Tag Archives: Chile

Cerbera manghas

 

Botanical Name : Cerbera manghas
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Cerbera
Species: C. manghas
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Cerbera , Sea mango

Indigenous Names:
*Madagascar – Tanguin, Samanta, Tangena
*Samoa – Leva
*Tonga – Toto
*Fiji – Vasa
*Indonesia, Malay, Sunda – Bintaro….CLICK & SEE :
*Sri Lanka /Sinhalese – Kaduru
*Japan / Ryukyuan – Mifukuragi (also applied for the Japanese common name of this species

Habitat:
Cerbera manghas is naturally distributed from the Seychelle Islands in the Indian Ocean eastward to French Polynesia. It occupies
coastal habitats and is often associated with mangrove forests.This tree has been introduced to Hawaii and other tropical locations as an
ornamental.
Description:
Cerbera manghas is a shrub or a small to medium-sized tree up to 12 metres (39 ft) tall with white latex in all parts, glabrous; bole up to 70 cm in diameter; bark thick,
rough, peeling off, with large lenticels, grey to dark brown; branches thick and succulent, with many conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves   arranged spirally, clustered at the ends of branches, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; blade narrowly obovate, 5–30  cm × 1–8 cm, cuneate at base, shortly acuminate at apex, leathery, pinnately veined with 15–40 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence a  terminal cyme up to 25 cm × 15 cm, many-flowered; peduncle 1.5–12 cm long; bracts about as long as sepals, deciduous. Flowers bisexual,  regular, 5-merous, fragrant; pedicel 0.5–3 cm long; sepals ovate or obovate, (0.5–)1–3.5 cm × c. 0.5 cm, spreading to recurved; corolla tube  funnel-shaped, 1.5–5.5 cm long, widened at apex, pale green with white or pale yellow scales in the throat, hairy inside, lobes obliquely  elliptical or obovate, 1.5–3 cm × 1–2 cm, spreading to recurved, white but pink at base; stamens inserted just below the top of corolla tube, included, covered by scales of corolla tube, anthers sessile; ovary superior, globose, consisting of 2 separate carpels, style long and slender,  pistil head consisting of a 5-ridged basal part, a veil and a cone-shaped apex. Fruit consisting of 1 or 2 separate or basally fused, drupe-like,  ellipsoid follicles 5–12 cm × 3–7 cm, rounded at both ends, dark red when mature, indehiscent, usually 1-seeded. Seed flattened orbicular, c.  2.5 cm in diameter, with small wing at apex. Seedling with hypogeal germination..CLICK & SEE :
The flowers of Cerbera manghas are pollinated by insects. The fruits, which are fibrous inside, float in water and can be distributed by sea  currents; they are quite commonly washed up on shores…..…CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Properties:

The seeds contain glycosides derived from the cardenolides tanghinigenin and digitoxigenin, such as cerberin, neriifolin, thevetin B and 2’-O-acetyl-thevetin B. The principal cardenolides contained in the bark and roots are gentiobiosyl-thevetoside and glucosyl-thevetoside along with other thevetosides derived from tanghinigenin. The amount of cardenolides in the leaves varies according to the season. Some of the cardenolides showed antiproliferative activity against human colon cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines, as well as anti-oestrogenic activity. Cerberin acts on plain muscle preparations as a definite stimulant both with regard to tone and peristaltic movements. As such it behaves as a parasympatomimetic poison. It acts on both the rhythm and amplitude of the heart. In moderate doses cerberin has positive inotropic properties, but in high, toxic doses it produces a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect. Phytochemical investigations also revealed the presence of a series of lignans derived from olivil (cerberalignans) and monoterpenoids such as cerberidol. Ethanolic extracts of Cerbera manghas have shown selective activity against vesicular stomatis virus (VSV). Olivil, carinol and cycloolivil showed antioxidant activities.
The wood is lightweight to medium-weight, with the white to pale yellow-brown heartwood not demarcated from the sapwood; grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture fine and uneven. The shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate, and the wood works easily. It is not durable, highly susceptible to blue-staining fungi, and resistant to preservative treatment under pressure.

Medicinal Uses:
Used much like digitalis.
The seeds of Cerbera manghas are used in traditional medicine in Madagascar to treat cardiac disorders. However they are very poisonous and were used until the middle of the 19th century as ordeal poison. In tropical Asia the seeds are used to treat scabies and itch, to prepare a hair tonic and as fish poison, the bark is used as a laxative and antipyretic and in the treatment of dysuria and ringworm, the flowers to treat haemorrhoids, and roots, bark and leaves to prepare a purgative.

Other Uses:
In Sri Lanka, this wood is used for making masks particularly because it is a light wood. The wood is also used in tropical Asia for mouldings, interior trim, fruit cases, core veneer, matches, shuttering, clogs, plain furniture and carving, and also for charcoal. Cerbera manghas is planted as an ornamental and the fibrous fruits, of which the skin and soft parts have decayed, are used in flower arrangements.

Mythology:.…….Because of its deadly poisonous seeds, the genus name is derived from Cerberus, the hell dog from the Greek mythology, thus
indicating the toxicity of the seeds. In Madagascar, the seeds were used in sentence rituals to poison kings and queens.

Known Hazards: ……Poison….The leaves and the fruits contain the potent cardiac glycoside cerberin, which is extremely poisonous if   ingested.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources::
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerbera_manghas
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Cerbera_manghas_(PROTA)

Fragaria chiloensis

Botanical Name: Fragaria chiloensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species: F. chiloensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Synonyms : F. cuneifolia.

Common Name: Beach Strawberry, Pacific beach strawberry, Sandwich beach strawberry, Chilean strawberry, or coastal strawberry,

Habitat : Fragaria chiloensis occurs from S. America to N. America and also Hawai?i. Migratory birds are thought to have dispersed F. chiloensis from the Pacific coast of North America to the mountains of Hawai?i, Chile, and Argentina. It grow well in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Description:
Fragaria chiloensis is a perennial evergreen plant growing to 15–30 centimetres (5.9–11.8 in) tall, with glossy green trifoliate leaves, each leaflet around 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long. The flowers are white, produced in spring and early summer. The fruit is edible, red on the surface, white inside.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 
Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. Grows best near the coast. Plants like a mulch of pine or spruce leaves. Cultivated for its edible fruit in the Andes. This species, along with F. virginiana, is probably a parent of the cultivated strawberries. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit. and as Tea…….Fruit – raw or cooked. Large, sweet and succulent with a delicate flavour. A delicious treat. The berries can be used to make jams, preserves etc. A tea can be made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses:

Antiseptic; Astringent; Emmenagogue; Galactogogue; Odontalgic.

The plant is antiseptic, astringent, emmenagogue, galactogogue and odontalgic. It has been used to regulate the menstrual cycle. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been used to treat burns.

Other Uses :   Plants spread by means of runners and can be grown as a ground cover[
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fragaria_chiloensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+chiloensis

 

Eugenia cheken

Botanical Name :  Eugenia cheken
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Tribe: Myrteae
Genus: Eugenia
KingdomPlantae
Order: Myrtales
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Synonyms:  Arryan. Myrtus Chekan.

Habitat:  :  Eugenia cheken grows in Chile.

Common Name: Eugenia cheken

Description:
The flowers grow in the axils of the leathery leaves, white with a fourparted calyx, four petals and numerous stamens; the berry is crowned by the calyx, one or two-celled, containing one or two seeds. The leaves nearly sessile, oval, 1 inch long, smooth, slightly wrinkled, aromatic, astringent, and bitter….click & see the pictures

Constituents:  Volatile oil, tannin and four principles, viz. Chekenon, Chekenin, Chekenetin, and Cheken bitter, an amorphous, soluble bitter substance. The virtues of the leaves appear to be in the volatile oil they contain and in their tannin.

Medicinal Uses:  Most useful in the chronic bronchitis of elderly people and in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs. Dose: Fluid extract, 1 to 2. fluid drachms.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenia
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cheken52.html
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/usdisp/eugenia-chek.html

Tetragonia tetragonioides

Botanical Name : Tetragonia tetragonioides  (or previously Tetragonia expansa)
Family: Aizoaceae /Picoideae
Genus: Tetragonia
Species: T. tetragonioides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Tetragonia expansa , Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze APNI* ,Demidovia tetragonoides Pall. APNI*

Common NamesNew Zealand spinach, Warrigal greens, Warrigal cabbage, , sea spinach, Botany Bay spinach, tetragon and Cook’s cabbage.

Habitat : Tetragonia tetragonioides is native to New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Chile and Argentina.It grows on coastal sand dunes and stony beaches on North South and Stewart Islands of New Zealand. Sheltered beaches, salt marshes and arid plains in Australia.

Description:
New Zealand Spinach is a half-hardy evergreen perennial(annual in some places) plant growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
It has a trailing habit, and will form a thick carpet on the ground or climb though other vegetation and hang downwards. The leaves of the plant are 3–15 cm long, triangular in shape, and bright green. The leaves are thick, and covered with tiny papillae that look like waterdrops on the top and bottom of the leaves. The flowers of the plant are yellow, and the fruit is a small, hard pod covered with small horns. The plant is a halophyte and grows well in saline ground.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation: 
Tetragonia tetragonioides  is easily grown in the garden, it prefers a light soil in a sunny position and thrives in dry soils. It grows best in a good rich soil. Once established, the plants tolerate drought. Plants are very tolerant of hot, dry conditions but cannot tolerate frost. Although very drought tolerant, the plants produce a better quality crop if they are given some water in dry weather. New Zealand spinach is occasionally cultivated in gardens for its edible leaves, it is an excellent spinach substitute for hot dry weather conditions. A perennial plant in its native habitat, but it is usually killed by the cold in British winters and so is grown as an annual. In the Tropics it is occasionally cultivated in the cool season as a spinach.

Propagation: 
Seed – sow early to mid spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out after the last expected frost. Seed can also be sown in situ in late spring, though this will not generally make such good plants . The seed can be slow to germinate, soaking in warm water for 24 hours prior to sowing may help .

Edible Uses:

Leaves – raw or cooked. A spinach substitute, the shoot tips are harvested when about 8cm long, this encourages plenty of side growth with lots more shoots to harvest. A delicious substitute for spinach, the very young leaves and shoots can also be eaten raw in salads. The young leaves are best, older leaves developing an acrid taste.

Medicinal Uses:
Captain James Cook found the plant growing in New Zealand and fed it to his crew as a fresh vegetable to help prevent scurvy.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragonia_expansa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tetragonia+tetragonoides
http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Tetragonia~tetragonioides
http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/education/Resources/bush_foods/Tetragonia_tetragonioides
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/spinew81.html

Quillaja saponaria

Botanical Name : Quillaja saponaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Fabales
Family: Quillajaceae
Genus:     Quillaja
Species: Q. saponaria

Synonyms: Soap Bark. Panama Bark. Cullay.

Common Names :Soap bark tree or Soapbark

Habitat: Quillaja saponaria IS native to Peru and Chile, and cultivated in Northern Hindustan.It has been introduced as an ornamental in California. Trees have been acclimatized in Spain but are rarely cultivated there. This tree occurs at altitudes to 2000 metres. The species is drought resistant, and tolerates about -12°C (10°F) in its natural habitat.

Description:
Quillaja saponaria is an evergreen tree  50 to 60 feet high. Leaves smooth, shiny, short-stalked, oval, and usually terminal white flowers, solitary, or three to five on a stalk. The tree has thick, dark bark, smooth, leathery, shiny, oval evergreen leaves 3–5 cm long, white flowers 15 mm diameter borne in dense corymbs, and a dry fruit with five follicles each containing 10-20 seeds. Bark thick, dark coloured, and very tough. In commerce it is found in large flat pieces 1/5 inch thick, outer surface brownish-white, with small patches of brownish cork attached, otherwise smooth; inner surface whitish and smooth, fracture splintery, chequered with pale-brown vast fibres, embedded with white tissue; it is inodorous, very acrid and astringent.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:  
Requires a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -12°c in their natural range in South America but they usually require greenhouse protection in Britain. They can succeed outdoors in the milder areas of this country, often as small shrubs but making a tree in the very mildest areas. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts, so it is best to site the plant in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. This species is cultivated for the saponins in its bark in some warm temperate areas of the world.

Propagation:    
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer and give some protection from the cold for at least their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of fully ripe wood of the current year’s growth, November in a frame

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used:  Dried inner bark.

Constituents: Its chief constituent is saponin, which is a mixture of two glucosides, guillaic acid and guillaia-sapotoxin. The latter is very poisonous and possesses marked foam-producing properties. Calcium oxalate is also present in the bark. The drug also contains cane-sugar and a non-toxic modification of guillaic acid. As the active principles of Soap Bark are the same as those of Senega, Quillaia has been suggested as a cheap substitute for Sarsaparilla.

Antiseborrheic;  Expectorant;  Skin;  Stimulant.

Soap bark tree has a long history of medicinal use with the Andean people who used it especially as a treatment for various chest problems. The saponin content of the bark helps to stimulate the production of a more fluid mucous in the airways, thus facilitating the removal of phlegm through coughing. The tree is useful for treating any condition featuring congested catarrh within the chest, but it should not be used for dry irritable coughs. The inner bark contains about 9% of complex saponins, known collectively as ‘quillajasaponin’. It also contains calcium oxalate and tannin. It has been used internally as a stimulating expectorant, though it can cause irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract and so is no longer considered safe. The internal use of this plant needs to be carefully overseen by a professional practitioner. Sap bark tree is used as a source of compounds for the pharmaceutical industry. It is still used externally as a cutaneous stimulant in the treatment of skin ulcers and eruptions, dandruff etc.

Other Uses:
The fresh or dried inner bark is a soap substitute. It contains about 9% saponins and is a very gentle and effective cleaner. It is used for cleaning textiles and the skin. It can also be used as a hair tonic. The saponins are also used in anti-dandruff shampoos and exfoliant cleansers. They are used as a foaming agent in fire extinguishers. The bark also contains considerable quantities of carbonate of lime.

Known Hazards:  The plant is toxic if taken internally, tending to dissolve the blood corpuscles. The bark, and possibly other parts of the plant, contains saponins. Although toxic, saponins are very poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass through without causing harm, they are also destroyed by thorough cooking. Saponins are found in many plants, including several that are often used for food, such as certain beans. It is advisable not to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quillaja_saponaria
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quillaja+saponaria
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/soaptr60.html