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Herbs & Plants

Viburnum edule

Botanical Name : Viburnum edule
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species: V. edule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonym(s): Viburnum pauciflorum,V. opulus edule. V. opulus pauciflorum. V. pauciflorum.

Common Names: Mooseberry, Squashberry,  Pimbina, Highbush cranberry, Lowbush cranberr  Moosomin, Moosewood viburnum, Few-flowered cranberry bush

Habitat :Viburnum edule is native to E. Asia. Eastern N. America. It grows in woods, thickets and cool mountain slopes.

Description:
Viburnum edules is a perennial traggling to erect deciduous Shrub, 2-7 ft. tall, with smooth, leafy branches. Leaves are sometimes 3-lobed and always palmately veined. White flowers occur in dense, broad, flat-topped clusters on short branches. The fruit is yellow, becoming red or orange in late fall. Straggly shrub with opposite, 3-lobed leaves and sour, edible red berries...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Except in fall, when this plant adds a vivid splash of color to northern forests, Moosewood Viburnum is often overlooked, being rather straggly in appearance. There are more than 100 species of viburnum in the world, 15 of which occur in North America, primarily in the northern latitudes.
It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile…..

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a slightly acidic soil. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are possibly self-incompatible and may need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Closely allied to V. opulus, but this species has no sterile flowers in the inflorescence and is a superior fruiting form.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. The fully ripe fruits are mildly acid with a pleasant taste. The ovoid fruit is about 8mm long and contains a single large seed. The fruit can also be dried for winter use. It is highly valued for jam. It is best before a frost and with the skin removed. Another report says that the native Americans would often not harvest the fruit until it had been frosted. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – used in fritters.

Medicinal Uses:
Antispasmodic; Astringent; Odontalgic; Salve.

The bark is antispasmodic and astringent. An infusion of the crushed inner bark has been used in the treatment of dysentery and has also been used as a purgative. The bark has been chewed and the juice swallowed in the treatment of whooping cough and ‘cold on the lungs’. A decoction of the stems has been used in the treatment of coughs. An infusion of the leaves and stems has been used as a gargle in the treatment of sore throats. The twig tips have been chewed and the juice swallowed in the treatment of sore throats. A poultice of the chewed, unopened flower buds has been applied to lip sores. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat sickness associated with teething.

Other Uses: Basket making…..The stems have been used to reinforce birch bark basket rims.

Known Hazards: Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, it is closely related to V. opulus, the raw fruit of which can cause nausea in some people if it is eaten in large quantities, although the cooked fruit is perfectly alright.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_edule
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=VIED
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+edule

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Herbs & Plants

Abronia fragrans

Botanical Name : Abronia fragrans
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Genus: Abronia
Species:A. fragrans
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Caryophyllales

Common Names: Snowball Sand Verbena, Sweet sand-verbena, Prairie snowball, Fragrant verbena

Habitat : The native range of sweet sand-verbena extends from Northern Arizona to western Texas and Oklahoma north through the Rocky Mountain and western plains regions of the United States and south to Chihuahua, Mexico. Sweet sand-verbena occurs in prairies, plains, and savannas where it can be found growing in loose, dry, sandy soils.

Description:
Abronia fragrans, Sweet sand-verbena, is an herbaceous perennial with an upright or sprawling growth habit, reaching 8-40 inches (about 20–102 cm). It grows from a taproot with sticky, hairy stems growing from 7.1 inches to 3.3 feet (18–100 cm) long.

The flowers consist of 4 to 5 petaloid sepals and sepaloid bracts with a tubular corolla borne in clusters of 25 to 80 at the ends of stems. The blossoms are usually white but may be green-, lavender-, or pink-tinged. The sticky leaves are simple and opposite, up to 3.5″ (8.89 cm) long and 1.2″ (3 cm) wide, and elliptical or linear. The fruits are egg-shaped achenes about 0.1″ (.25 cm) long, lustrous, and black or brown. The achene is enclosed within a leathery top-shaped calyx base which may or may not be winged.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers of this plant open in the evening and close again in the morning, a habit which gives the Nyctaginaceae family its common name of Four O’clocks. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Prefers a light well-drained sandy soil in full sun. This species is not very hardy in Britain, though it should succeed outdoors in the southern part of the country, especially if given a warm sheltered site. The flowers are produced in terminal clusters, they only open in the coolness of the evening, diffusing a vanilla-like perfume. Seed is rarely ripened on plants growing in Britain.
Propagation:
Seed – sow autumn or early spring very shallowly in pots of sandy soil in a greenhouse. Germination can be very slow unless you peel off the outer skin and pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 2 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Seedlings are prone to damp off and so should be kept well-ventilated[200]. Plant out in late spring, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings in spring, rooted in sand.
Edible Uses:
Root – cooked. Dried then ground into a powder and mixed with corn. Use of the root was said by some North American Indian tribes to give one a good appetite and make them fat.The Acoma and the Laguna mix the ground roots with cornmeal and eat the mixture as food.

Medicinal Uses:

Cathartic; Diaphoretic; Emetic.

The plant is cathartic, diaphoretic and emetic. The roots and flowers were used by the North American Indians to treat stomach cramps and as a general panacea or ‘life’ medicine. A cold infusion was used as a lotion for sores or sore mouths and also to bathe perspiring feet.
The Ute use as a roots and flowers for stomach and bowel troubles, whereas the Zuni use the fresh flowers alone for stomachaches.
The Indigenous peoples of the Southwest use the plant as a wash for sores and insect bites, to treat stomachache, and as an appetite booster. Among the Navajo, it is used medicinally for boils and taken internally when a spider was swallowed. The Kayenta Navajo use it as a cathartic, for insect bites, as a sudorific, as an emetic, for stomach cramps, and as a general panacea. The Ramah Navajo use it as a lotion for sores or sore mouth and to bathe perspiring feet.
The Keres mix ground roots of the plant with corn flour, and eat to gain weight.
Other Uses: Sweet sand-verbena is grown in gardens for its attractive blossoms and fragrance, and to attract butterflies.The Keres mix ground roots of the plant with corn flour and use this mixture to keep from becoming greedy, and they make ceremonial necklaces from the plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abronia+fragrans
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abronia_fragrans

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Herbs & Plants

Atriplex canescens

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Botanical Name: Atriplex canescens
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Atriplex
Species: A. canescens
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Common Names :Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Chamiso, Chamiza, Four wing saltbush, Four-wing saltbush, and Fourwing saltbush

Habitat : Atriplex canescens is native to Central and southwestern N. America – South Dakota to Kansas, Texas, California and Mexico. ISandy or gravelly, commonly non-saline but in other situations obviously saline, sites in Joshua tree, blackbrush, greasewood, salt desert shrub, sagebrush, mountain brush communitiest grows on the
Descrition:
Atriplex canescens is an evergreen Shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 1.8 m (6ft). It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan. It blooms in July and the seeds ripen in August. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Atriplex canescens has a highly variable form, and readily hybridizes with several other species in the Atriplex genus. The degree of polyploidy also results in variations in form. Its height can vary from 1 foot to 10 feet, but 2 to 4 feet is most common. The leaves are thin and 0.5 to 2 inches long.

It is most readily identified by its fruits, which have four wings at roughly 90 degree angles and are densely packed on long stems.

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Requires a position in full sun in any well-drained but not too fertile soil. Tolerates saline and very alkaline soils. Plants are very tolerant of maritime exposure, though they dislike wet climates. Resents root disturbance when large. Succeeds in a hot dry position. A very ornamental plan, though it is liable to succumb to winter wet when grown on heavy or rich soils. This species forms hybrids with Atriplex confertifolia and A. gardneri. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Occasional monoecious plants are found. Individual plants can change sex. The change is more generally from female to male and is apparently associated with stress such as cold or drought. It would appear that the change confers a survival advantage on the plant.
Propagation:
Seed – sow April/May in a cold frame in a compost of peat and sand. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 weeks at 13°c. Pot up the seedlings when still small into individual pots, grow on in a greenhouse for the first winter and plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a very sandy compost in a frame. Very easy. Pot up as soon as they start to root (about 3 weeks) and plant out in their permanent positions late in the following spring. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, November/December in a frame. Very easy. Pot up in early spring and plant out in their permanent position in early summer

Edible Uses:
Leaves – cooked or raw. A very acceptable taste with a salty tang. The leaves can be used at any time of the year though winter harvesting must be light because the plant is not growing much at this time of year. Seed – cooked. Ground into a powder, mixed with cereals and used in making cakes etc or used as a piñole. It is small and very fiddly to utilize. The ground up seed can also be mixed with water and drunk as a refreshing beverage. The burnt green herb yields culinary ashes high in minerals and these are used by the Hopi Indians to enhance the colour of blue corn products. The ashes can be used like baking soda.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves can be made into a soapy lather and used as a wash on itches and rashes such as chickenpox. A poultice of the crushed leaves can be applied to ant bites to reduce the pain and swelling. The dried tops as a lukewarm tea for nausea and vomiting from the flu; taken hot for breaking fevers. The cold tea is used for simple stomachache.Among the Zuni people, an infusion of dried root and blossoms or a poultice of blossoms is used for ant bites.

Other Uses:
A good hedge in maritime areas, it responds well to trimming. The leaves and stems were burnt by the Hopi Indians and the alkaline ash used to maintain the blue colour when cooking blue corn. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves and stems. The leaves can be made into a soapy lather and used as a hair wash. The plant has fire-retardant properties and can be used for barrier plantings to control bush fires. Twigs are also attached to prayer plumes and sacrificed to the cottontail rabbit to ensure good hunting.

Known Hazards : No member of this genus contains any toxins, all have more or less edible leaves. However, if grown with artificial fertilizers, they may concentrate harmful amounts of nitrates in their leaves.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_canescens
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Atriplex+canescens
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Artemisia scoparia

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Botanical Name: Artemisia scoparia
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. scoparia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia capillaris Miq.
*Artemisia capillaris var. scoparia (Waldst. & Kit.) Pamp.
*Artemisia elegans Roxb. 1814 not Salisb. 1796
*Artemisia gracilis L’Hér. ex DC.
*Artemisia hallaisanensis var. formosana Pamp.
*Artemisia kohatica Klatt
*Artemisia piperita Pall. ex Ledeb.
*Artemisia sachaliensis Tilesius ex Besser
*Artemisia scoparioides Grossh.
*Artemisia trichophylla Wall. ex DC.
*Draconia capillaris (Thunb.) Soják
*Draconia scoparia (Waldst. & Kit.) Soják
*Oligosporus scoparius (Waldst. & Kit.) Less.

Common Names: Redstem wormwood
General Name:Artemisia Scoparia
English Name: Artemisia Scoparia
Hindi Name : Seeta Bani
Chinese Name : Yin Chen

Habitat : Artemisia scoparia is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on waste ground in C. Japan.
Description:
Artemisia scoparia is a binnial plant  growing to 0.6 m (2ft).

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought......CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil[245]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late spring in a cold frame. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer
Edible Uses: ….Young leaves – cooked.

Chemical constituents:
*Capillarisin
*Chlorogenic acid butyl ester
*6,7-Dimethylesculetin
*Isosabandin
*Magnolioside (isoscopoletin-?-D-glucopyranoside)
*7-Methoxycoumarin
*7-Methylesculetin
*Sabandin A
*Sabandin B
*Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin)
*Scopoletin
*?-Sitosterol

Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial; Anticholesterolemic; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Vasodilator.

The plant is anticholesterolemic, antipyretic, antiseptic, cholagogue, diuretic and vasodilator. It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, B. subtilis, Pneumococci, C. diphtheriae, mycobacterium etc. It is used in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis and inflammation of the gall bladder. The plant is also used in a mixture with other herbs as a cholagogue.

Other Uses :….Essential….The seed and flowering stems contain 0.75% essential oil

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_scoparia
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Artemisia-Scoparia-Cid5099
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+scoparia

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Herbs & Plants

Artemisia maritima

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Botanical Name : Artemisia maritima
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. maritima
Kingdom : Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia pseudogallica (Rouy) A.W.Hill
*Artemisia salina Willd.

Common Names: Sea wormwood and Old woman.

Habitat : Artemisia maritima is native to coastal regions of France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Sweden and Russia.It grows on the drier parts of salt marshes in sand and shingle.

Description:
Artemisia maritima is a deciduous Shrub growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any soil but prefers a poor dry soil with a warm aspect. Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.0 to 7.6. Dislikes shade. Established plants are very drought tolerant. Tolerates maritime exposure. The whole plant has a sweet aromatic smell. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.

.
Edible Uses: Condiment….The leaves are occasionally used as a flavouring. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

.
Medicinal Uses:

Anthelmintic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Carminative; Cholagogue; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Stomachic; Tonic; Vermifuge.
Sea wormwood is not much used in herbal medicine, though it is often used domestically. Its medicinal virtues are similar to wormwood, A. absinthum, though milder in their action. It is used mainly as a tonic to the digestive system, in treating intermittent fevers and as a vermifuge[4]. The leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge. The plant is harvested as it comes into flower and is dried for later use. The unexpanded floral heads contain the vermicide ‘santonin’.

Other Uses:
Repellent; Strewing.

The growing shoots are said to repel insects and mice, they have also been used as a strewing herb. An infusion is said to discourage slugs and insects

Known Hazards: The following notes are from a report on the closely related A. absinthum, they quite possibly also apply to this species. The plant is poisonous if used in large quantities. Even small quantities have been known to cause nervous disorders, convulsions, insomnia etc. Just the scent of the plant has been known to cause headaches and nervousness in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_maritima
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+maritima