Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Allergies

Definition:
Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis, are a common condition that occurs when the eyes react to something that irritates them (called an allergen). The eyes produce a substance called histamine to fight off the allergen. As a result, the eyelids and conjunctiva — the thin, filmy membrane that covers the inside of your eyelids and the white part of your eye (sclera) — become red, swollen and itchy, with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to person.
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People who suffer from eye allergies usually (though not always) have nasal allergies as well, with an itchy, stuffy nose and sneezing. It is usually a temporary (acute) condition associated with seasonal allergies. However, in other cases, eye allergies can develop from exposure to other environmental triggers, such as pet dander, dust, smoke, perfumes, or even foods. If the exposure is ongoing, the allergies can be more severe, with significant burning and itching and even sensitivity to light.

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Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the eye equivalent of hay fever and affects up to 25 per cent of the general population. The eyes become itchy, watery and red in the summer pollen season, usually from exposure to grass and tree pollen.

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Vernal conjunctivitis is a more severe form of this disease seen in children. The eyes are sticky with a stringy discharge, and it’s painful, especially when opening the eyes on waking.

The inner membranes of the eyelid swell and the conjunctiva develops a cobblestone appearance. Corneal damage may occur if the condition is left untreated.

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Perennial allergic conjunctivitis tends to occur all year round, with house dust mite and cat allergies. The symptoms are usually milder than those in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

Eczema eyes:
Although rare, atopic keratoconjunctivitis is the most severe manifestation of allergic eye disease. It occurs predominantly in adult males and is the eye equivalent of severe eczema.
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This persistent condition results in constant itching, dry eyes and blurred vision. It’s associated with corneal swelling and scarring. Eyelid eczema and infection are common, and lens cataracts may develop over time.

Contact lens allergy:
Contact lens wearers may develop giant papillary conjunctivitis, triggered by constant local irritation by the contact lenses on the conjunctival surfaces. The lining of the upper eyelid is usually most affected. Disposable contact lenses may help settle symptoms, but occasionally wearing contact lens has to be suspended.
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Never use steroid eye drops unless under the direct supervision of a doctor. Although they’re effective for treating eye allergies, they can lead to unwanted side-effects such as glaucoma and cataract formation.

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They may also encourage infections of the eye, with resultant corneal scarring.

Symptoms:
Symptoms of eye allergies, or allergic conjunctivitis, include watery, itchy, red, sore, swollen and stinging of the eyes. Itching of the eyes is the most important symptom of allergic conjunctivitis. Without itching, it is much less likely that a person is suffering from allergies of the eyes. Both eyes are usually affected, although one eye may be more symptomatic than the other.

Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) is the most common form of eye allergy, with grass and ragweed pollens being the most important seasonal triggers. Perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) is also very common, with animal dander, feathers and dust mites being the most important triggers.

Other symptoms :-
People with SAC usually note the onset of symptoms during the spring and fall, and frequently note symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Symptoms include itchy eyes, burning of the eyes and eye watering. In some cases, people notice sensitivity to the light and blurred vision. The eyes are usually red, and the eyelids may become swollen. When the inside of the eyelid (the conjunctiva) is also swollen, the eyes may have a watery, gelatinous-like appearance – this finding is called “chemosis”.

PAC typically occurs year-round, although many people notice some seasonal flares to their symptoms. The severity of PAC is less than that of SAC, and PAC is much more likely to be associated with perennial allergic rhinitis.

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis is made with a history of symptoms suggestive of eye allergies, an examination by a healthcare professional with findings consistent with conjunctivitis, and allergy testing showing seasonal or perennial allergies. A response to typical medications is helpful in the ultimate diagnosis of allergic eye disease, and failure to respond to medications may lead to a search for a different diagnosis.

Treatment:

Regular use of anti-allergy eye drops such as sodium chromoglycate, nedocromil, olopatidine and lodoxamide can help to treat mild seasonal disease.If avoidance of allergic triggers fails to prevent symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, some people notice mild benefit from cold compresses on the eyes, and eyewashes with tear substitutes. However, medications may be necessary to treat the symptoms. Medications for allergic conjunctivitis include oral anti-histamines and eye drops.

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Oral anti-histamines. Many people with allergic eye disease will receive benefit from oral anti-histamines, such as over-the-counter loratadine (Claritin®/Alavert®, generic forms), and prescription cetirizine (Zyrtec®), fexofenadine (Allegra® and generic forms) and desloratadine (Clarinex®). Older, first-generation anti-histamines (such as Benadryl®) are also helpful, but are generally considered too sedating for routine use.

Over-the-counter eye drops. Medicated eye drops are available in over-the-counter and prescription forms. Over-the-counter eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis are currently only available in decongestant (Visine®, Naphcon®, generic forms of naphazoline), and decongestant/anti-histamine combinations (Visine-A®, Naphcon-A®, generic forms of naphazoline/pheniramine).

Decongestant eye drops (with or without anti-histamines) should only be used for short periods of time, as overuse can lead to conjunctivitis medicamentosa (characterized as rebound eye redness/congestion and dependence on the eye drops). These eye drops should not be used by people with glaucoma, and used with caution by people with heart or blood pressure problems.

Ketotifen works by a dual action mechanism, with anti-histamine activity and prevention of the release of chemicals from mast cells. Unlike decongestant eye drops, ketotifen would not be expected to result in conjunctivitis medicamentosa with long-term use.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/in_depth/allergies/allergicconditions_eye.shtml
http://allergies.about.com/od/eyeallergies/a/conjunc.htm
http://www.thirdeyehealth.com/eye-allergies.html
http://www.medinik.com/allergy/contact-lens-allergy
http://www.clivir.com/lessons/show/eyelid-eczema-swelling-pictures-causes-and-natural-treatment.html

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Blepharochalasis

Definition:
Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue resulting in redundant folds over the lid margins. It typically affects only the upper eyelids, and may be unilateral as well as bilateral.

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Subjective: Lax, wrinkled, and baggy eyelid skin

Blepharochalasis results from recurrent bouts of painless eyelid swelling, each lasting for several days. This is thought to be a form of localized angioedema, or rapid accumulation of fluid in the tissues. Recurrent episodes lead to thin and atrophic skin. Damage to the levator palpebrae superioris muscle causes ptosis, or drooping of the eyelid, when the muscle can no longer hold the eyelid up.

These episodes often result in eyelid skin redundancy. In 1817, Beer initially described the condition; however, in 1896, Fuchs first assigned the term blepharochalasis to this entity. The word blepharochalasis originates from the Greek blepharon (eyelid) and chalasis (a relaxing).

Various disease stages have been observed. In 1926, Benedict described a swelling stage and a subsequent stage characterized by thinning skin. Others have suggested an active, intumescent phase that precedes a quiescent, atrophic phase.

It is encountered more commonly in younger rather than older individuals.

Symptoms:
•Droopy eyelid
•Eyelid swelling
•Stretched eyelid
•Degeneration of the eyelid
•Thin eyelids

Causes:
Blepharochalasis is idiopathic in most cases, i.e., the cause is unknown. Systemic conditions linked to blepharochalasis are renal agenesis, vertebral abnormalities, and congenital heart disease.

Complications:
Complications of blepharochalasis may include conjunctival hyperemia (excessive blood flow through the moist tissues of the orbit), chemosis, entropion, ectropion, and ptosis.

Diagnosis:
Blepharochalasis is often confused with dermatochalasis, which refers to the lax and redundant skin most commonly observed in the upper eyelids with aging. However, dermatochalasis is usually not associated with recurrent attacks of edema, “cigarette-paper” skin, and subcutaneous telangiectasia, as observed in blepharochalasis.

Treatment:-
Surgery:

A surgeon trained to do eyelid surgery, such as a plastic surgeon or ophthalmologist, is required to decide and perform the appropriate surgical procedure. Following procedures have been described for blepharochalasis:

*External levator aponeurosis tuck
*Blepharoplasty
*Lateral canthoplasty
*Dermis fat grafts

These are used to correct atrophic blepharochalasis after the syndrome has run its course.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blepharochalasis
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1214014-overview
http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v18/n4/fig_tab/6700668f2.html

http://elementsofmorphology.nih.gov/index.cgi?tid=995a2398db7eefe2

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)

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acute conjunctivitis Day 3
Image via Wikipedia

Definition:
Conjunctivitis is inflammation or infection of the membrane lining the eyelids (conjunctiva).

Alternative Names
Inflammation – conjunctiva; Pink eye

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The conjunctiva is exposed to bacteria and other irritants. Tears help protect the conjunctiva by diluting bacteria and washing it away. Tears also contain enzymes and antibodies which kill bacteria.

There are many causes of conjunctivitis. Viruses are the most common cause. Other causes include bacteria, Chlamydia, fungus, and rarely, parasitic agents.

“Pink eye” refers to a viral infection of the conjunctiva. These infections are especially contagious among children. Handwashing is key to preventing the spread of the virus, which is similar to the type that cause the common cold.

Bacteria are an uncommon cause of conjunctivitis. Many physicians give a mild antibiotic eyedrop for pink eye to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis is also caused by allergies (allergic conjunctivitis), chemical exposure, and certain systemic (throughout the body) diseases.

Newborns can be infected by bacteria in the birth canal. This condition is called ophthalmia neonatorum, and it must be treated immediately to preserve eyesight. Use of contact lenses, particularly extended-wear lenses, can cause conjunctivitis.

Conjunctivitis occurs when the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and part of the eyeball becomes inflamed and red. This may be due to an allergy, infection, a foreign body or blocked tear duct. The redness appears because the small blood vessels in the conjunctiva react to it. If the infection is severe the conjunctiva may be swollen. The eye may then feel gritty and itchy, shed tears and have a yellow or white discharge.

Infection is often due to a seasonal bug — an adeno or influenza virus. It may be associated with a cold or sore throat. These infections are self-limiting. Cold or warm compresses applied to the eyes can be soothing. It does not really require any treatment with eye drops and clears up spontaneously in three or four days.

The discharge in bacterial conjunctivitis can be yellow and purulent (containing pus). This requires antibiotic eye drops. These are effective when applied every two or three hours. An eye ointment may be applied at night.

Infectious conjunctivitis (viral or bacterial) can spread rapidly within a classroom, home or community. Contrary to popular belief, just looking at an affected person does not cause the infection to spread. The virus or bacteria gets transferred from the infected person’s eyes on to table tops, books and other frequently used items. If an uninfected person touches a contaminated surface, and then his or her eyes, the infection is transferred. Wearing dark glasses reduces photophobia due to the infection and prevents people from touching and rubbing their own eyes.

Symptoms
*Increased tearing
*Eye pain
*Redness in the eyes
*Gritty feeling in the eyes
*Itching of the eye
*Blurred vision
*Sensitivity to light
*Crusts that form on the eyelid overnight

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Signs and tests
*Examination of eyes
*Swab of conjunctiva for analysis

Treatment
Treatment of conjunctivitis depends on the cause.

Allergic conjunctivitis may respond to treatment for underlying allergies, or it may disappear on its own when the allergen that caused it is removed. Cool compresses may be soothing for allergic conjunctivitis.

Antibiotic medication, usually eye drops, is effective for bacterial conjunctivitis. Viral conjunctivitis will disappear on its own. The discomfort of viral or bacterial conjunctivitis can be soothed by applying warm compresses (a clean cloth soaked in warm water) to closed eyes.

Some people apply drops of pure and fresh rose water and get good result.  cats-claw the Miracle Herb from the Rain Forest of Peru can cure conjunctivitis by putting drops of the tea in eyes several times over the course of two days. The juice of Amla mixed with Honey if taken twice daily will cure conjunctivitis and glaucoma.It reduces intraocular tention in a remarkable manner.

Ayurvedic  cure &  home remedies of  conjunctivitis

Homeopathic Remedies for Conjunctivitis

Expectations (prognosis)
The outcome is usually good with treatment.

Complications
Reinfection within a household or school may occur if preventive measures are not followed.

Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if symptoms persist longer than 3 or 4 days.

Prevention:-

If you develop conjunctivitis:

• Don’t touch your eyes. Don’t itch or scratch

Wash your hands often

• Use a clean towel which must be changed daily. Don’t share towels

• Change your pillow cases everyday

• Don’t share eye cosmetics or personal eye-care items (like mascara and kajal)

• Apply a compress to your eyes by soaking a clean cloth in water and applying it gently to your closed eyelids. Don’t touch both eyes with the same cloth. This reduces the risk of spreading red eye from one eye to the other

• Clean the crusts from the eyelids with a solution of 1 part of baby shampoo to 10 parts of warm water

• Stop wearing contact lenses until the infection completely clears up.

Children with viral conjunctivitis rapidly transmit the infection to their classmates. They should stay at home if infected and return to school only when the eyes no longer have a discharge. This may take around a week.

During the process of birth, a baby’s eyes can become contaminated by organisms present in the birth canal. An antibiotic ointment or drops are usually applied soon after birth to the infant’s eyes to prevent infection. In ancient civilisations, these infections were recognised and treated by applying a few drops of expressed breast milk to the baby’s eyes. Breast milk contains high concentrations of immunoglobulin which can protect against infection.

Sometimes, the tear ducts in babies are blocked. This occurs because either they are not yet fully developed or have been partially blocked by debris during the process of birth. This causes constant tearing of the affected eye and can result in a secondary infection. It usually clears up spontaneously by the age of one year.

All cases of conjunctivitis are not caused by infection. Allergy to substances like pollen, dust or chemicals can also cause the mucous lining of the eyes and airways to respond by releasing chemicals like histamine. This can result in itchy, red and watery eyes, a running nose and sneezing.

Non-steroidal anti allergy eye drops containing sodium chromoglycate are usually all that is needed to clear this. The eyes may respond faster to over-the-counter steroid eye drops but if the diagnosis is wrong, they can cause a flare up of the infection.

Chemicals like chlorine in swimming pools or detergents in soap and shampoo can cause a conjunctivitis-like response. Flushing the eye with clean water usually cures the problem within a day.

Dust particles, saw dust and other foreign bodies can be accidentally imbedded in the eye. An eyelash may also grow inwards. Both these cause constant irritation, redness and watering. If this occurs, you need to consult an ophthalmologist.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

:www.healthline.com

The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Infections

Reflexively reaching for over-the-counter eyedrops when your eyes become watery, itchy, red, or inflamed may actually make matters worse. Instead, give one of nature’s gentle remedies a try — it may be just what the doctor ordered.

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PICTURES

Symptoms
Pinkness or redness in the whites of the eyes.
Thick, oozing greenish yellow or white discharge from the eye.
Excessive tearing.
Dried crusts on the eyelid and eyelashes that form during sleep.
Sensation of sand or grit in the eye when blinking.
Swollen or flaking eyelids.
A small, painful red bump at the base of an eyelash (sty).

When to Call Your Doctor
If the eye is red or swollen, with a thick discharge-you may need antibiotics for a bacterial infection. If you wear contact lenses, remove them.
If the eye is painful or sensitive to sunlight, or you have blurring or loss of vision.
If the pupils are different sizes or an object is lodged in an eye.
If mild symptoms don’t begin to wane in four days of self-care.
Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

What It Is
Eye infections are usually related to pinkeye (conjunctivitis), an inflammation of the sensitive mucous membranes that line the eyelids. Other causes of redness and irritation are a persistent scaliness on the eyelid edges (called blepharitis) and inflamed, painful bumps at the base of the eyelashes (known as styes). A doctor should evaluate eyes that are red and painful to determine the proper course of treatment and rule out more serious ailments, such as glaucoma.

What Causes It
Viruses and bacteria cause eye infections. Inflammation and redness may also occur as a result of injuries to the eye, allergies, or irritants (such as smoke, makeup, or chlorine in a swimming pool).

How Supplements Can Help
Any serious eye infection or injury requires immediate medical care. Mild eye infections can be treated at home with natural remedies, but see your doctor if the symptoms don’t begin to clear up within three or four days.

What Else You Can Do
Wash your hands often with an antiseptic soap, and don’t touch or rub your eyes. Change pillowcases and towels frequently; don’t share them with others. Most eye infections are highly contagious.
Avoid wearing eye makeup or contact lenses during an eye infection.
Wipe the discharge from the infected eye with a tissue and dispose of it immediately to prevent the infection from spreading.
For styes, apply a warm, moist compress for 10 minutes three or four times a day until the sty comes to a head and drains.
For blepharitis, try a warm, moist compress; apply for 15 minutes to loosen the infected scaliness on the eyelids. Then scrub the eyelid gently with water and baking soda, or with diluted baby shampoo.
Use a separate compress or eyecup for each eye to prevent inadvertently spreading any infection.
Make sure herbal teas are sterile when you use them as eyewashes. Otherwise, you could cause further infection. To avoid contamination, strain the cooled teas through a sterile gauze pad or cheesecloth and store them in sealed containers. Prepare a fresh batch of tea daily.
In addition to their use as eyewashes, herbal teas made from eyebright, chamomile, or fennel are good to drink and will help relieve your symptoms. Have two or three cups a day.
Try to avoid using nonprescription eyedrops meant to relieve red, tired eyes. They have been shown to cause some forms of conjunctivitis, according to a recent report in the Archives of Ophthalmology. And overuse of eyedrops that reduce redness by narrowing blood vessels may be problematic for some people.

Supplement Recommendations

Eyebright
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Zinc
Chamomile
Goldenseal


Eyebright

Dosage: 1 tsp. dried herb per pint of hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.

Vitamin A
Dosage: 50,000 IU twice a day for 7 days, then 25,000 IU daily for 3 weeks.
Comments: Women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy should not exceed 5,000 IU a day.

Vitamin C

Dosage: 1,000 mg 3 times a day for 1 month.
Comments: Reduce dose if diarrhea develops.

Zinc
Dosage: 30 mg a day for 1 month.
Comments: Do not exceed 150 mg zinc a day from all sources.

Chamomile

Dosage: 2 or 3 tsp. dried herb per cup hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.

Goldenseal

Dosage: 1 tsp. dried herb per pint of hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.

You may click to see :
*Conjunctivitis/Eye Infection  ….
*Eye Problems – Eye Infections…
*How to Prevent This Eye Infection….
*A Quick Peek on Eye Infections Associated With Contact Lenses…

Resources:-

Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs

http://www.lifebridgehealth.org/kriegerbody.cfm?id=4233

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