According to a new study published in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research, scientists believe they are getting closer to developing a urine test for colon cancer, which is the third most common cancer in the U.S.
The researchers are hopeful that these new findings will one day offer alternative testing for colon cancer, negating the need for an invasive colonoscopy. Scientists analyzed the urine of 123 patients, 60 of which who had colon cancer, and 63 without.
Scientists were able to identify 16 substances in the urine that indicated the patient had colon cancer. It was noted that these changes included increased levels of tryptophan, which is one of 22 amino acids that are typically found in proteins.
Drinking milk ‘cuts risk of dying from heart disease and stroke by one fifth’..say Scientists
Contrary to reports that milk harms health, they claim consumption could reduce the risk of succumbing to chronic illness by as much as a fifth.
Scientists at Reading and Cardiff universities reviewed 324 studies on the effects of milk consumption.
CLICK & SEE Healthy stuff: Drinking just a third of a pint of milk daily can benefit health.
They found milk protects against developing most diseases, apart from prostate cancer, and can cut deaths from illnesses by 15 to 20 per cent. Reading University‘s Professor Ian Givens said milk had more to offer than just building strong bones and helping growth.
‘Our review made it possible to assess whether increased milk consumption provides a survival advantage or not,’ he said. ‘We believe it does.
‘When the numbers of deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke and colo-rectal cancer were taken into account, there is strong evidence of an overall reduction in the risk of dying.
‘We found no evidence milk might increase the risk of developing conditions, with the exception of prostate cancer. ‘
The White Stuff: Milk doesn’t just build healthy bones
The reviewers say that encouraging greater milk consumption might eventually reduce NHS treatment costs because of lower levels of chronic disease.
‘There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms involved and for focused studies to confirm the epidemiological evidence since this topic has major implications for the agri-food industry‘ said Professor Givens.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the sigmoid(the lower portion of the large intestine) colon and rectum. Flexible sigmoidoscopy can detect inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, and ulcers. The procedure is used to look for early signs of cancer and can help doctors diagnose unexplained changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, bleeding from the anus, and weight loss.
. The endoscope used for this test is about a half-inch wide and long enough to reach about two feet into the colon. A sigmoidoscopy can detect early cancers as well as polyps that could later become cancerous.
Sigmoidoscopy is an effective screening test for colon cancer if you have the procedure done every five years starting at age 50. Alternatively, you might choose to have a colonoscopy every 10 years to screen for colon cancer. In either case, it’s wise to have a fecal occult blood test in the years you don’t have a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. A sigmoidoscopy is also useful for evaluating the cause of abdominal pain, blood in the stool, constipation, and diarrhea.
What are the sigmoid colon and rectum?
The sigmoid colon is the last one-third of the colon. The colon comprises three main parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, and the sigmoid colon—sometimes called the descending colon. The colon absorbs nutrients and water and forms stool.
CLICK & SEE The sigmoid colon is the last one-third of the colon.
The rectum is about 6 inches long and connects the sigmoid colon to the anus. Stool leaves the body through the anus. Muscles and nerves in the rectum and anus control bowel movements.
Difference between flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy:
Flexible sigmoidoscopy enables the doctor to see only the sigmoid colon, whereas colonoscopy allows the doctor to see the entire colon. Colonoscopy is the preferred screening method for cancers of the colon and rectum; however, to prepare for and perform a flexible sigmoidoscopy usually requires less time.
How to Prepare for a Flexible Sigmoidoscopy:
To prepare for a flexible sigmoidoscopy, one or more enemas are performed about 2 hours before the procedure to remove all solids from the sigmoid colon. An enema is performed by flushing water, laxative, or sometimes a mild soap solution into the anus using a special wash bottle.
In some cases, the entire gastrointestinal tract must be emptied by following a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the procedure—similar to the preparation for colonoscopy. Patients should not drink beverages containing red or purple dye. Acceptable liquids include
*fat-free bouillon or broth
*strained fruit juice
*sports drinks, such as Gatorade
A laxative or an enema may also be required the night before a flexible sigmoidoscopy. A laxative is medicine that loosens stool and increases bowel movements. Laxatives are usually swallowed in pill form or as a powder dissolved in water.
Patients should inform their doctor of all medical conditions and any medications, vitamins, or supplements taken regularly, including
*vitamins that contain iron
What happens when the test is performed?
You wear a hospital gown for the procedure and lie on your side on a table. After applying some clear jelly to his or her gloved hand, the doctor feels the inside of your rectum with a finger, then gently inserts one end of the sigmoidoscope inside.
The doctor will fill your intestine with air, which often causes some pain similar to the cramping you might get when you have gas. As the camera on the scope transmits pictures to a video screen, your doctor watches for any suspicious lesions on your bowel lining. If one appears, he or she might use some small clippers on the end of the scope to take a tissue sample to check under the microscope. When the test is finished, the doctor vacuums the air out of your intestine and slowly removes the tube. The test usually takes 10-30 minutes.
How is a flexible sigmoidoscopy performed?
Examination of the Sigmoid Colon:
During a flexible sigmoidoscopy, patients lie on their left side on an examination table. The doctor inserts a long, flexible, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope, or scope, into the anus and slowly guides it through the rectum and into the sigmoid colon. The scope inflates the colon with air to give the doctor a better view. A small camera mounted on the scope transmits a video image from inside the colon to a computer screen, allowing the doctor to carefully examine the tissues lining the sigmoid colon and rectum. The doctor may ask the patient to move periodically so the scope can be adjusted for better viewing.
When the scope reaches the transverse colon, the scope is slowly withdrawn while the lining of the colon is carefully examined again.
The risks are minimal. The chance of perforation is less than for a colonoscopy. A few people have a small amount of bleeding after the procedure if a biopsy has been taken.
Must you do anything special after the test is over?
You should feel fine and be able to return to your regular activities immediately after the test. Call your doctor if you have more than light bleeding from the rectum or if you have continuing abdominal pain
Biopsy and Removal of Colon Polyps
The doctor can remove growths, called polyps, during flexible sigmoidoscopy using special tools passed through the scope. Polyps are common in adults and are usually harmless. However, most colon cancer begins as a polyp, so removing polyps early is an effective way to prevent cancer. If bleeding occurs, the doctor can usually stop it with an electrical probe or special medications passed through the scope.
During a flexible sigmoidoscopy, the doctor can also take samples from abnormal-looking tissues. Called a biopsy, this procedure allows the doctor to later look at the tissue with a microscope for signs of disease.
Tissue removal and the treatments to stop bleeding are usually painless. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, the doctor may suggest examining the rest of the colon with a colonoscopy.
A flexible sigmoidoscopy takes about 20 minutes. Cramping or bloating may occur during the first hour after the procedure. Bleeding and puncture of the large intestine are possible but uncommon complications. Discharge instructions should be carefully read and followed.
Patients who develop any of these rare side effects should contact their doctor immediately:-
*severe abdominal pain
*bloody bowel movements
Points to Remember
*Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum.
*One or more enemas are performed about 2 hours before the procedure to remove all solids from the sigmoid colon.
*In some cases, the entire gastrointestinal tract must be emptied—similar to the preparation for colonoscopy.
*A sigmoidoscope transmits a video image from inside the colon to a computer screen.
*A doctor can biopsy abnormal-looking tissues during a flexible sigmoidoscopy.
*Polyps can be removed using special tools passed through the sigmoidoscope.
*If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, the doctor may suggest examining the rest of the colon with a colonoscopy.
*A flexible sigmoidoscopy takes about 20 minutes.
Hope through Research
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases conducts and supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders.
Participants in clinical trials can play a more active role in their own health care, gain access to new research treatments before they are widely available, and help others by contributing to medical research. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.
For More Information
Fact sheets about other diagnostic tests are available from the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse at www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov, including
This writing might “stink” a little, but this information might serve as an important revelation to many particularly for elderly and persons with contineus stomac problem!
Human poops or stools, is the waste product of the human digestive system and varies significantly in appearance, depending on the state of the whole digestive system, influenced and found by diet and health.
Normally stools are semisolid, with a mucus coating. Small pieces of harder, less moist feces can sometimes be seen impacted on the distal (leading) end. This is a normal occurrence when a prior bowel movement is incomplete; and feces are returned from the rectum to the intestine, where water is absorbed.
Meconium (sometimes erroneously spelled merconium) is a newborn baby’s first feces. Human feces are a defining subject of humor.
Some persons have bloody stools on and off, usually accompanied by a sight tinch of discomfort. Many times, this doesn’t appear as a threat or danger to them as they often regard it as constipation though they may be passionate lover of fruits and vegetables. This might go on for some time until one day, bloody stools became really “bloody” and the pain became increasingly painful. Alarmed and paranoid, they call their dear ones who will recommend to see the doctor over at his or her clinic.
Now let us see What Does an Ideal Bowel Movement Look Like?
Alternative practitioners often ask clients about their stool as part of their assessment. Find out what normal stool should look like, and learn about the causes of green stool, pale stool, yellow stool, blood in stool, mucus in stool, pencil thin stool, infrequent stool, and more.
What Does an Ideal [amazon_textlink asin=’B001U1UKOO’ text=’Bowel Movement’ template=’ProductLink’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’5c1f8c56-ee7e-11e6-87a4-8d88514c5f8b’]
An ideal bowel movement is medium brown, the color of plain cardboard. It leaves the body easily with no straining or discomfort. It should have the consistency of toothpaste, and be approximately 4 to 8 inches long. Stool should enter the water smoothly and slowly fall once it reaches the water. There should be little gas or odor.
Stool That Sinks Quickly
Rapidly sinking stool can indicate that a person isn’t eating enough fiber-rich foods, such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, or drinking enough water. This stool is often dark because they have been sitting in the intestines for a prolonged time. Click to learn 5 tips to boost your water intake.
Stool that is pale or grey may be caused by insufficient bile output due to conditions such as cholecystitis, gallstones, giardia parasitic infection, hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, or cirrhosis. Bile salts from the liver give stool its brownish color. If there is decreased bile output, stool is much lighter in color.
Other causes of pale stool is the use of antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide. Stool may also temporarily become pale after a barium enema test.
Pale stool may also be shiny or greasy, float, and be foul smelling, due to undigested fat in the stool (see soft and smelly stool).
Other symptoms of spleen qi deficiency are: easy bruising, mental fogginess, bloating, gas, loose stools, fatigue, poor appetite, loose stools with little odor, symptoms that worsen with stress, undigested food in the stools, and difficulty ending the bowel movement. Spleen qi deficiency can be brought on by stress and overwork.
Eating certain foods in excess is thought to worsen spleen qi deficiency. Offending foods include fried or greasy foods, dairy, raw fruits and vegetables, and cold drinks, all believed to cause “cold” and “dampness” in the body. Dietary treatment of spleen qi deficiency involves eating warm, cooked foods. Ginger tea and cinnamon tea are also warming.
Pencil thin stool can also be caused by a bowel obstruction. Benign rectal polyps, prostate enlargement, colon or prostate cancer are some of the conditions that can cause obstruction.
Yellow stool can indicate that food is passing through the digestive tract relatively quickly. Yellow stool can be found in people with GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). Symptoms of GERD include heartburn, chest pain, sore throat, chronic cough, and wheezing. Symptoms are usually worse when lying down or bending. Foods that can worsen GERD symptoms include peppermint, fatty foods, alcohol, coffee, and chocolate.
Yellow stool can also result from insuffient bile output. Bile salts from the liver gives stool its brownish color. When bile output is diminished, it often first appears as yellow stool. If there is a greater reduction in bile output, stool lose almost all of its color, becoming pale or grey.
If the onset is sudden, yellow stool can also be a sign of a bacterial infection in the intestines.
Yellowing of stool can be caused by an infection known as Giardiasis, which derives its name from Giardia, an anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasite that can cause severe and communicable yellow diarrhea. Another cause of yellowing is a condition known as Gilbert’s Syndrome. This condition is characterized by jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia when too much bilirubin is present in the circulating blood.
Stool that is almost black with a thick consistency may be caused by bleeding in the upper digestive tract. The most common medical conditions that cause dark, tar-like stool includes duodenal or gastric ulcer, esophageal varices, Mallory Weiss tear (which can be linked with alcoholism), and gastritis.
Certain foods, supplements, and medications can temporarily turn stool black. These include:
*Bismuth (e.g. Pepto bismol)
*Aspirin and NSAIDS (which can cause bleeding in the stomach)
*Dark foods such as black licorice and blueberries
Stool can be black due to the presence of red blood cells that have been in the intestines long enough to be broken down by digestive enzymes. This is known as melena (or melaena), and is typically due to bleeding in the upper digestive tract, such as from a bleeding peptic ulcer. The same color change (albeit harmless) can be observed after consuming foods that contain substantial proportion of animal bloods, such as Black pudding or Ti?t canh. The black color is caused by oxidation of the iron in the blood’s hemoglobin (haemoglobin). Black feces can also be caused by a number of medications, such as bismuth subsalicylate, and dietary iron supplements, or foods such as black liquorice, or blueberries. Hematochezia (also haemochezia or haematochezia) is similarly the passage of feces that are bright red due to the presence of undigested blood, either from lower in the digestive tract, or from a more active source in the upper digestive tract. Alcoholism can also provoke abnormalities in the path of blood throughout the body, including the passing of red-black stool.
Dark stool can also occur with constipation.
If you experience this type of stool, you should see your doctor as soon as possible.
Prussian blue, used in the treatment of radiation cesium and thallium poisoning, can turn the feces blue. Also, substantial consumption of products containing blue food dye (things such as blue koolaid or grape soda)
Bright Red Stool
When there is blood in stool, the color depends on where it is in the digestive tract. Blood from the upper part of the digestive tract, such as the stomach, will look dark by the time it reaches exits the body as a bowel movement. Blood that is bright or dark red, on the other hand, is more likely to come from the large intestine or rectum.
Eating beets can also temporarily turn stools and urine red.
Blood in stool doesn’t always appear bright red. Blood may be also present in stool but not visible, called “occult” blood. A test called the Fecal Occult Blood Test is used to detect hidden blood in stool.
A tarnished-silver or aluminum paint-like stool color characteristically results when biliary obstruction of any type (white stool) combines with gastrointestinal bleeding from any source (black stool). It can also suggest a carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, which will result in gastrointestinal bleeding and biliary obstruction, resulting in silver stool.
How the test is performed:
First, the health care provider performs a digital rectal exam by inserting a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to determine if anything will block the insertion of the scope.
He or she then inserts a lubricated metal or plastic anoscope a few inches into the rectum. This enlarges the rectum to allow the health care provider to view the entire anal canal using a light. A specimen for biopsy can be taken if needed. As the scope is slowly removed, the lining of the anal canal is carefully inspected.
How to prepare for the test:
Before the test, you might want to empty your bladder or have a bowel movement to make yourself more comfortable.
You will be asked to defecate to clear your rectum of stool before the procedure. A laxative, enema, or other preparation may be administered to help clear your rectum.
Infants and children:
A child’s age and experience determine which steps are appropriate to help prepare him or her for this procedure. For specific recommendations, refer to the following topics:
*Infant test or procedure preparation (birth to 1 year)
*Toddler test or procedure preparation (1 to 3 years)
*Preschooler test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years)
*Schoolage test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 years)
*Adolescent test or procedure preparation (12 to 18 years)
What happens when the test is performed?
This test is usually done in a doctor’s office. You need to remove your underwear. Depending on what the doctor prefers, you either lie on your side on top of an examining table, with your knees bent up to your chest, or bend forward over the table. The anoscope is 3 to 4 inches long and the width of an average-to-large bowel movement. The doctor coats the anoscope with a lubricant and then gently pushes it into your anus and rectum. The doctor may ask you to “bear down” or push as if you were going to have a bowel movement, and then relax. This helps the doctor insert the anoscope more easily and identify any bulges along the lining of the rectum.
By shining a light into this tube, your doctor has a clear view of the lining of your lower rectum and anus. When the test is finished, the anoscope then is pulled out slowly.
You will feel pressure during the examination, and the anoscope will make you feel as if you are about to have a bowel movement. Do not be alarmed by this sensation; it is normal. Most patients do not feel pain from anoscopy.
How the test will feel:
There will be some pressure during the procedure, and you may feel the need to defecate. If biopsies are taken, you may feel a pinch.
There are no significant risks from anoscopy. Sometimes, especially if you have hemorrhoids, you may have a small amount of bleeding after the anoscope is pulled out.
Must you do anything special after the test is over?
You can return to your normal activities immediately after the test.
How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Your doctor can tell you about your anoscopy exam right away.