Categories
Fish

Salmon

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Description:
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean (genus Oncorhynchus). Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world.

Typically, salmon are anadromous: they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Various species of salmon display anadromous life strategies while others display freshwater resident life strategies. Folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn; tracking studies have shown this to be mostly true. A portion of a returning salmon run may stray and spawn in different freshwater systems. The percent of straying depends on the species of salmon. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory.

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Species:
The term “salmon” comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn may have originated from salire, meaning “to leap”. The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera. The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species commonly named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur naturally only in the North Pacific. As a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Zealand and Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, and Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well.

Distribution:
*Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean.

*Landlocked salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago) live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Onega, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, and Winnipesaukee. They are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain even when they could access the ocean.

*Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are also known in the US as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, and as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon, frequently exceeding 14 kg (30 lb).[40] The name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, and in the Columbia River watershed, especially large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs. Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic,[41] and as far south as the Central California coast.

*Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US. This species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Ky?sh? in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific; north to the Mackenzie River in Canada in the east and to the Lena River in Siberia in the west.

*Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are also known in the US as silver salmon. This species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California (Monterey Bay). It is also now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River.
Masu salmon or cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan, Korea, and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) is found in central Taiwan’s Chi Chia Wan Stream.

*Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, and from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia, usually in shorter coastal streams. It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg (3.5 to 4.0 lb).

*Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are also known in the US as red salmon. This lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaid? island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish, shrimp, and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon.

*Danube salmon, or huchen (Hucho hucho), are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species.

As Food:
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean.
Landlocked salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago) live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Onega, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, and Winnipesaukee. They are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain even when they could access the ocean.

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Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are also known in the US as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, and as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon, frequently exceeding 14 kg (30 lb). The name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, and in the Columbia River watershed, especially large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs. Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, and as far south as the Central California coast.

Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US. This species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Ky?sh? in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific; north to the Mackenzie River in Canada in the east and to the Lena River in Siberia in the west.

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are also known in the US as silver salmon. This species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California (Monterey Bay). It is also now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River.

Masu salmon or cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan, Korea, and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) is found in central Taiwan’s Chi Chia Wan Stream.

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, and from the Mackenzie River[41] in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia, usually in shorter coastal streams. It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg (3.5 to 4.0 lb).

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are also known in the US as red salmon. This lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaid? island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish, shrimp, and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon.
Danube salmon, or huchen (Hucho hucho), are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species.

Salmon Nutrition Facts:-
*Vitamin B12 (236% daily recommended value)
*Vitamin D (127%)
*Selenium (78.3%)
*Vitamin B3 (56.3%)
*Omega-3 Fatty Acids (55%)
*Protein (53.1%)
*Phosphorus (52.1%)
*Vitamin B6 (37.6%)
*Iodine (21.3%
*Choline (19.2%)
*Vitamin B5 (18.4%)
*Biotin (15.1%)
*Potassium (14%)
Nutritional Food Value:

Fish and shellfish are nutrient dense and salmon is no exception. It is an excellent source of high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals (including potassium, selenium and vitamin B12) but it is their content of omega-3 fatty acids that receives the most attention.

Fish and shellfish have been important in human nutrition since prehistoric times. Fish farming is an age old practice and the ancient Assyrians and Romans farmed fish in ponds. For thousands of years the Chinese have farmed fish using their rice fields during the periods when the fields are under water. Throughout history, fish and shellfish have been a source of economic power. During recent decades, per capita fish consumption has expanded all over the world.

In addition to eating fresh fish, techniques such as smoking and salting have been used to preserve salmon. To this day, smoked salmon is enjoyed as traditional fare in the cuisines of the Russian Federation, Britain and Scandinavia.

Health Benefit:
Health benefits of salmon:

1. Eating salmon is beneficial in the treatment of osteoarthritis and other inflammatory joint conditions. Salmon contains small proteins called bioactive peptides. One in particular, called calcitonin, has been shown to increase, regulate and stabilize collagen synthesis in human osteoarthritic cartilage. This salmon-found protein also improves bone density and strength.

2. Eating salmon reduces risk of depression. The brain is 60 percent fat and most of that is the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, which is critical it is for brain function and a healthy nervous system. Eating salmon regularly has been associated with reducing the risk and incidence of depression, hostility in young adults and cognitive decline in the elderly.

3. Eating salmon increases your cardiovascular health. As noted, salmon contains high levels of the omega-3 fats, EPA and DHA. These fats are responsible for many cardiovascular benefits such as reducing inflammation. When eaten two to three times per week, salmon can protect you from problems such as heart attack, stroke, arrhythmia, high blood pressure and high triglycerides.

4. Salmon helps build children’s brains. Eating salmon while pregnant and nursing can boost learning capability and academic performance in children. Salmon contains high levels of DHA (decosahexaenoic acid) which is the main structural fatty acid in the central nervous system and retina. Feeding salmon to preschool children also aids in the prevention of ADHD and can even boost academic performance.

5. Salmon’s an excellent source of vitamin D. Sufficient vitamin D is crucial to maintaining optimal health. A deficiency of this essential vitamin has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and type-1 diabetes. One can of salmon, for example, contains a day’s worth of vitamin D.

6. Salmon brings out the best in fresh greens. The proteins, B vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids in salmon complement the antioxidants and vitamin C in greens such as spinach and kale.

7. It can help prevent cell damage. Along with its many vitamins and high protein content, salmon is an excellent source of selenium, a mineral is that works as an antioxidant in the body. It is associated with decreased risk of joint inflammation, keeps the immune system and thyroid working well, and can help to keep tissues healthy by preventing cell damage.
Wild salmon is loaded with protein and the two blockbuster omega 3s — DHA and EPA — that helps with brain, nerve and eye development. As the body can’t make omega-3 fatty acids, the best way to obtain them is through the food we eat.
8.Eating salmon could help cure dry eye syndrome and age-related macular degeneration symptoms, the No. 1 cause of irreversible blindness in the U.S. and EU. (8, 9) Omega-3s are also thought to improve the drainage of intraocular fluid from the eyes and decrease the risk of glaucoma and high eye pressure. (10) The omega-3’s in salmon are also essential for eye development in infants.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmon
https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/ingredient-focus-salmon
http://www.chatelaine.com/health/diet/seven-health-benefits-of-salmon-and-a-vitamin-rich-summer-recipe/

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Herbs & Plants

Castilleja coccinea

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Botanical Name : Castilleja coccinea
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Castilleja
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names:Indian paintbrush ,  Prairie-fire, Scarlet Indian paintbrush or Scarlet painted-cup

Habitat :Castilleja coccinea is  native to the west of the Americas from Alaska south to the Andes, northern Asia, and one species as far west as the Kola Peninsula in Siberia.

Description:
Castilleja coccinea   is a genus of about 200 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants..  It  is an upright, hairy, 1-to-7-decimeter (3.9 to 27.6 in) tall hemiparasitic plant. The stem is usually unbranched and rises from a basal rosette.   The basal leaves are oblong and mostly entire, while the alternate stem leaves are deeply and irregularly lobed. Though it can survive on its own, studies indicate a forty-fold growth increase when its roots parasitize those of another plant for nutrients.   The common names for this plant reflect the showy red calyx, inside of which is the actual greenish-yellow corolla (“flower”). It is primarily pollinated by ruby-throated hummingbirds who can transfer the pollen long distances between typically small and scattered populations of this plant. It is usually found in moist meadows, prairies, and barrens from Maine to Minnesota, and south to Florida and Louisiana.They are hemiparasitic on the roots of grasses and forbs.
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C. coccinea can be distinguished from other Castilleja of the southeastern US because it has a 2-to-3.5-millimeter long, thin yellowish or orangish lip on the corolla, the inflorescence bracts are deeply lobed, and the basal rosettes of leaves are usually well-developed.

Edible Uses:
The flowers of Indian paintbrush are edible, and were consumed in moderation by various Native American tribes as a condiment with other fresh greens. These plants have a tendency to absorb and concentrate selenium in their tissues from the soils in which they grow, and can be potentially very toxic if the roots or green parts of the plant are consumed. Highly alkaline soils increase the selenium levels in the plants. Indian paintbrush has similar health benefits to consuming garlic if only the flowers are eaten in small amounts and in moderation.

Medicinal Uses:
Chippewa Indians used paintbrush to treat rheumatism and as a bath rinse to make their hair glossy.  (probably because of the selenium content).  Nevada Indians sometimes used dilute solutions of the root tea to treat venereal disease.  Various tribes used the flowering plant as its name and appearance suggest—as a paintbrush.  Two or three moderately strong cups a day are drunk as a remedy for water retention associated with weather and temperature changes.  Take as a simple tea, up to 3 times a day.  Today, it is seldom used as a food or medicine, but some herbalists believe that the selenium content of this plant may make it useful in treating various forms of cancer.

The Ojibwe used a hairwash made from Indian paintbrush to make their hair glossy and full bodied, and as a treatment for rheumatism. The high selenium content of this plant has been cited as the reason for its effectiveness for these purposes. Nevada Indian tribes used the plant to treat sexually transmitted diseases and to enhance the immune system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castilleja_coccinea.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castilleja
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castilleja_coccinea

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Herbs & Plants

Castilleja linariaefolia

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Botanical Name : Castilleja linariaefolia
Family  : Scrophulariaceae / Orobanchaceae
Genus
;  Castilleja

KingdomPlantae
Order: Lamiales
Species: 
C. linariifolia

Synonym:Castilleja linearis/Castilleja traainii

Common Name: Wyoming Indian Paintbrush

Habitat :Native to United States and is the state flower of Wyoming. South-western N. America.   It grows on dry plains and hills, usually with sagebrush, and in hills to 3,000 metres.

Description:
Castilleja linariaefolia  is a  perennial   herbaceous   plant , grows up to 1 meter in height and has linear leaves which are between 20 and 80 mm in length and have up to 3 lobes. The flowers, which consist of a red to yellow calyx and yellow-green floral tube, appear in panicles or spikes between June and September in its native range.

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It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping.

Cultivation:The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil: Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season. Seed does not store well; sow as soon as possible

Propagation: From seed; direct sow after last frost

Edible Uses
Flowers

Medicinal Uses
Treats skin diseases, kidney disorders and leprosy. A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of excessive menstrual discharge and other menstrual difficulties, and also to prevent conception. A decoction of the leaves has been used during pregnancy in order to keep the baby small and thus lead to an easier labour. The root is cathartic. A decoction has been used as a blood purifier. When taken over a long period of time, a decoction of the root is said to be an effective treatment for venereal disease. The plant has been used to treat stomach aches.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Castilleja+linariaefolia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castilleja_linariifolia

http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/73750/index.html

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