Tag Archives: Cinnamon

Artemisia cina

 

Botanical Name : Artemisia cina
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. cina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Sea Wormwood. Santonica. Semen Sanctum. Semen Cinae. Semen Contra. Semen Santonici. Artemesia Lercheana. Artemisia maritima, var. Stechmanniana. Artemisia maritima, var. pauciflora. Artemesia Chamaemelifolia.
(Italian) Semenzina

Common Names: Cina, Santonica (zahr el shieh el -khorasani), Levant wormseed, and wormseed.
Habitat: Artemisia cina is native to China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Description:
Artemisia cina is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is an Asian species of herbaceous perennial in the daisy family. Its dried flowerheads are the source of the vermifugic drug santonin since ancient times. Its common names arise from its known ability to expel worms. The powder is grayish-green in colour with an aromatic odour and a bitter taste.

The plant is characterised by its spherical pollen grains, which are typical in the Asteraceae family, a fibrous layer on anthers, lignified, elongated, hypodermal sclerids, and clusters of calcium oxalate crystals.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. Although this plant has woody stems, these tend to die back each winter giving the plant a herbaceous habit. It is cultivated as a medicinal plant in Russia and N. America. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Established plants are very drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.

Part Used:The Seeds.

Constituents: The chief constituent of Wormseed is a crystalline principle, Santonin, to which the anthelmintic property of the drug is due. Santonin attains its maximum 2.3 to 3.6 per cent in July and August; after the flowerheads have expanded, it rapidly diminishes in quantity. It is extracted from the flower-heads by treating them with Milk of Lime, the Santonin being converted into soluble calcium santonate. It occurs in colourless, shining, flat prisms, without odour and almost tasteless at first, but afterwards developing a bitter taste. It is sparingly soluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether.

Wormseed also contains a crystalline substance, Artemisin, and a yellow volatile oil consisting of Cineol, to which its odour is due.

Medicinal Uses:
Digestive; Febrifuge; Homeopathy; Vermifuge.

Artemisia cina is one of the safest and most reliable vermifuges, used especially on children. Because of its bitter flavour, it is usually mixed with liquorice or some other pleasantly flavoured herb. The unexpanded floral heads and the seed contain the vermicide ‘santonin’. This is an effective and rapid treatment for round worms, it is also effective for thread worms, though it does not affect tapeworms. The plant is also used as a febrifuge and as an aid to the digestion. Caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is poisonous in large doses. This plant should not be used by pregnant women. The dried flowers are used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is particularly useful for complaints of the nervous system and the digestive tract. A homeopathic remedy made from the plant is used to rid children of worms
Known Hazards: Poisonous. Skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_cina
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+cina
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/w/worlav36.html

Backhousia myrtifolia

Botanical Name : Backhousia myrtifolia
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus:     Backhousia
Species: B. myrtifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Myrtales

Common Names:carrol, carrol ironwood, neverbreak, ironwood or grey myrtle, or Australian

lancewood. Cinnamon myrtle

Habitat :Backhousia myrtifolia is native to subtropical rainforests of Eastern Australia.

\Description:
Backhousia myrtifolia is an evergreen Shrub growing to 12 m (39ft 4in). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May. The leaves are ovate or elliptic, 4-7 cm long, with a cinnamon-like odour. Flowers are star-shaped and borne in panicles.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)  The small papery fruit are bell-shaped.The attractive flowers are creamy coloured and star shaped, followed by star-like capsules.
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Cultivation:        
Prefers a position in full sun in a fertile moisture retentive well-drained soil. A very ornamental plant, in Britain it is only reliably hardy in the Scilly Isles. Plants in Australian gardens tolerate temperatures down to at least -7°c, but this cannot be translated directly to British gardens due to our cooler summers and longer, colder and wetter winters. Seed can remain viable on the plant for 3 – 4 years.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in spring or autumn in a greenhouse and keep the compost moist until germination takes place. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame

Edible uses:  Leaves can be harvested as sprigs for use in cooking.

The leaves of cinnamon myrtle have a cinnamon-like aroma sweet aroma and flavour, and can be used as a spice in various dishes. It’s used in
savory recipes, deserts, confectionary and herbal teas.

The main essential oil isolate in cinnamon myrtle is elemicin, which is also a significant flavouring component in common nutmeg.

Cinnamon myrtle can also be used in floristry.

Medicinal Uses:
Not available in the internet

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Backhousia+myrtifolia
http://www.daleysfruit.com.au/CINNAMON-MYRTLE,–Backhousia-myrtifolia.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backhousia_myrtifolia

Cinnamomum loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon)

Botanical Name: Cinnamomum loureiroi
Family:    Lauraceae
Genus:    Cinnamomum
Species:C. loureiroi
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Laurales

Common Names: Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia.The scientific name was originally spelled as Cinnamomum loureirii, but because the species is named after the botanist João de Loureiro, this is to be treated under the ICN as an orthographic error for the correctly derived spelling of loureiroi.

English Name:    Saigon cinnamon
French Name:    Cannelle de Saïgon, Cannelle de Cochinchine
German Name:    Vietnamesischer Zimt, Saigon-Zimt
Vietnamese Name: Que, Que quì, Que thanh hoá
Habitat : Saigon cinnamon is indigenous to mainland Southeast Asia. Despite its name, it is more closely related to cassia (C. cassia) than to cinnamon (C. verum, “true cinnamon”, Ceylon cinnamon), though in the same genus as both. Saigon cinnamon has 1-5% essential oil in content and 25% cinnamaldehyde in essential oil, which is the highest of all the cinnamon species. Consequently, out of the three species, it commands the highest price.

Saigon cinnamon is produced primarily in Vietnam, both for domestic use and export. The Vietnam War disrupted production, but since the beginning of the early 21st century Vietnam has resumed export of the spice, including to the United States, where it was unavailable for nearly 20 years. Although it is called Saigon cinnamon, it is not produced in the area around the southern city of Saigon, but instead in the central and Central Highlands regions of the country, particularly the Qu?ng Ngai Province of central Vietnam.

Description:
Cinnamomum loureiroi is a small tree.The cinnamone is obtained by drying the central part of the bark and is marketed as stick cinnamon or in powdered form. The waste and other parts are used for oil of cinnamon, a medicine and flavoring. Cassia or Chinese cinnamon (C. cassia) was used in China long before true cinnamon. Though considered an inferior substitute for true cinnamon, the spice and oil derived from its bark and that of the related Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi) are more commonly sold as cinnamon than spice derived from C. verum bark, which is more delicately flavored. Cinnamon and cassia (often confused) have been favorite spices since biblical times, used also as perfume and incense. Cinnamon is classified in the division Magnoliophyta

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Saigon cinnamon or Cinnamomum loureiroi  is used primarily for its aromatic bark, which is quite similar to that of Cinnamomum aromaticum but with a more pronounced, complex aroma.

Edible Uses: In Vietnamese cuisine, Saigon cinnamon bark is an important ingredient in the broth used to make a noodle soup called ph?.

Principal Constituents.—A volatile oil (Oleum Cinnamomi), tannin, and sugars. (Oil of Cinnamon of medicine is Cassia Oil (Oleum Cassiae) derived from Cinnamomum Cassia (Nees), Blume.)

Medicinal Uses:
Cinnamon is an aromatic stimulant, carminative and astringent. Besides it possesses marked internal hemostatic power. That this is not wholly due to the tannin contained in the bark is shown by the prompt action of the tincture of the oil. Oil of Cinnamon has properties which make it nearly specific for certain conditions. While no tests have been made that convinces one of its power over germ-life, there seems to be no question that some such germicidal action is exerted by it in acute infections, as “common colds,” and as la grippe or epidemic influenza. Aromatic bodies, like cinnamon and camphor, have been overlooked in recent years, though the use of the latter has been revived as an antiseptic stimulant in pneumonia. That they possess antibacterial virtues we believe will be found true should investigations be made of them in that line. Cinnamon imparts a flavor to unpleasant medicines and may be used to preserve them from rapid changes. Medicines dispensed in but few drops in a half glass of water will not keep sweet long at any time and will quickly sour in summer time. A few drops of Specific Medicine Cinnamon added to such mixtures give an agreeable sweetness and aroma and will help the medicine to preserve its balance for several days. Children invariably like the flavor. Even cinnamon can be overdone, however. It should not be added day after day for a long period lest the stomach revolt and the taste recoil. Nor should much be put in mixtures for little children, for if overdone it smarts the mouth severely; nor should it be employed when the mouth is irritated or ulcerated. When too much has been added the oil of cinnamon separates and floats upon the surface, and if thus given it is decidedly irritant. If the medicine to which it has been added in over-amount is too valuable to throw away, the excess of cinnamon may be easily removed by lightly sweeping over the surface with a clean piece of bibulous paper-blotting paper or filter paper-or a firm, non-crumbling piece of bread.

Cinnamon is frequently employed as an ingredient of mixtures to restrain intestinal discharges, and the powder with or without chalk or bismuth, or its equivalent in infusion has long figured in the treatment of diarrhea and acute dysentery, though it does not equal in the latter condition other agents which we now use specifically. In diarrhea it should be used in small doses if of the acute type, and in large doses in chronic non-inflammatory and non-febrile forms. It warms the gastro-intestinal tract and dispels flatus, being decidedly useful as a carminative. It has the advantage of preventing griping when given with purgatives, and it enters into the composition of spice poultice, a useful adjuvant in the treatment of some forms of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Cinnamon has been proved in Eclectic practice to be a very important remedy in hemorrhages. It acts best in the passive forms. The type of hemorrhage most benefited is the post-partum variety, though here it has its limitations. If the uterus is empty and the hemorrhage is due to flaccidity of that organ due to lack of contraction, then it becomes an important agent. Then it strongly aids the action of ergot and should be alternated with it. If retained secundines are the provoking cause of the bleeding, little can be expected of this or any other agent until the offenders have been removed. Cinnamon should be frequently given, preferably a tincture of the oil, though an infusion might be useful, but it cannot be prepared quickly enough or be made of the desired strength. Specific Medicine Cinnamon is a preferred preparation. Oil of erigeron acts very well with it. In menorrhagia, even when due to fibroids and polypi, it has had the effect of intermittently checking the waste: but only a surgical operation is the rational course in such cases.

Other hemorrhages of a passive type are benefited by cinnamon. Thus we have found it a very important agent in hemoptysis of limited severity. In such cases we have added it to specific medicine ergot and furnished it to the patient to keep on hand as an emergency remedy. By having the medicine promptly at hand the patient becomes less agitated or frightened, and this contributes largely to the success of the treatment. Rest and absolute mental composure on the part of the patient and the administration of cinnamon have been promptly effective. If not equal to the emergency, then a small hypodermatic injection of morphine and atropine sulphates will usually check the bleeding. When used with ergot in pulmonary hemorrhage probably more relief comes from the cinnamon than from the ergot, for ergot alone is far less effective. We are told that ergot does not act as well in pulmonary bleeding as in other forms of hemorrhage because of the sparse musculature and poor vaso-motor control of the pulmonic vessels. But cinnamon has given results which have been entirely satisfactory. Hemorrhages from the stomach, bowels, and renal organs are often promptly checked by the timely administration of cinnamon.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/felter/cinnamomum.html
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cinnamon+plant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigon_Cinnamon

Cinnamomum burmannii

Botanical Name ; Cinnamomum burmannii
Family:    Lauraceae
Genus:    Cinnamomum
Species:C. burmannii
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Laurales

Common Names: Indonesian cinnamon, Padang cassia, or korintje,Cinnamon, Cassia vera

Habitat : Cinnamomum burmanii is native to Southeast Asia and Indonesia. It is normally found in West Sumatra and western Jambi province, with the Kerinci region being especially known as the center of production of quality, high essential-oil crops. C. burmanii grows in wet, tropical climates, and is an introduced species in parts of the subtropical world, particularly in Hawai?i, where it is naturalized and invasive. It was introduced to Hawai?i from Asia in 1934 as a crop plant.

Description:
Cinnamomum burmannii is an evergreen tree growing up to 7 m in height with aromatic bark and smooth, angular branches.The leaves are glossy green, oval, and about 10 cm (3.9 in) long and 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) wide. Small yellow flowers bloom in early summer, and produce a dark drupe.Fruit an ellipsoid berry, subtended by a small cupule that has the basal, truncate parts of tepals attached to the rim.
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It is one of several plants in the genus Cinnamomum whose bark is sold as the spice cinnamon. The most common and cheapest type of cinnamon in the US is made from powdered C. burmannii. Cinnamomum burmannii oil contains no eugenol. It is also sold as quills of one layer.

Edible Uses:
Cinnamomum burmannii is the source of the spice called Cassia, similar to cinnamon yet different. Cassia is the powder obtained from the bark of the tree.
At harvest, the bark is stripped off and put to dry in the sun, where it curls into a specific form called “quills.”

The quills are dried and cut into thin strips or ground into powder.Cassia is less costly than cinnamon and is often sold ground as cinnamon.
The difference between Cassia and cinnamon is that cinnamon is used for sweet dishes that are requiring a subtle flavor, while cassia is used for strong, spicy, main dishes such as curries and spicy meat dishes. Dried Cassia leaves are the Indian herb called “tejpat” and incorrectly called “bay leaves”. Cassia is also an ingredient in Chinese five-spice.

Cassia buds are often used in stewed fruits, especially apples and with mixed spices for pudding spice, pastry spice and mulling spices.

Chemical Constituents:     Cassia bark can contains up to 4% oils, as well as tannins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, resins, mucilage, gum, sugars, calcium oxalate, cinnzelanin, cinnzelanol, and coumarin.

Medicinal Uses:
The properties of Cassia and Cassia oil are similar to those of cinnamon. Cassia is a tonic, carminative and stimulant. It is used to treat nausea and flatulence. It is also used alone or in combination to treat diarrhea.

Known Hazards:    It has been noted by the German Commission E that some people are in fact allergic to cinnamon, with side effects ranging from an allergic skin reactions to mucosa. It is not recommended for medicinal uses during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=2799
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_burmannii
http://www.goldenneedleonline.com/Cinnamon-Cinnamomum-burmannii-Sticks-Organic.html

Cinnamomum tamala

Botanical Name :Cinnamomum tamala
Family:  Lauraceae
Genus:  Cinnamomum
Species:  C. tamala
Kingdom:  Plantae
Order:  Laurales

Common Names:Malabathrum, ( Hindi: Tej Patta ) or Indian bay leaf also known as Malobathrum or Malabar leaf

Habitat :Cinnamomum tamala is  native to the southern slopes of the Himalayas  and the mountains of North Eastern India, extending into Burma.

Description:
Cinnamon trees belong to a large genus of some 250 species, most of which are aromatic. True Cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon and the south-eastern coast of India, while the closely related Cassia is native to China. Cinnamon and Cassia are both small tropical evergreen trees that grow up to 20 – 30 feet tall, with aromatic bark and leaves. Young leaves employ a typical trick of tropical trees to make themselves look unappealing to predatory insects by assuming a limp, reddish appearance, as if wilting. Once they mature they perk up and darken to a deep green. The leaves are elongated ovate with a pointed tip, shiny and dark green on the upper surface, lighter below. The inconspicuous whitish flowers grow in panicles, which later develop into bluish berries. The bark is reddish brown and smooth.

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The leaves, known as tejpat in Nepali, t?japatt? or tejpatta  in Hindi, Tejpat in Assamese and tamalpatra in Marathi and in original Sanskrit, are used extensively in the cuisines of India, Nepal, and Bhutan, particularly in the Moghul cuisine of North India and Nepal and in Tsheringma herbal tea in Bhutan. It is called Biryani Aaku or Bagharakku in Telugu. They are often erroneously labeled as “Indian bay leaves,” or just “Bay leaf” though the bay leaf is from the Bay Laurel, a tree of Mediterranean origin in a different genus, and the appearance and aroma of the two are quite different. This may lead to confusion when following Indian or Pakistani recipes. Bay leaves are shorter and light to medium green in color, with one large vein down the length of the leaf;photo while tejpat are about twice as long and wider than laurel leaves. They are usually olive green in color, may have some brownish spots and have three veins down the length of the leaf.photo True tejpat leaves impart a strong cassia- or cinnamon-like aroma to dishes, while the bay leaf’s aroma is more reminiscent of pine and lemon. Indian grocery stores usually carry true tejpat leaves. Some grocers may only offer Turkish bay leaves, in regions where true tejpat is unavailable.

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Main constituents
In the essential oil from the leaves, mostly monoterpenoides were found: Linalool (50%) is the major compound, whereas ?-pinene, p-cymene, ?-pinene and limonene range around 5 to 10% each. Phenylpropanoids appear only in traces: Newer work reports 1% cinnamic aldehyde and no eugenol, whereas older literature speaks of traces of both compounds.

Edible Uses:
In Indian and Sri Lankan cooking Cinnamon is used as a common spice, not only for sweets, but also as an integral part of the spice mixture known as ‘curry powder’. It is frequently mixed with honey and taken as tea, though the British found it more to their taste to add rum and lemon to the brew. Cinnamon is also an essential ingredient of ‘Chai’, the Indian spice tea, which was long rumored to have aphrodisiac properties. Probably the warming and fortifying properties of the various spices it is comprised of helped to kindle passions, especially among the willing.

The bark is also sometimes used for cooking, although it is regarded as inferior to true cinnamon or cassia

Medicinal Uses:
Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal

Despite the fact that Cinnamon has such a longstanding history of use, it is not very commonly employed for medicinal purposes today outside its native homelands. However, recent studies have been showing some interesting effects, which may renew this ancient spice’s popularity.

The ancients were aware of the differences between Cinnamon and Cassia. Dioscurides clearly distinguishes between the two species and describes both in detail. He recommends Cassia as an eye remedy. He also says that when taken internally it will act as an anti-inflammatory and will stimulate menstruation. In a sitzbad it will help to open the uterus. Of Cinnamon he says that it stimulates the urinary tract and can be used for problems of the kidneys, edema and urinary retention. He also recommends it for cough and congestion of the respiratory system.

In Ayurvedic medicine Cinnamon oil is used in external applications for rheumatism, aching joints and stiffness. It is also used for toothache and sore gums, much like clove oil. Aryuveda makes use of Cinnamon for the same purposes as Disocorides recommends: as a decongestant for the respiratory tract and urinary problems. It is a good addition to teas for coughs and colds and is sometimes used in steam inhalations for respiratory conditions. In India it is used at the first sign of a cold to prevent it from taking hold fully.

The essential oil component of Cinnamon has anti-coagulant properties, which helps to thin blood and improves circulation. (Caution is advised for those already on blood thinning medication). It also exhibits anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. The anti-microbial action helps to preserve food and can be used in place of common food preservatives. It not only helps to prevent food spoilage by common bacteria, but also by yeasts. Cinnamon is one of the few herbs that can used to treat fungal growths like candida.

Cinnamon is a warming aromatic tonic that stimulates the digestive system and can help reduce cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Recent studies have found it to be quite effective for ‘metabolic syndrome’ a ‘pre’ stage of insulin resistant type 2 diabetes. As little as 2 teaspoons of the spice have shown a marked effect in people who were not on insulin medication. It achieves this effect by delaying emptying of the stomach content after a meal, which prevents blood sugar peaks. It also sensitizes insulin receptors and inhibits an enzyme that inactivates these receptors, thus making a significant impact on glucose uptake. This is great news as Cinnamon can so easily be added to foods and drinks as part of a normal diet.

Another study has shown that Cinnamon can have a beneficial effect on cognitive function. It was shown that people who used Cinnamon prior to test situations performed better than the control group. They also appeared to process new information better.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malabathrum
http://www.sacredearth.com/ethnobotany/plantprofiles/cinnamon.php
http://www.celtnet.org.uk/recipes/herb-entry.php?term=Malabathrum
http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Cinn_tam.html

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