Herbs & Plants

Tsuga canadensis

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Botanical Name : Tsuga canadensis
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Tsuga
Species: T. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms: Abies americana – Mill.,Pinus canadensis – L.

Common Names :Canadian hemlock, Pruche du Canada

Habitat :Tsuga canadensis is native to eastern North America. It ranges from northeastern Minnesota eastward through southern Quebec to Nova Scotia, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama. Scattered outlier populations occur in several areas east and west of the Appalachians. It is the state tree of Pennsylvania . Occurs in woods and swampy areas on cool moist sites, also in upland forests, often covering the north side of ridges.

Tsuga canadensis is an evergreen Tree .It grows well in shade and is very long lived, with the oldest recorded specimen being at least 554 years old. The tree generally reaches heights of about 31 meters (100 feet), but exceptional trees have been recorded up to 53 metres (173 feet).   The diameter of the trunk at breast height is often 1.5 metres (5 feet), but again, outstanding trees have been recorded up to 1.75 meters (6 feet). The trunk is usually straight and monopodial, but very rarely is forked. The crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and deeply fissured, especially with age. The twigs are a yellow-brown in colour with darker red-brown pulvini, and are densely pubescent. The buds are ovoid in shape and are very small, measuring only 1.5 to 2.5 mm (0.05 to 0.1 inches) in length. These are usually not resinous, but may be slightly so.

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The leaves are typically 15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.9 inches) in length, but may be as short as 5 mm (0.2 inches) or as long as 25 mm (1 inch). They are flattened and are typically distichous, or two-ranked. The bottom of the leaf is glaucous with two broad and clearly visible stomatal bands, while the top is a shiny green to yellow-green in colour. The leaf margins are very slightly toothed, especially near the apex.It is in¬† flower in May, and the seeds ripen from November to February. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. The seed cones are ovoid in shape and typically measure 1.5 to 2.5 cm (0.6 to 1 inch) in length and 1 to 1.5 cm (0.4 to 0.6 inches) in width. The scales are ovate to cuneate in shape and measure 8 to 12 mm (0.3 to 0.5 inches) in length by 7 to 10 mm (0.3 to 0.4 inches) in width. The apex is more or less rounded and is often projected outward. Twenty-four diploid chromosomes are present within the trees’ DNA

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.


An easily grown plant, it thrives best when growing in a deep well-drained soil in the western parts of Britain where it appreciates the higher rainfall. However, it succeeds in most soils and positions, being especially good on acidic sandy soils[81] but also tolerating some lime so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil. Plants are very shade tolerant when young, but need more sunlight as they grow older. Plants are thin and poor when grown in dry or exposed places. A slow-growing but long-lived species in the wild, with specimens nearly 1000 years old recorded. It is occasionally planted as a timber tree in Germany. It is very slow growing in cultivation for the first few years, it then grows more rapidly with annual shoots up to 60cm long. This rate of growth soon slows as the tree loses apical dominance and it becomes slow growing again. Seed production commences around the age of 20 – 40 years, with good crops produced every 3 – 4 years. The crushed foliage has a sweet lemony scent. Another report says that it emits the unpleasant smell of hemlock. Many named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Almost all of them are dwarf forms. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Seed Рit germinates better if given a short cold stratification  and so is best sown in a cold frame in autumn to late winter. It can also be sown in early spring, though it might not germinate until after the next winter. If there is sufficient seed, an outdoor sowing can be made in spring. Pot-grown seedlings are best potted up into individual pots once they are large enough to handle Рgrow them on in a cold frame and plant them out in early summer of the following year. Trees transplant well when they are up to 80cm tall, but they are best put in their final positions when they are about 30 Р45 cm or less tall, this is usually when they are about 5 Р8 years old. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Inner bark.

Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

Inner bark – raw or cooked. Usually harvested in the spring, it can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. The leaves and twigs yield ‘spruce oil’, used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc. A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips. These tips are also an ingredient of ‘spruce beer’.

Medicinal Uses:
Antipruritic; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Skin; Styptic.

Canadian hemlock was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent and antiseptic properties. The bark is rich in tannin and is astringent and antiseptic. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulitis and cystitis. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and sore throats. The poultice has also been applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there. The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains. A decoction of the inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions. The pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and rheumatism. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to treat infections on an infants navel. Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism.

Other Uses:
Basketry; Dye; Ground cover; Hedge; Resin; Rust; Tannin; Wood.

Yields a resin similar to Abies balsamea, it is gathered by incisions in the trunk or by boiling the wood. A pitch (called hemlock pitch), is obtained by distillation of the young branches. ‘Oil of Hemlock’ is distilled from the young branches according to another report. The bark contains 8 – 14% tannin. The inner bark is used according to one report. The inner bark has been used in making baskets. A red to brown dye is obtained from the bark. A red dye is obtained from the inner bark according to another report. A little rock dust has been added to act as a mordant when boiling the bark. The boiled bark has been used to make a wash to clean rust off iron and steel, and to prevent further rusting. Tolerant of light trimming, plants can be grown as a hedge. This species does not make a good hedge in Britain. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way. ‘Pendula’ is slow-growing but makes a very good cover. Wood – coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, brittle, not durable outdoors. Difficult to work because it splits easily. The wood weighs 26lb per cubic foot. The trees do not self-prune and so the wood contains numerous remarkably hard knots that can quickly dull the blade of an axe. A coarse lumber, it is used occasionally for the outside of buildings. It should be used with caution as a fuel for outdoor fires because it can project embers and burning wood several metres from the fire.

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The crushed foliage has a sweet lemony scent. Another report says that it emits the unpleasant smell of hemlock.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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