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Anemone nemorosa

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Botanical Name : Anemone nemorosa
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus:     Anemone
Species: A. nemorosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Ranunculales

Synonyms:  Crowfoot. Windflower. Smell Fox.,  Anemanthus nemorosus Fourr. Pulsatilla nemorosa Schrank.

Common Names :  Wood anemone, Windflower, Thimbleweed, and Smell fox

Habitat : Anemone nemorosa is native to Europe. It  occurs  throughout the northern temperate zone of C. Europe, including Britain, and W. Asia. It grows in  woodland and shady hillsides in all but the most base deficient or water-logged soils.

Description:
Anemone nemorosa  is a perennial herbaceous plant growing 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) tall.It is an early-spring flowering plant.The plants start blooming soon after the foliage emerges from the ground. The leaves are divided into three segments and the flowers, produced on short stems, are held above the foliage with one flower per stem. They grow from underground root-like stems called rhizomes and the foliage dies back down by mid summer (summer dormant). The rhizomes spread just below th e soil surface, forming long spreading clumps that grow quickly, contributing to its rapid spread in woodland conditions, where they often carpet large areas.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flower is 2 centimetres (0.79 in) diameter, with six or seven (and on rare occasions eight to ten) tepals (petal-like segments) with many stamens. In the wild the flowers are usually white but may be pinkish, lilac or blue, and often have a darker tint on the backs of the tepals. The flowers are pollinated by insects, especially hoverflies.

The yellow wood anemone (Anemone ranunculoides) is a similar plant with slightly smaller, yellow flowers.

It has a long, tough, creeping root-stock, running just below the surface; it is the quick growth of this root-stock that causes the plant to spread so rapidly, forming large colonies in the moist soil of wood and thicket. The deeply-cut leaves and star-like flowers rise directly from it on separate unbranched stems. Some distance below the flower are the three leaflets, often so deeply divided as to appear more than three in number and very similar to the true leaves. They wrap round and protect the flower-bud before it unfolds, but as it opens, its stalk lengthens and it is carried far above them.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist soil but tolerates dry conditions during its summer dormancy. Plants tolerate dry conditions and drought so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil. Prefers a well-drained humus-rich soil. Dislikes very acid soils. Prefers a shady position, growing well on woodland edges, but plants can also be naturalized in thin turf. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. The plant has a running rootstock and can spread rapidly when well-sited. A very ornamental plant, there are several named varieties.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the summer. Surface sow or only just cover the seed and keep the soil moist. Sow stored seed as soon as possible in late winter or early spring. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 6 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first year. When the plants are large enough, plant them out in the spring. Division in late summer after the plant dies down.

Medicinal Uses:

Antirheumatic; Homeopathy; Rubefacient; Tonic.

The leaves are antirheumatic, rubefacient and tonic. The plant is sometimes used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism. The herb is gathered in spring before the plant comes into flower. Various parts of this herb used to be recommended for a variety of complaints such as headaches and gout, though the plant is virtually not used nowadays. A homeopathic remedy has been made from the leaves.

Though this species of Anemone has practically fallen out of use, the older herbalists recommended application of various parts of the plant for headaches, tertian agues and rheumatic gout.’The body being bathed with the decoction of the leaves cures the leprosy: the leaves being stamped and the juice snuffed up the nose purgeth the head mightily; so doth the root, being chewed in the mouth, for it procureth much spitting and bringeth away many watery and phlegmatic humours, and is therefore excellent for the lethargy…. Being made into an ointment and the eyelids annointed with it, it helps inflammation of the eyes. The same ointment is excellent good to cleanse malignant and corroding ulcers.’

Known Hazards:The plant contains poisonous chemicals that are toxic to animals including humans. The plant contains poisonous chemicals that are toxic to animals including humans, but it has also been used as a medicine. All parts of the plant contain protoanemonin, which can cause severe skin and gastrointestinal irritation, bitter taste and burning in the mouth and throat, mouth ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hematemesi All parts of the plant contain protoanemonin, which can cause severe skin and gastrointestinal irritation, bitter taste and burning in the mouth and throat, mouth ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hematemesis.

Other Uses:
Anemone nemorosa is grown as an ornamental plant for use in gardens and parks.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/anemo036.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemone_nemorosa

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anemone+nemorosa

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Herbs & Plants

Scrophularia ningpoensis

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Botanical Name : Scrophularia ningpoensis
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Scrophularia
Species: S. ningpoensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms : S. oldhami. Oliv.

Common Name;Ningpo figwort or Chinese figwort

Habitat:Gullies, thickets and wet waste places along the edges of rivers and streams . Bamboo forests, along streams, thickets, tall grasses; below 1500 metres.

Description;
Scrophularia ningpoensis is a  perennial   herb,  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to October, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

click to see the pictures

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in most moist to wet soils in full sun or partial shade. This species is hardy to at least -15°c.

Propagation
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame[238]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer

Medicinal Uses;
Antibacterial;  Antifungal;  Antiphlogistic;  Antipyretic;  Cardiac;  Diuretic;  FebrifugeHaemolyticHypoglycaemic;  Restorative;  Sialagogue;
Tonic;  Vasodilator.

This species has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2,000 years[238]. The root is antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, antiphlogistic, cardiac, diuretic, febrifuge, haemolytic, hypoglycaemic, restorative, sialogogue, tonic and vasodilator. Small doses act as a heart tonic, whilst large doses depress cardiac function. The root is used internally in the treatment of feverish illnesses with symptoms such as rashes, delirium and insomnia, dry cough, throat infections, abscesses and carbuncles. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use

This plant is a known to Chinese medicine for as long as 2000 years. Its root is harvested in autumn in Zhejiang province and neighboring areas, then dried for later use. Taken at small doses, the root acts as a heart tonic, but large doses depress heart’s functioning. It is also used internally as an antipyretic. Besides, the plant’s root have diverse other medical effects, such as antibacterial and antifungal, antiphlogistic, diuretic, febrifuge, haemolytic, hypoglycaemic, restorative, sialogogue as well as vasodilator.

Cautions & Contraindications:
*Use with caution in cases of Spleen or Stomach dampness, or diarrhea due to Spleen deficiency.
*According to some sources, this herb antagonizes Radix Astragali Membranacei, Rhizoma Zingiberis Officinalis, Fructus Zizyphi *Jujubae, and Frucutus Corni Officinalis.
*It is also considered to be incompatible with Rhizoma et Radix Veratri.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scrophularia+ningpoensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrophularia_ningpoensis

http://library.thinkquest.org/25983/2.%20Figwort.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Dendranthema grandiflorum

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Botanical Name : Dendranthema grandiflorum
Family : Asteraceae or Compositae
Genus: Dendranthema

Synonyms : Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Ramat. C. sinense
Common name : Florist’s daisy ,Chrysanthemum

Other names › Chrysanthemum hortorum
› Chrysanthemum hortorum hort.
› Chrysanthemum x morifolium
› Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat.
› Dendranthema grandiflora

Habitat :Native to China & Japan grows plenty in Southeast Asia.

Description:
Dendranthema x grandiflorum is a PERENNIAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft).
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

click to see the pictures

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most well-drained fertile soils in a sunny position. This species is not fully hardy in Britain, many of its cultivars requiring greenhouse protection in the colder areas of the country. The chrysanthemum is widely cultivated as an ornamental flowering plant, there are many named varieties. It is also occasionally grown in the Orient for its edible leaves, a number of cultivars have been developed with leaves that are low in bitterness. It has been proposed (1999) to restore this species to Chrysanthemum as C. x morifolium Ramat. since the plant is so widely known under this name.

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to early summer in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. It usually germinates in 10 – 18 days at 15°c but if it does not germinate within 4 weeks then try chilling the seed for 3 weeks in the salad compartment of a fridge[164]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. This is a hybrid species and so will not breed true from seed. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Tea.

The flower heads or petals are parboiled and served as a salad with tofu and seasoned with vinegar or soya sauce. They can also be prepared as tempura, pickled, dried or added to soups. The petals contain about 1.9% protein, 0.9% fat, 5.3% carbohydrate, 0.7% ash. Leaves – cooked . Used as fritters, they are aromatic. Some varieties have been selected for their low bitterness. An aromatic tea is made from the leaves. A tangy aromatic tea is made from the flowers or flower petals[179]. For a sweeter tea only the petals are used.

Medicinal Uses :
Antibacterial;  Antifungal;  CarminativeDepurativeDiaphoreticFebrifuge;  Ophthalmic;  Refrigerant;  Sedative.

Chrysanthemum flowers, known in China as Ju Hua, are a bitter aromatic herb that has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine. The flower heads are drunk as a refreshing tisane and are used to improve vision, soothe sore eyes, relieve headaches, counter infections etc. They are antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, refrigerant and sedative. Taken internally they dilate the coronary artery, thus increasing the flow of blood to the heart, and so are used in the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart diseases and angina. The flowers are harvested when fully open in the autumn and are dried for later use. In China they are steamed before being dried to make them less bitter. The leaf juice is smeared onto wounds.

Chinese Medicine: Disperses wind and clears heat: for wind-heat patterns with fever and headache; Clears the Liver and the eyes: for either wind-heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or excessive tearing, or yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with such symptoms as spots in front of the eyes, blurry vision, or dizziness; Calms the Liver and extinguishes wind: for such symptoms as dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver yang.  The ability of white chrysanthemum to nourish the Liver and clear the eyes is somewhat superior to the other varieties.  It is also known as sweet chrysanthemum (gan ju hua). This variety is often used for diminished vision due to Liver and Kidney yin deficiency.  Yellow chrysanthemum (huang ju hua) has a greater wind-heat dispersing capacity than do the other varieties.  It is most often used in treating eye redness and headache due to externally-contracted wind-heat.  Research has demonstrated that it is a valuable remedy for high blood pressure.

Other Uses : Plants have been grown indoors in pots in order to help remove toxins from the atmosphere. It is especially good at removing chemical vapours, especially formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dendranthema%20x%20grandiflorum
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/41568
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?400932
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79097:dendranthema-x-grandiflorum-ramat-kitam&catid=368:d

http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=080117-1750&o=plants

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Chrysanthenum indicum

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Botanical Name : Chrysanthenum indicum Linn
Other scientific names:Chrysanthemum sinense   ,Matricaria chamomilla ,Pyrethrum sinense  ,Dendrathema indicum L.
Order: Asterales
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Chrysanthemum

Common names:Dolontas (Tag.), Manzanilla (Sp. Fil.),Mansanilya-a-babasit (Ilk.) , Roman camomile (Engl.),Garden camomile (Engl.), Yeh Chu-hua (Chin.),Chrysanthemum (Engl.),Mother’s daisy (Engl.),Whig plant (Engl.)

Local names: Dolontas (Tag.); mansanilla-a-babasit (Ilk.); mansanilla (Sp.); mansanilya (Tag.); false camomile, Indian chrysanthemum, winter aster (Engl.).

Habitat :It is a native of China and Japan, now cultivated in most warm countries.

Description:
This medicinal plant is an erect or ascending, perennial, aromatic, somewhat hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. The leaves are thin, pinnately lobed, ovate to oblong-ovate in outline, and 4 to 6 centimeters long. The lobes are 2 or 3 on each side, ovate or oblong-ovate, and sharply toothed. The flowering heads are yellow, peduncled, corymbosely panicled, and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. The involucre bracts are oblong or elliptic, equaling the acheness in size. The achenes are very small, cuneate-oblong, somewhat compressed and grooved.

click to see the pictures.…..(01)...(.1)......(2)

Willstatter and Bolton isolated from the flowers of the red variety a glucoside, chrysanthemum (C21H20O11), which is an isomer of asterin. In variety “Ruby King”, they isolated 7 per cent of the glucoside, monoglucoside of cyanidin. Wehmer records that the leaves and flowers of C. japonium Thum., which is a synonym of C. indicum, yield a volatile oil (Kiku oil), 0.16 per cent.

Constituents and properties
*Volatile oils (kiku oil), 0.16%; glucoside; chrysanthemin, 7%; anthocyanin.
*Essential oil contains chrysanthenone.
*Study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesman-type sesquiterpenes. (Source) :http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199914/000019991499A0366859.php

Edible Uses :- Edible: Seeds, flowers, leaves.

Medicinal Uses:-

Parts utilized
· Flowering heads. The active ingredient is chrysanthemin.
· Entire plant also used.
· Collect flowers from August to October.
· Collect young shoots or collect tender portions of the plant.
· Rinse, sun-dry.

Properties
Considered antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, bactericidal, febrifuge, vulnerary, depurative and tonic.
Glycoside chrysanthemin considered antibacterial.

Folkloric
· Preventive for cough, flu, epidemic meningitis.
· Whooping cough (use entire plant or flower)
· Gas pains: Warm oil, add and mix the flower heads, let stand for 30 mins and strain. Apply warm oily solution to abdomen.
· Eczema infections
· Hypertension (use flowers)
· Poisonous snake bites, sprains and bruises.
· Infections of the cervix (use flowers, process into emulsion and apply to afflicted region)
· Mammary carbuncle
· Insect repellent: Burn the flowers.
· Tea used as a wash for sore eyes, open sores, and wounds.
· Combined with bitter sweet as ointment, used for bruises, sprains, calluses.
· In China, used for migraines, hypertension, inflammation, respiratory problems.
Guerrero reports that an infusion of the flowering heads is used as a carminative.
According to Kirtikar and Basu the natives of the Deccen administer the plant in conjunction with black pepper in gonorrhea. The plant is also considered by the Hindus to be heating and aperient and useful in affection of the brain and in calculus, as well as an antidote to mental depression.
Crevost and Petelot report that in Indo-China the leaves are used as a depurant and are prescribed in migraine.

Hooper says that in China the flowering heads are made into tonic and sedative preparations. Infusions are frequently applied as a collyrium in eye affections. Caius states that in Malaya the flowers are used for sore eyes and for sore eyes and for inflammations of the abdomen in Indo-China. Safford and Caius state that the flowers, in the form of an infusion, are used by the natives of Guam as a remedy for intermittent fevers, and are valued by women as a remedy for hysteria and monthly irregularities.

Studies:-
· Antimicrobial: Study yielded three essential oils with major constituents of 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate. Results showed both essential oils from air-dried and processed flowers possessed significant antimicrobial effect. With higher camphor percentage, the oil of processed flowers greater bacteriostatic activity than air-dried ones.
• Antiinflammatory / Immunomodulatory: (1) Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné: Study showed CI possesses antiinflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and phagocytic activity probably from its flavonoid contents. (2) Study showed C indicum extract to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis and suggests a potential for treatment of immune-related cutaneouse diseases.
• Sesquiterpenes: Japanese study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesman-type sesquiterpenes.
Anti-Cancer: (1) Study of C indicum extract showed a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells lines without effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity suggests the plant extract could be a potential new treatment for human cancer. (2) Study documents anti-metastatic effect through a decrease of MMP expression, simultaneous increase of TIMP expression. Results suggest CI is a potential novel medicinal plant for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma or cancer invasion and metastasis. (3) Study performed in rats with human cells showed CI extract inhibited proliferation of human hepatocellular cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity.
• Flavonoids / Anti-Arthritis: Study showed the total flavonoids of C indicum, extracted from the dried buds could induce synoviocytes apoptosis and suppress proliferation of synoviocytes in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats.
• Flowers / Chemical Composition: Study of C. indicum flowers yielded 63 volatiles which included eucalyptol, a-pinene, a-neoclovene among others. Ten flavonoids were identified, including quercitrin, myricetin and luteolin-7-glucoside. It suggests C indicum flower is a good source of natural quercitrin and myricetin for the development of potential pharmaceuticals.
• Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity: Study has shown inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of CIE might results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL01beta, via suppression of MAPKs and NF-kappaB-dependent pathways.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://medicinalplants-india.blogspot.com/2010/11/chrysanthemum-indicum-linn-shevanti.html
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Manzanilla.html

Click to access mansanilla.pdf


http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

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Botanical Name : Chrysanthemum morifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Chrysanthemum
Common Names: Chrysanthemum , Mums, Ju Hua, Chu Hua,Florist’s Chrysanthemum
Syn : Dendranthema morifolium
Parts Used: flowers

Habitat : Native to China, Japan, India and Korea; . Mountains, Piedmont, Coastal Plain

Description:
Chrysanthemums, or “mums,” are any of several annual and perennial herbs in a large genus, Chrysanthemum, of the daisy family, Compositae. Chrysanthemums are widely grown commercially for their showy red, white, or yellow blossoms, which are produced in late summer and fall. The blossoms range from daisylike in appearance to very shaggy. Although most of the popular varieties are new hybrids,  they are the floral emblem of theimperial family. The Chinese varieties are the tallest, reaching heights of 1.2 m (4 ft) or more. Indian or pompon varieties have smallest flowers. Chrysanthemums should be planted in sunny locations, as they become spindly if grown in the shade

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES.......(01)....(1)..…....(2)..……..(3).….…………

The familiar chrysanthemum in which literally thousands of year of breeding have produced an amazing variety of plant forms and flower colors.
Height .12-36 inches.Suitable for the home or a greenhouse.

USDA Hardiness Zone 5-9
Flower Color  :red, orange, yellow, white, lavender

Propagation:  Stem cuttings and seeds in the spring. It is best to propagate any type of cuttings or seeds in a mixture of moist peat and perlite. Cover the pot and plant with a plastic bag secured by a rubber band to prevent moisture from escaping. Place in indirect sunlight or under a fluorescent light. Repot in its regular mix after it has been growing for a while.

Constituents: ascorbic acid, beta-cartone, calcium, fiber, folacin, iron.

Properties: Refrigerant* Anti-inflammatory* Antibacterial* Febrifuge* Demulcent* Aromatic* Hepatic* Hypotensive*

Medicinal Actions  & Uses:

Common Uses: Allergies/hay Fever * Eye care – Vision * Heart Tonics/Cordials * Hypertension HBP * Influenza * Sore Throat/Laryngitis *

Ju-hua is used in Chinese medicine in prescriptions for colds with wind, and heat, headache, inflamed eyes, swelling and pain in the throat, vertigo, tinnitus, sores such as boils, and tightness of the chest with anxiety. Chrysanthemum flowers soaked in rice wine, are a historical restorative drink. Chrysanthemum is combined with Japanese honeysuckle in the treatment of high blood pressure. Steven Foster and Yue chongxi . Herbal Emissaries (1992)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/perennials/Chrysmo.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysanthemum
http://www.plantcare.com/encyclopedia/florist-chrysanthemum-1060.aspx
http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new090paper.html

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