Tag Archives: Coca Cola

Kola Nuts

Botanical Name: Kola vera
Family:   Malvaceae
Genus :  Kola
Species:   K.vera
Kingdom :  Plantae
Order:   Malvales

Synonyms: Cola acuminata. Sterculia acuminata. Kola Seeds. Gurru Nuts. Bissy Nuts. Cola Seeds. Guru Nut.

Common NameKola Nuts

Parts Used: The seeds are the most commonly used parts of the kola nut tree for its commercial and medicinal purposes.
Habitat: Kola nut is native to W. Africa; this herb is cultivated extensively in the tropics particularly Nigeria, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and S. America. Though it is a native of tropical West Africa, but has been spread so much by man that today it is cultivated from Senegal to Nigeria.

Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Description:
The Kola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily of the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida. Cola acuminata, an evergreen tree about 20 metres in height, has long, ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends with a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds develop in a white seed-shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but it sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Kola nuts comprise about 2% caffeine, as well as containing kolanin and theobromine. All three chemicals function as stimulants

Cultivation:   Ripe fruits harvested before the follicles split open, the seeds or nuts are extracted from the follicles and the white aril removed after 5 days of fermentation. Yields of 300 nuts per tree are considered good. Nuts for planting are the mature ones that have undergone after-ripening. C. nitida can also be propagated by cuttings or aerial layering. The seedl
ings are sometimes raised in pots or in polythene bags before planting out. Field spacing of 10 x 10 m is common. Early weeding is essential and interplanting with a shade tree recommended. Initial growth is slow, reaching only 3 m in 4 years. Slashing the trunk of cola trees before the season of main flowering is believed to induce heavy bearing. Trees start flowering at 4-5 years and very few fruits can be obtained, but full production occurs in 20 years. Cola as an intercrop flowers later than the normal 4-5 years. Seed generally have recalcitrant storage behaviour. Seed can be retained for 1 year or more without loss in viability with seeds wrapped in banana leaves in a basket, or with polythene bags, at room temperature. Nuts may be thus stored for several months without spoiling but will require regular changing of the leaves and checking for weevil damage.

Constituents:    The different varieties of nuts give a greater or lesser percentage of caffeine, which is only found in the fresh state. The seeds are said to contain a glucoside, Kolanin, but this substance appears to be a mixture of Kola red and caffeine. The seeds also contain starch, fatty matter, sugar, a fat decomposing enzyme acting on various oils.

Medicinal   Uses: The properties of Kola are the same as caffeine, modified only by the astringents present. Fresh Kola Nuts have stimulant action apart from the caffeine content, but as they appear in European commerce, their action is indistinguishable from that of other caffeine drugs and Kola red is inert. Kola is also a valuable nervine, heart tonic, and a good general tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_nut
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/k/kolanu10.html
http://www.findyourfate.com/astrology/plants/trees/kola-nut.html

Cola acuminata

Botanical Name : Cola acuminata
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Cola
Species: C. acuminata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names :Local name:
Cola is called differently by different tribes:

Tribe Ewondo call it Abeu and tribe Boulou call it Abel

Habitat :Cola acuminata is native to Democratic Republic of Congo.Grows in the forest areas.

Description:
Cola acuminata is an evergreen tree of about 20 meters in height. Its germination can reach 2 to 3 months at a fast rate, and has long and ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends that have a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds can be found in a white seed shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species.

click to see the pictures…>....(01)...(1).…….(2)..(3)....(4).

Cultivation:
Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Regular weeding is a must and this can either be done manually or by using herbicides. Some irrigation can be provided to the plants, but it is important to remove the water through an effective drainage system as excess water may prove to be detrimental for the growth of the plant. When not grown in adequate shade, the kola nut plant responds well to fertilizers. Usually, the plants need to be provided with windbreaks to protect them from strong gales.

Harvesting and storage: Kola nuts can be harvested by hand, by plucking it at the tree branch. Like in western countries and other countries of the world, it has been harvested by the use of harvesters. When kept in a cold and dry place, Kola nut can be stored for a long time.

Propagation: Usually by seed, although cuttings are sometimes used. Trees will bear in 7-10 years from seed.

Chemical constituents of kola nut:
*caffeine (2–3.5%)
*theobromine (1.0–2.5%)
*theophylline
*phenolics
*phlobaphens (kola red)
*epicatechin
*D-catechin
*tannic acid
*sugar
*cellulose
*water

Medicinal Uses:
Kola nut stimulates the central nervous system and the body as a whole.  It increases alertness and muscular strength, counters lethargy, and has been used extensively both in western African and Anglo-American herbal medicine as an antidepressant, particularly during recovery from chronic illness.  Like coffee, kola is used to treat headaches and migraine.  It is diuretic and astringent and may be taken for diarrhea and dysentery.  It will aid in states of depression and may in some people give rise to euphoric states.  Through the stimulation it will be a valuable part of the treatment for anorexia.  It can be viewed as specific in cases of depression associated with weakness and debility.

Other Uses:
In addition to its medicinal value, Cola plays a significant social role in Cameroon. Among Moslems from the north, Cola is sacred. In other communities, in particular the Bamiléké, Cola is a sign of love and friendship. Furthermore, Cola is consumed in ceremonies in particular dowry ceremonies, ‘tontines’, funerals, wake-keepings, etc. Some people consume Cola to reduce tiredness, hunger and to stay awake. Others consume it for its stimulant effect. Cola from the north is also used to tint clothing. Cola is also used in breweries (Nkongmeneck, 1985).

Kola nuts are perhaps best known to Western culture as a flavouring ingredient and one of the sources of caffeine in cola and other similarly flavoured beverages, although the use of kola (or kola flavoring) in commercial cola drinks has become uncommon. However, recently the use of Kola nut has been reintroduced, most notably in Whole Foods Market 365 Cola  as part of their trend to use natural rather than artificial ingredients. It is also used in Barr’s Red Kola, Red Bull’s new Simply Cola, Harboe Original Taste Cola, Foxon Park Kola, Blue Sky Organic Cola, Sprecher’s Puma Kola, Virgil’s Real Cola, Hansen’s Natural Original Cola, and Cricket Cola, and formerly in Royal Crown Premium. In Barbados the Kola nut is made into a sweet drink known as Clayton’s Kola Tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola_acuminata
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_nut
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/factsheet/Cola_eng.pdf
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/cola_nut.htm
http://www.britannica.hk/botany/kola-nut-369346.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Coke’s New ‘Healthy Front’ May Be Just a Big Bluff

Diet Coke and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health have joined forces to raise awareness about women’s risk of heart disease. Diet Coke’s Red Dress Program will take center stage at high-profile events.

……..

The Center for Science in the Public Interest points out that Coca-Cola, whose products are not exactly heart healthy, is a strange partner for the NHLBI.

Are such partnerships a benign win-win? History suggests otherwise.

In 1984, Kellogg cooked up a partnership with the National Cancer Institute to put health claims for fiber on the boxes of All-Bran cereals. In doing so, Kellogg (and NCI) went around the FDA and undermined that agency’s control over health claims on food packages — leading to problems that the agency is still struggling to fix.

Source: Food Politics February 17, 2010

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Fizzy Drinks Can Damage Liver

Just two cans of fizzy drink a day can increase risk of liver damage by 80 per cent.
………………….Drinking Fruit juice

Health risk: Just two glasses of fruit juice each day can increase the chance of developing fatty liver disease by up to 80 per cent

Drinking just two glasses of fruit juice or fizzy drink each day may cause long-term liver damage resulting in the need for a transplant, according to new research published today.
Liver damage is usually associated with alcohol abuse but a new study has found that drinks with a high sugar content can cause a condition called fatty liver disease, making them even more dangerous than alcohol abuse.

Israeli scientists found that people who drank a litre of high-sugar fizzy drinks or fresh fruit juice each day were five times more likely to develop fatty liver disease

They found that even a couple of cans of beverages such as Coca Cola raised the risk of liver damage, as well as diabetes and heart damage.
Doctors at the Ziv Liver unit in Haifa, Israel compared two groups of volunteers, neither of which had a risk of developing fatty liver disease.
The results at the end of the study showed that 80 per cent of those who had consumed high-sugar fizzy drinks and fruit juices had fatty liver changes, while only 17 per cent of the control group – who had not been drinking sugary beverages – developed fatty livers.
More…Alcohol fuels rising rates of oral cancer in middle age
Always look on the bright side of life… it could help fend off a heart attack

Dr Nimer Assy who lead the study said the research showed that long-term consumption of high-sugar beverages could result in liver failure and the need for a transplant.
He explained that freshly-squeezed fruit juices could be as dangerous as highly sweetened carbonated soda.
‘The ingredient in fizzy drinks and juices that causes the damage is a fruit sugar called fructose, which is highly absorbable in the liver,’ he said.

‘It does not affect insulin production and goes straight to the liver where it is converted to fat.

‘Fructose increases the chances of suffering from a fatty liver, which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.’
The father-of-five, who confessed to letting his own children drink Coca Cola recommended that parents limit their children’s intake of sweetened beverages to no more than one cup, juice box or can each day.
He added that parents should replace the juice in their children’s lunch boxes with a bottle of water.
To reap the maximum benefit from fruit, and to avoid the risk of liver damage, Dr Assy suggested eating the fruit whole: ‘Whole oranges have fibre that prevents fructose from being absorbed into the liver,’ he explained.
Dr Assy’s study was inspired by patients with fatty liver disease at his clinic: ‘We have noticed recently that there are many patients coming to the clinic with fatty infiltration of the liver.
‘Usually the risk factor is for people with obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse, but we noticed some people without these pre-conditions could have fatty liver.’
Dr Assy said that even diet drinks containing artificial sweeteners were not without risk.
‘While diet drinks do not contain fructose, they do have aspartame and caramel colourants – both these can increase insulin resistance and may induce fatty liver,’ he said.
Imogen Shillito, the British Liver Trust’s Director of Information and Education said: ‘We’re very concerned that the rising tide of obesity is putting people’s liver health at risk. Fatty liver disease in the UK is set to get worse with the rising rates of obesity.

‘This research highlights that people should watch their sugar intake as well as their alcohol intake in their drinks to avoid liver damage and reduce the risk of liver cancer.

You may click to see:->
Alcohol fuels rising rates of oral cancer in middle age
Always look on the bright side of life… it could help fend off a heart attack

Women warned to stop drinking cola to avoid brittle bones

‘A healthy diet, including fresh fruit and regular exercise, will help reduce your risk of developing fatty liver disease.


Source
:MailOnline: 9th. Aug.2009

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