Tag Archives: Chhattisgarh

Chalta (Dillenia)

Botanical Name:Dillenia indica L. (Dilleniaceae)
Family : Dilleniaceae
Syn : Dillenia speciosa Thunb.
English name: Dillenia, Elephant Apple
Common name: Chulta, hondapara tree, elephant apple,Outenga
Sanskrit names: Bhavya, Bharija.
Vernacular names: Asm : Chalita, Qutenga; Ben: Chalta; Guj : Karambel; Hin : Chalta; Kan :Betta kanijala; Mar: Mota karmal; Mal: Chalita, Punna; Man: Heigri; Ori : Qu, Uvu; San: Korbhatta; Tam and Tel: Uva.
Trade name: Chalta.

Habitat :Sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal to Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Central and South India; Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

Description:
Evergreen, round-headed tree, 9-42.5 m high; branchlets tomentose, bark cinnamomum-like; leaf alternate, simple, fascicled at the apices of branches, petiole 3.7 cm long, lamina 20-25 cm by 5-10 cm, oblong-Ianceolate, closely set parallel veins from midrib, upper surface glabrous, hairs present on the lower surface, especially on veins; flower terminal or leaf-opposed, solitary, white, 15 cm in diameter, sepals thick; fruit globose with accrescent calyx, 12.5-15 cm in diameter, green when young, yellowish and sweet-scented when ripe; seeds many, compressed, embedded in hairy cells.

It is a spreading tree and has beautiful white fragrant flowers, toothed leaves and globose fruits with small brown seeds. The greenish-yellow fruit, which has a thick protective covering, is edible. Unripe fruits are cooked to make pickle and chutney. The juicy pulp is aromatic but very acidic.

You may click to see the pictures

The fruit is a 5-12 cm diameter aggregate of 15 carpels, each carpel containing five seeds embedded in an edible pulp.

According to the reference literatures, botanically, Dillenia indica (Syn. D. elliptica) is an evergreen tree; Leaves oblong, acute or acuminate, margins dentate; Flowers solitary, pendent; Fruits yellowish-green with enclosed sepals; Seeds reniform, black, margin spiny.

Flowering: May-June; Fruiting: July-August. – ripens in November­December.

Uses:
The natives of many parts of Chhattisgarh prepare Shurbut from Chalta fruits. The Shurbut is consumed for its specific delicious taste. The traditional healers of many region are aware of its health benefits. They recommend this Shurbut to the patients having troubles related to respiratory system. It is also considered as promising heart tonic. As its use is limited to few natives, I personally feel that there is a need to popularise this health drink among the common natives. To prepare the Shurbut, the fruit juice is extracted. Separately, sugar is boiled in water to prepare the Chashni (Syrup). The juice is added in Chashni to prepare the Shurbut. Once prepared in bulk, it is used round the year by diluting with water.The fruit pulp is used in Indian Cuisine in curries, jam, and jellies.

The natives consume its fruit with taste and use it in preparation of different dishes. The natives of Ambikapur and Jashpur region confirmed that the Elephants are fond of its fruits. These regions have wild population of Elephants. Although Chalta is a common tree in different parts but it is a matter of surprise that the traditional healers are not much aware of its traditional medicinal uses and properties. Besides fruits, they use its leaves and bark in treatment of common diseases. According to the traditional healers of Bastar region, the bark in combination with other herbs can be used in treatment of all types of internal bleeding. The traditional healers of Narharpur region suggest the patients having the problem of Leucorrhoea to wash the vagina with the decoction of bark. The decoction is diluted with water according to the condition of the patients. The herb collectors use its leaves as styptic but as other promising alternatives are available, the leaves are used less commonly. The healers of Chhattisgarh Plains use the leaves in popular combinations used externally in form of aqueous paste, in treatment of Headache particularly Adhasisi (Migraine). In many parts of Chhattisgarh, the cattle owners use the decoction of leaves to wash the cattle in rainy days and to dress the open wounds. In reference literatures it is mentioned that the syrup of the juice of unripe fruits allays cough, assists expectoration and cures angina and stomatitis. The healers of Chhattisgarh are aware of these reported uses.

Chemical contents: Stem-bark: betulin, betulinaldehyde, betulic acid, flavonoids, dillentin, dihydroisorhamnetin, lupeol, myricetin, glucosides, B-sitosterol; Wood: betulinic acid, lupeol, β-sitosterol; Leaf: betulinic acid, cycloartenone, flavonoids, n-hentriacontanol, B­sitosterol; Fruit: an arabinogalactan, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol.

Medicinal Uses:
Traditional use: MANIPURI : Fruit decoction: for curing dandruff and checking falling of hairs; MIKIR (Assam) : Fruit: eat to combat weakness; TRIBES OFTEJPUR (Assam) : Plant: in fever; TRIBES OF TlRAP (Arunachal Pradesh) : Leaf: in dysentery; SANTAL : (i) Root: as prophylactic at the cholera season, an ingredient of a medicine for burning sensation in the chest; (ii) Stem-bark: component of medicine for sores caused by mercury poisoning, chronic progredient sores and carbuncle, and as a prophylactic at the cholera season; (iii) Mucilage: on wounds of burns; TRIBES OF ABUJH MARH RESERVE AREA (Madhya Pradesh) : Fruit: as tonic; TRIBES OF EAST GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Fleshy calyx: in stomach disorders.

YAJURVEDA : an important plant; UPAVARHANA SAMHITA : the plant is aphrodisiac and prpmotes virility; CHARAKA SAMHITA : the fruit is sweet, acidic, astringent, removes bile, phlegm, fetid and flatulence; SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : fruit cardiotonic, tasteful, astringent, acidic, removes bile, phlegm, fetid and flatulence; RAJANIGHANTU: green fruit is acidic, pungent, hot, removes wind, phlegm, but the ripe fruit is sweet, sour, appetising and beneficial in colic associated with mucous; MATSYA PURANA : decoction of this plant can be used as universal antidote for poison; AGNI PURANA : spraying water, containing stem extract, on and around the wound caused by spider bite helps in removing the poison.

AYURVEDA: (i) Root (bark extrac_: in food poisoning; (ii) Root-bark(paste): along with leaf­paste applied externally in sprains; (iii) Young bark and Leaf: astringent; (iv) Fruit-juice : mixed with sugar and water serves as a cooling beverage in fever, fit, and as a cough syrup; (v) Ripe fruit-juice: removes flatulence, increases quantity of semen, galactogogue, combats weakness, external application helps supuration of boil, and checks loss of hair.

.Modern use: Leaf (50% EtOH extract) : shows antiamphetamine activity; Seed-extract: antimicrobial; Seed-oil: antifungal, and its unsaponifiable matter antibacterial.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://botanical.com/cgi-bin/search2/search.pl
http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Dillenia%20indica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dillenia_indica
http://www.tropilab.com/elephantapple.html

http://gbpihed.gov.in/envis/HTML/vol13_1/nrai.htm

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Nageshar or Nagchampa (Messua Ferra)

Botanical Name:Mesua Ferrea
Family : Guttiferae
Indian Name :Mesua nagesarium /Nag champa or Nageshar

Vernacular Name:: Sans: Nagakeshara; Eng : Iron-wood.Hind : Naageswar;
Parts Used :Bark, Leaf, Flower

Description:.

Mesua nagesarium is a moderate to large sized evergreen tree with 40-60 feet height. Leaves red when young, lanceolate, covered with waxy bloom underneath. Flowers white and fragrant. Found all over the country.

click  to see. the pictures

Medicinal uses: Flowers, seeds and leaves are used as medicine. Flowers are used as astringent, coughs and bowel complaints. Bark extracts also used to cure astringent. Seeds oil is used as eczema and rheumatism.
Useful in the treatment of Asthma, Skin, Burning, Vomiting, Dysentry and Piles.
Various parts of these plants mainly including flowers, fruits are commonly used in the treatment of rheumatism, skin diseases, dysentery and bleeding piles. For bleeding piles, powder of Nagkeshar (Messua ferra) and Lodhra (Symplocos recemosa) should be taken in the dose of 2 gms thrice daily.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Cultivation method: Its fruits normally ripe on October- November. Squeezed out of seeds from ripe fruits and dried it in sunlight for storing. It is possible to store of this seeds for a long time. February to March is better time for seed sowing. Germination commences within 3-4 weeks. One-two year’s old seedlings are used for transplantation in field.

Medicinal recipe:Asthma, Skin, Burning, Vomiting, Dysentry, Piles.

Nagkesar is a local name of Mesua ferrea. It is well known herb in Chhattisgarh particularly in the regions at Orissa state border. The traditional healers and senior natives of Chhattisgarh are well aware of its medicinal properties and uses. They use it alone and in combination with other herbs in treatment of many common troubles, but the traditional healers of the state are not much aware of Herbal dish Nagkesar Ke Murabba. According to the traditional healers of Bagbahera region, this dish was in use in early days and was very popular among the traditional healers. The healers were recommending this preparation as cardio-tonic. During the ethnobotanical surveys conducted in different parts of Chhattisgarh, I asked the healers about this dish but no one came forward with any information. The traditional healers of Bagbahera region are aware of its method of preparation but they have no reason explaining why this dish is not popular in present time?


Material Required
: Nagkesar fruits and Sugar.

Method of Preparation : The fruits are boiled in water. Separately, sugar is boiled in water to prepare the Chashni (Syrup). The boiled fruits are added in Chashni and the combination is kept under moonlight for one month. Once prepared in bulk, it can be used round the year.
Click for more knowledge about the plant

As per Ayurveda:It is mild ushna, laghu, tikta; subdues deranged kapha; cures diseases of urinary bladder and those caused by deranged vata; beneficial in sore throat and headache.

Parts Used: Fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: astringent, useful in gastric troubles; seeds: oil in rheumatism and cutaneous affections;

Flowers: astringent, stomachic and expectorant; powder mixed with ghee (butter fat) applied externally in bleeding piles;
The flowers are astringent and stomachic

Buds useful in dysentery; leaves: as poultice applied on forehead in severe colds;

Bark: astringent, Sweetish, carminative, binding, cardiotonic; good in asthma answeats; cures ulcers and piles , hot ,dry, easy to digest, digestive, good for fevers, sweats, biliousness, foul breath, scabies, skin eruptions, itching, small tumours, headache, blood and heart troubles, sore throat, cough, hiccough, vomiting, thirst, dysentery, and bleeding piles

Bark is mildly astringent and feebly aromatic. Combined with ginger it is given as a sudorifie,
.In many localities they are used for cough, especially when attended with much expectoration.
A paste made of the flowers with butter and sugar is used in bleeding piles and burning of the feel.

Resources:

http://www.allayurveda.com/topic_month_february2004.htm
http://www.orissafdc.com/products_medicinal_plants.php
http://www.mapbd.com/Mpdes.htm#nageshwar

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#madayantika

 

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