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Health Problems & Solutions

Some health problems & solutions

BELLY FAT:-

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Q: I read that belly fat is dangerous. I have a potbelly. What can I do to lose it?

A: Belly fat is dangerous because it is associated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. It is not possible to lose just belly fat.

You need to reduce your intake of calories, (eat 75 per cent of what you are eating now), reduce carbohydrate and increase the fruit and vegetable content of your diet. You also need to exercise — jog, run, walk or swim for at least 40 minutes, five to six days a week. Also, women need to ensure that their waists are smaller less than 35 inches and men less than 40 inches.

FUEL UP:-

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Q: I go for a 40-minute walk every morning, but I feel exhausted at the end of it.

A: Your body probably needs some fuel before your walk, but not a full meal. Eat a banana a half hour before you leave the house. It will provide calories, which are released slowly during the exercise. It also contains potassium and other nutrients that will help with the fatigue.

RED IS DANGER:-

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Q: I am 65 years old. I had a hysterectomy around 15 years ago. Last night, I saw blood in my urine. There is no fever or pain.

A: Painless haematuria (blood in the urine) is a sinister symptom at your age. Most of the harmless causes like stones or infection cause pain and/or fever. Do a routine urine analysis to make sure it really is blood and not some dye you ingested
in the food or vegetables like beetroot. If there is blood then please consult a urologist for further treatment.

REST A WHILE:-

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Q: I got up awkwardly and my knee started to pain. There is no obvious swelling.

A: Rest the knee for two or three days, apply ice packs for 10 minutes every 3-4 hours, bandage the knee with an elastocrepe bandage, and take a paracetemol (500 mg) if the pain is severe. If it is not better after two days, you need to consult an orthopaedic surgeon to see if there is anything seriously wrong with your knee.

MEDICINE HELPS:-

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Q: I am on medication for epilepsy and want to stop to become pregnant.

A: If you stop treatment, you might have a seizure while pregnant. This can adversely affect the baby. If you are worried about congenital malformations, the statistics are reassuring. In the general population, the risk for congenital malformations is 2-4 per cent. With anti-epileptic medication the risk is marginally higher, 4-6 per cent. Work closely with your obstetrician and neurologist and follow their advice.

TIRED EYE:-

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Q: My right eye twitches and I am unable to control it. This happens several times during the day. Is it dangerous?

A: This involuntary twitching is usually harmless and will eventually stop by itself. It may be caused by fatigue, stress or excessive caffeine. Rarely, it may be due to inflammation of the eyelids, light sensitivity or conjunctivitis. If it lasts more than two weeks, consult an ophthalmologist.

COFFEE TEETH:

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Q: My teeth are stained light brown. What do I do?

A: All kinds of things can stain the teeth — tea, coffee, carbonated drinks, fruits like pomegranate, betel leaf (pan) and tobacco. You could try brushing your teeth twice a day and rinsing out your mouth thoroughly after eating.

Resources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Hypospadias

Definition:
Hypospadias is a birth defect found in boys in which the penile meatus is not at the tip of the penis. The meatus is the term for the opening of the penis through which urine normally exits the bladder. The incidence is reported to be 1 in 300 live male births. There is some family risk of hypospadias, as familial tendencies have been noted. Up to 14% of male siblings are affected.

Hypospadias is usually classified according to the location of the opening. As the defect increases in severity, the opening to the penis will be found further back on the penis. The most severe types can have openings at the region of the scrotum and even in the perineum (the region between the anus and scrotum).

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In some men with hypospadias, there’s another abnormality called chordee, in which the penis curves downwards and the foreskin only covers the front of it.In the most severe forms of hypospadias, the urethral opening is so far back it’s almost in the scrotum. The scrotum itself may be small and the testes may not have descended (that is, they’re still deep in the abdomen). When babies are born like this, it can be difficult to work out which sex they are without further tests.

click tom see the picture

Both hypospadias and chordee must be repaired so that a child can have normal urinary and reproductive health.

Symptoms:
Hypospadias is a structural abnormality that doesn’t progress or put the man at risk of any other serious illness. However, as with any abnormalities of the urinary system, there may be an increased risk of urinary infection in more severe cases.

Hypospadias may cause emotional turmoil when a boy realises he’s different from his friends. It can also cause practical problems with passing urine (those with the condition usually have to sit down to pee) and later with sexual intercourse, which may be embarrassing or difficult to cope with. Hypospadias may cause general worries about sexuality and fertility.

Signs and symptoms of hypospadias may include:

*Opening of the urethra at a location other than the tip of the penis
*Downward curve of the penis (chordee)
*Hooded appearance of the penis because only the top half of the penis is covered by foreskin
*Abnormal spraying during urination

Causes:
Hypospadias is present at birth (congenital). The exact reason this defect occurs is unknown. Sometimes hypospadias is inherited.

As the penis develops in a male fetus, certain hormones stimulate the formation of the urethra and foreskin. Hypospadias results when a malfunction occurs in the action of these hormones, causing the urethra to develop abnormally.

As a boy is developing in utero, the penis begins to form in the sixth week of fetal life. Two folds of tissue join each other in the middle and a hollow tube is formed in the middle of the future penis. This tube is the urethra and its opening is called the penile meatus. As the skin folds develop to form the penis, any interruption in this process leads to the meatus being located in a location further from the end of the penis. The exact etiology for this premature cessation of urethral formation is poorly understood. In addition, the etiology of the often-associated abnormal downward curvature (chordee) is also poorly understood.

Risk Factors:
This condition is more common in infants with a family history of hypospadias.

Some research suggests that there may be an increased risk of hypospadias in infant males born to women of an advanced age or those who used in vitro fertilization (IVF) to conceive. The connection to IVF may be due to the mother’s exposure to progesterone, a natural hormone, or to progestin, a synthetic form of progesterone, administered during the IVF process. Other research, however, hasn’t confirmed a link between IVF and hypospadias, but did find an association between a mother’s exposure to pesticides and hypospadias.

Diagnosis:
A physical examination can diagnose this condition. Imaging tests may be needed to look for other congenital defects.

Treatment
The treatment of hypospadias is always surgical. Initially when the child is born and hypospadias is identified, it is important to delay any thoughts of circumcision until seen by a urologist. This is because the foreskin can provide essential additional skin needed to reconstruct the urethra.

Hypospadias is often repaired  before a child is one year of age. This way, the boy is in diapers and management of dressings are made easier. However, the exact age of repair can vary according to the size of the penis and severity of the defect. It can be repaired in most of the  cases with a single operation, but on occasion, a second operation may be needed. The operation is performed under general anesthesia with the child completely asleep. Most of the boys will have a small tube exiting the tip of their new meatus. This “stent” will protect the new urethra and allow for adequate healing. Most patients leave the hospital the same day or the following day. However, more complex repairs for the more severe types of hypospadias can require longer hospital stays due to the need for bedrest and immobilization in the immediate post-operative setting.


Click for the picture

The exact type of operation employed varies according to the severity of the defect. For the more distal defects that have openings closer to the normal position at the end of the penis, a new tube can be created from the surrounding skin. This creation of a tube is known as a Thiersch-Duplay repair. For more severe defects, the options range. Additional hairless skin is often needed to recreate the urethral tube when longer defects are seen. Here, the subdermal skin of the foreskin can be used. For the most severe defects, we can remove mucosal skin from the inside of the cheek or use subdermal skin from other hairless parts of the body. It is important to use hairless skin as future hair growth in the neourethra can present multiple problems.

Complications:
The usual risks of surgery are present at the time of performing  hypospadias repairs. Risk of infection is controlled with use of antibiotics with the surgery and in the post-operative setting. Bleeding is well controlled by using a penile tourniquet during the operation. This limits the blood loss to a very minimal amount, while allowing for good visualization of the tissues for the surgeon.

By using good surgical techniques   the longer-term complications of the surgery are minimised. The most common problems that present are fistula and stricture. A fistula occurs if a hole develops along the pathway of the repair proximal to the tip of the penis. In other words, a hole can develop along the underside of the penis allowing for leakage of urine. Additionally, a stricture is a scar that can form causing a narrowing in the urethra. If either of these complications occur, an additional repair will be needed usually 6 months later

Prognosis:
Results after surgery are typically good. In some cases, more surgery is needed to correct fistulas or a return of the abnormal penis curve.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/hypospadias.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001286.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypospadias/DS00884
http://www.cornellurology.com/pediatrics/hypospadias.shtml

http://www.medindia.net/patients/paediatrics/Hypospadias.htm

http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/Fi-La/Hypospadias-Repair.html

http://www.adhb.govt.nz/newborn/Guidelines/Anomalies/Hypospadias.htm

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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Goldenhar syndrome

Alternative Names:Oculoauriculo-vertebral spectrum(OAV).

Definition:
Goldenhar syndrome is a rare congenital defect characterized by incomplete development of the ear, nose, soft palate, lip, and mandible. It is associated with anomalous development of the first branchial arch and second branchial arch. Common clinical manifestations include limbal dermoids, preauricular skin tags, and strabismus.It  is a highly complex combination of malformations which leaves babies with an underdeveloped face.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURE…

The term is sometimes used interchangeably with hemifacial microsomia, although this definition is usually reserved for cases without internal organ/verterbrae disruption.

Goldenhar syndrome was first described by Dr. Maurice Goldenhar in 1952.

It affects between 1/3500 to 1/26000 live births in the UK

Symptoms:
Chief markers of Goldenhar syndrome are incomplete development of the ear, nose, soft palate, lip, and mandible on usually one side of the body. Additionally, some patients will have growing issues with internal organs, especially heart, kidneys, and lungs. Typically, the organ will either not be present on one side or will be underdeveloped. Note that whilst it is more usual for there to be problems on only one side, it has been known for defects to occur bilaterally (approximate incidence 10% of confirmed GS cases).

The main features of the condition affect the ear, which may not have developed at all. This combines with underdevelopment of the jaw and cheek on the same side of the face. When these are the only problems it is normally referred to as hemi-facial microsomia and sometimes the condition stops there. But when associated with other abnormalities, particularly affecting the vertebrae in the neck it is referred to as Goldenhar Syndrome, or ‘oculoauricular dysplasia’. Dental problems are common due to the difference between both sides of the face and the jaw bones.

Goldenhar children very occasionally have been known to have heart and kidney abnormalities.

Most individuals with the syndrome are of normal intelligence although learning difficulties can occur in about 13% of cases. However there are usually language problems as a result of deafness and there may be speech and swallowing problems.

Many babies with Goldenhar Syndrome have poor weight gain in the first year or two of life as a result of their dental abnormalities.

Other problems can include severe scoliosis (twisting of the vertebrae), limbal dermoids, and hearing loss (see hearing loss with craniofacial syndromes).Deafness/blindness in one or both ears/eyes.

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Causes:
The cause of Goldenhar syndrome is largely unknown. However, it is thought to be multifactorial, although there may be a genetic component, which would account for certain familial patterns. It has been suggested that there is a branchial arch development issue late in the first trimester.

An increase in Goldenhar syndrome in the children of Gulf War veterans has been suggested but the difference was shown to be statistically insignificant

Diagnosis
There is not a genetic test that can diagnose Goldenhar syndrome. The diagnosis is made when an individual has the common symptoms associated with the condition. The diagnosis is made by a physician.

Treatment :
Once a child is diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome, additional tests should be performed. A hearing evaluation is necessary to determine if there is hearing loss. If hearing loss is evident, the child should be referred to a hearing specialist. Speech therapy may also be helpful. X rays of the spine are recommended to determine if there are vertebral problems, and the severity. Individuals with Goldenhar syndrome should also be regularly evaluated for scoliosis. Renal ultrasounds and ultrasounds of the heart may also be recommended, due to the increased risk for birth defects in these areas. A doctor would make this recommendation. Finally, individuals with Goldenhar syndrome should be evaluated by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist).

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Surgery may be required to correct the birth defects seen in Goldenhar syndrome. Surgery to correct the facial birth defects can improve appearance and function.

It is necessary to help the child to develop e.g. jaw distraction/bone grafts, occular dermoid debulking, repairing cleft palate/lip, repairing heart malformations, spinal surgery. Hearing aids placed in one or both ears.

Some patients with Goldenhar syndrome will require assistance as they grow by means of hearing aids or glasses.

Prognosis
The prognosis for individuals with Goldenhar syndrome is very good. These individuals typically have a normal life span and normal intelligence.

Prevention:
There has been progress in identifying the condition through pre-natal scanning and it is thought the risk of having another affected child is small.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/goldenhar_syndrome.shtml
http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/goldenhar-syndrome/3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldenhar_syndrome
http://confessionsofateacher.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/867477.jpg
http://www.pharmacyescrow.com/blog/index.php/2011/03/11/goldenhar-syndrome/
http://www.i-am-pregnant.com/Birth/Birth-defects/Goldenhar-SyndromeGoldenhar syndrome

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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Microcephaly

Definition:
Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare  neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head is more than two standard deviations smaller than average for the person’s age and sex. Microcephaly may be congenital or it may develop in the first few years of life. The disorder may stem from a wide variety of conditions that cause abnormal growth of the brain, or from syndromes associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Two copies of a loss-of-function mutation in one of the microcephalin genes causes primary microcephaly.

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Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.

Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there’s no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention may help enhance your child’s development and improve quality of life.

Symptoms:
The primary sign of microcephaly is:

*A head size significantly smaller than that of other children of the same age and sex.

Head size is measured as the distance around the top of the child’s head (circumference). Using standardized growth charts, the measurement is compared with other children’s measurements in percentiles. Some children just have small heads, which may measure in the third, second or even first percentiles. In children with microcephaly, head size measures significantly below the first percentile.

These characteristics may accompany severe microcephaly:

*Backward sloping forehead
*Large ears
*Visual impairment


Depending on the severity of the accompanying syndrome, children with microcephaly may have:

*mental retardation,
*delayed motor functions and speech,
*facial distortions,
*dwarfism or short stature,
*hyperactivity,
*seizures,
*difficulties with coordination and balance, and
*other brain or neurological abnormalities.

Some children with microcephaly will have normal intelligence and a head that will grow bigger, but they will track below the normal growth curves for head circumference.


Causes:

It is most often caused by genetic abnormalities that interfere with the growth of the cerebral cortex during the early months of fetal development. It is associated with Down’s syndrome, chromosomal syndromes, and neurometabolic syndromes. :

Babies born with microcephaly will have a smaller than normal head that will fail to grow as they progress through infancy.

Microcephaly usually is the result of abnormal brain development, which can occur in the womb (congenital) or in infancy. Microcephaly may be genetic. Other causes may include:

*Craniosynostosis.
The premature fusing of the joints (sutures) between the bony plates that form an infant’s skull keeps the brain from growing. Treating craniosynostosis usually means your infant needs surgery to separate the fused bones. If there’s no underlying brain abnormality, the surgery allows the brain adequate space to grow and develop.

*Chromosomal abnormalities.
Down syndrome and other conditions may result in microcephaly.

*Decreased oxygen to the fetal brain (cerebral anoxia).
Certain complications of pregnancy or delivery can impair oxygen delivery to the fetal brain.

*Infections of the fetus during pregnancy. These include toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, German measles (rubella) and chickenpox (varicella).

*Exposure to drugs, alcohol or certain toxic chemicals in the womb.
Any of these put your baby at risk of brain abnormalities.

*Severe malnutrition
. Not getting adequate nutrition during pregnancy can affect your baby’s development.

*Uncontrolled phenylketonuria (fen-ul-kee-toe-NU-ree-uh), also known as PKU, in the mother. PKU is a birth defect that hampers the body’s ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine.

Complecations & Risk Factoirs:

Some children with microcephaly will be of normal intelligence and development, even though their heads will always be small for their age and sex. But depending on the cause and severity of the microcephaly, complications may include:

*Developmental delays, such as in speech and movement
*Difficulties with coordination and balance
*Dwarfism or short stature
*Facial distortions
*Hyperactivity
*Mental retardation
*Seizures

In general, life expectancy for individuals with microcephaly is reduced and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor. The prognosis varies depending on the presence of associated abnormalities.

Diagnosis:
To determine whether your child has microcephaly, your doctor likely will take a thorough prenatal, birth and family history and do a physical exam. He or she will measure the circumference of your child’s head, compare it with a growth chart, and remeasure and plot the growth at subsequent visits. Parents’ head sizes also may be measured to determine whether small heads run in the family.

In some cases, particularly if your child’s development is delayed, your doctor may request tests such as a head CT or MRI and blood tests to help determine the underlying cause of the delay.

Treatment :

Generally, there’s no treatment that will enlarge your child’s head or reverse complications of microcephaly.  Early childhood intervention programs that include speech, physical and occupational therapy may help your child strengthen abilities.

Treatment focuses on ways to decrease the impact of the associated deformities and neurological disabilities. Children with microcephaly and developmental delays are usually evaluated by a pediatric neurologist and followed by a medical management team. Early childhood intervention programs that involve physical, speech, and occupational therapists help to maximize abilities and minimize dysfunction. Medications are often used to control seizures, hyperactivity, and neuromuscular symptoms. Genetic counseling may help families understand the risk for microcephaly in subsequent pregnancies.

Certain complications of microcephaly, such as seizures or hyperactivity, may be treated with medication.

Prognosis:

Some children will only have mild disability. Others, especially if they are otherwise growing and developing normally, will have normal intelligence and continue to develop and meet regular age-appropriate milestones.

When you learn your child has microcephaly, you may experience a range of emotions, including anger, fear, worry, sorrow and guilt. You may not know what to expect, and you may worry about your child’s future. The best antidote for fear and worry is information and support. Prepare yourself:

*Find a team of trusted professionals. You’ll need to make important decisions about your child’s education and treatment. Seek a team of doctors, teachers and therapists you trust. These professionals can help evaluate the resources in your area and help explain state and federal programs for children with disabilities.

*Seek out other families who are dealing with the same issues. Your community may have support groups for parents of children with developmental disabilities. You may also find Internet support groups.

Prevention:
Learning your child has microcephaly may raise questions about future pregnancies. Work with your doctor to determine the cause of the microcephaly. If the cause is genetic, you and your spouse may want to talk to a genetic counselor about risks for future pregnancies.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.medicinenet.com/microcephaly/page2.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/microcephaly/DS01169
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcephaly

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Your Palm Says It All

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Rogue, fraud, charlatan. Words we often use to describe the roadside palmist. Can anyone say what the creases, lines and stars etched on our palms mean? Or if they do mean anything at all?
……….....CLICK & SEE
Some people, it seems, can say much about your life by “reading” your palm.

Welcome to the world of medical palmistry, a branch of science based on documented and proven scientific observations.

A detailed examination of the palm does provide valuable clues to a person’s medical history, lifestyle, diseases and life expectancy. Palms and fingers have characteristic creases, whorls, arches and loops. These are unique in each individual and never identical, even in twins. One of the oldest biometric methods of establishing positive identity is by using fingerprints.

“Palmar creases” form in an unborn baby as it holds its hands tightly clenched during the 12th week. Normally this forms three palmar creases or lines. Any physical, medical or drug-induced injury to the foetus during the first three months is reflected permanently as abnormal palmar creases. This can be picked up on ultrasound examination after the 12th week. If the creases are abnormal, the foetus should be closely monitored for associated abnormalities in the kidney, heart and other organ

Sometimes the upper two lines fuse to form a single palmar crease or simian line that stretches across the open palm. A single palmar crease can be present in one out of 30 apparently normal people. It is more common in males and is usually present only on one hand. One or both parents of these children may have the abnormal crease on one hand. This is a minor aberration and warrants monitoring as these children may reveal mild abnormalities in other organs in later life. It is also associated with certain chromosomal anomalies, the most common of which is Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21).

Not all abnormal palmar creases are hereditary or genetic. Alcoholic women who continue to drink during pregnancy can produce children with “foetal alcohol syndrome” and a single palmar crease.

People with mental illnesses have more open loops and fewer whorls on their finger tips. Those prone to chronic diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis also tend to have only two lines on the palm, with the abnormal line just above the thumb.

Normally, a person has 10 fingers and toes. In one in 1,000 births, there may be extra digits, separate, complete, incomplete or fused. These defects can be associated with other internal congenital malformations, and so a detailed examination must be done for any affected newborn.

Marfans syndrome is a genetic disorder in which the person has “arachnodactyly” or abnormally long fingers like spider legs. This can be diagnosed before birth through ultrasound.

Congenital hypothyroidism, certain renal diseases and some forms of dwarfism are linked with a “tripartiate” hand — where the index, middle and ring fingers are the same length.

Cigarette smokers, people suffering from chronic respiratory ailments, and those with congenital heart disease may have blue nails. Some lung diseases like bronchiectasis, and chronic intestinal diseases may bend the nail like a convex parrot beak, a condition called “clubbing”. Jaundice causes the skin of the palms to turn yellow. Carotenemia produces a similar appearance. It is a harmless condition and is caused by an excess consumption of yellow carotene containing fruits and vegetables.

Hormone levels in the uterus also influences finger length. A person (irrespective of sex) with the index finger shorter than the ring finger will have had more testosterone (male hormone) while in the womb, and a person with an index finger longer than the ring finger will have had more eostrogen (female hormone). Professional women, especially women scientists, tend to have higher levels of testosterone vis-a-vis their oestrogen level, making their brains closer to those of men in general. The converse is true with men working in the fine arts and social sciences.

The position in which we hold our palms is a reflection of the body mass index or BMI (weight in kilogram divided by height in metre squared). A BMI more than 30 is diagnostic of obesity. Such people tend to hold their hands with the thumbs facing backwards as they stand. Overweight people with a BMI between 25 and 30 hold their arms with the thumb facing sideways. People of normal weight with a BMI between 20 and 25 stand with their palms facing forwards.

So, remember, your palms will reveal a lot about your health, but only if you go to a medical palmist.


Source:
The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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