chewed, made into a tea or used as a flavouring. Leaves and young shoots – raw. An anise flavour, they are added to salads. The green seeds have an anise flavour and are used as a flavouring in salads, the dry seeds are added to cakes etc.
Medicinal Uses:

Osmorhiza longistylis  was used extensively by Native American Indian tribes to treat digestive disorders and as an antiseptic wash for a range of problems. Sweet Cicely is medicinal and edible, the root being the strongest for use in alternative medicine it is antiseptic, aromatic, febrifuge, oxytocic, pectoral, stomachic, carminative, tonic, ophthalmic, and expectorant. Medicinal tea made from the root is a very good digestive aid and is a gentle stimulant for debilitated stomachs. A weak herb tea is used to bath sore eyes. A strong infusion has been used to induce labor in a pregnant woman and to treat fevers, indigestion, flatulence, stomach aches. The crushed root is an effective antiseptic poultice for the treatment of boils and wounds. A medicinal cough syrup can be made of the fresh juice and honey, it is very effective and quite tasty, children take it readily.


Folklore:
 A decoction of the herb was used as nostril wash to increase dog’s sense of smell. A valuable tonic for girls from 15 to 18 years of age, according to an old herbal. The aromatic scent is said to be an aphrodisiac, used as a love medicine.

In use it should not be confused with species of poison hemlock, water hemlock, or baneberry.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmorhiza_longistylis
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/woodland/plants/aniseroot.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Osmorhiza+longistylis

http://altnature.com/gallery/sweetcicely.htm