Categories
Diagnonistic Test

Tonometry

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Alternative Names:Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; Glaucoma test
Definition:
Tonometry is the measurement of tension or pressure  in your eyeball. High pressure inside the eye is caused by a disease called glaucoma, which can damage your vision if it is not treated. It is recommended that all adults over age 40 have their eye pressures measured every three to five years to check for glaucoma.Because People over age 40, especially African-Americans, are at the highest risk for developing glaucoma. Regular eye exams can help detect glaucoma early, when it can usually be treated.

A tonometer is an instrument for measuring tension or pressure ……..CLICK & SEE

In ophthalmology, tonometry is the procedure eye care professionals perform to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP), the fluid pressure inside the eye. It is an important test in the evaluation of ocular conditions such as glaucoma as well as conditions such as phthisis bulbi, and iritis. Most tonometers are calibrated to measure pressure in mmHg.
How do you prepare for the test?
Remove any contact lenses before the examination.The dye can permanently stain contact lenses.  Inform the health care provider if you have corneal ulcers and infections, an eye infection, if you are taking any drugs, or if you have a history of glaucoma in your family or other type of eye problem.
What happens when the test is performed and how it is done?
The pressure inside your eye is always measured from the outside. In most cases, if you are at an eye clinic, the pressure can even be measured without anything actually touching your eye. The eye doctor has you look up close at an instrument that blows a small puff of air onto your eye. It then uses a special sensor (like a tiny radar detector) to detect the amount of indentation that the air puff causes on the surface of the eye. This indentation is normal and lasts for only a fraction of a second.

Sometimes patients need to have their eye pressure measured but they are not in an eye clinic with this type of machine (for example, some patients need to be checked for glaucoma in an emergency room). In this case, the pressure can be measured with an instrument resembling a pen. One end of the instrument is placed on the surface of the eyeball. This feels like having a contact lens put in your eye.

There are several methods of testing for glaucoma.

The applanation method measures the force required to flatten a certain area of the cornea. A fine strip of paper stained with orange dye is touched to the side of the eye. The dye stains the front of the eye to help with the examination, then rinses out with tears. An anesthetic drop is also placed in the eye.

The slit-lamp is placed in front of you and you rest your chin and forehead on a support that keeps your head steady. The lamp is moved forward until the tonometer touches the cornea. The light is usually a blue circle. The health care provider looks through the eyepiece on the lamp and adjusts the tension on the tonometer. There is no discomfort associated with the test.

A slightly different method of applanation uses an object similar to pencil. Again, you are given numbing eye drops to prevent any discomfort. The device touches the outside of the eye and instantly records eye pressure.

The last method is the noncontact method (air puff). In this method, your chin rests on a padded stand. You stare straight into the examining device. The eye doctor shines a bright light into your eye to properly line up the instrument, and then delivers a brief puff of air at your eye. The machine measures eye pressure by looking at how the light reflections change as the air hits the eye.

Must you do anything special after the test is over?
Nothing.
How the Test Will Feel?
If numbing eye drops were used, you should not have any pain. In the noncontact method, you may feel mild pressure on your eye.

What risks are there from the test?
The test might make you feel like blinking, but it does not cause any pain. There are no risks from this test.If the applanation method is used, there is a small chance the cornea may be scratched (corneal abrasion). This will normally heal itself within a few days.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
You can know the result of the test right away.

Results:

Normal Results

The eye pressure is within the normal range.

Normal eye pressure range is 10 – 21 mm Hg.

What Abnormal Results Mean?

Glaucoma may be detected.

Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:

Hyphema
*Trauma to the eye or head
*Before and after eye surgery

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonometry
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/tonometry.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003447.htm

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Presbyopia

Definition:
Presbyopia (Greek word “presbys”, meaning “old person”) describes the condition where the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects with age. Presbyopia’s exact mechanisms are not known with certainty, however, the research evidence most strongly supports a loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, although changes in the lens’s curvature from continual growth and loss of power of the ciliary muscles (the muscles that bend and straighten the lens) have also been postulated as its cause.

………CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Similar to grey hair and wrinkles, presbyopia is a symptom caused by the natural course of aging presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes’ ability to focus actively on nearby objects — is a not-so-subtle reminder that you’ve reached middle age. A natural, often annoying part of aging, presbyopia usually develops after age 40.The first symptoms (described below) are usually first noticed between the ages of 40-50. The ability to focus on near objects declines throughout life, from an accommodation of about 20 dioptres (ability to focus at 50 mm away) in a child to 10 dioptres at 25 (100 mm) and leveling off at 0.5 to 1 dioptre at age 60 (ability to focus down to 1-2 meters only).

Symptoms
The first symptoms most people notice are difficulty reading fine print, particularly in low light conditions, eyestrain when reading for long periods, blur at near or momentarily blurred vision when transitioning between viewing distances. Many advanced presbyopes complain that their arms have become “too short” to hold reading material at a comfortable distance.

Presbyopia, like other focus defects, becomes much less noticeable in bright sunlight. This is a result of the iris closing to a smaller diameter. As with any lens, increasing the focal ratio of the lens increases depth of field by reducing the level of blur of out-of-focus objects (compare the effect of aperture on depth of field in photography).

A delayed onset of seeking correction for presbyopia has been found among those with certain professions and those with miotic pupils. In particular, farmers and housewives seek correction later, whereas service workers and construction workers seek eyesight correction earlier.

Focusing mechanism of the eye:
In optics, the closest point at which an object can be brought into focus by the eye is called the eye’s near point. A standard near point distance of 25 cm is typically assumed in the design of optical instruments, and in characterizing optical devices such as magnifying glasses.

There is some confusion in articles and even textbooks over how the focusing mechanism of the eye actually works. In the classic book, ‘Eye and Brain’ by Gregory, for example, the lens is said to be suspended by a membrane, the ‘zonula’, which holds it under tension. The tension is released, by contraction of the ciliary muscle, to allow the lens to fatten, for close vision. This would seem to imply that the ciliary muscle, which is outside the zonula must be circumferential, contracting like a sphincter, to slacken the tension of the zonula pulling outwards on the lens. This is consistent with the fact that our eyes seem to be in the ‘relaxed’ state when focusing at infinity, and also explains why no amount of effort seems to enable a myopic person to see further away. Many texts, though, describe the ‘ciliary muscles’ (which seem more likely to be just elastic ligaments and not under any form of nervous control) as pulling the lens taut in order to focus at close range. This has the counterintuitive effect of steepening the lens centrally (increasing its power) and flattening peripherally.

Presbyopia and the ‘payoff’ for the nearsighted
Many people with myopia are able to read comfortably without eyeglasses or contact lenses even after age 40. However, their myopia does not disappear and the long-distance visual challenges will remain. Myopes with astigmatism will find near vision better though not perfect without glasses or contact lenses once presbyopia sets in, but the greater the amount of astigmatism the poorer their uncorrected near vision. Myopes considering refractive surgery are advised that surgically correcting their nearsightedness may actually be a disadvantage after the age of 40 when the eyes become presbyopic and lose their ability to accommodate or change focus because they will then need to use glasses for reading. A surgical technique offered is to create a “reading eye” and a “distance vision eye”, a technique commonly used in contact lens practice, known as monovision. Monovision can be created with contact lenses or spectacles so candidates for this procedure can determine if they are prepared to have their corneas reshaped by surgery to cause this effect permanently.

Causes:
Presbyopia is caused by an age-related process. This is different from astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness, which are related to the shape of the eyeball and caused by genetic factors, disease or trauma. Presbyopia is generally believed to stem from a gradual loss of flexibility in the natural lens inside your eye.

These age-related changes occur within the proteins in the lens, making the lens harder and less elastic with the years. Age-related changes also take place in the muscle fibers surrounding the lens. With less elasticity, the eye has a harder time focusing up close. Other, less popular theories exist as well.

Most experts agree that presbyopia is caused by a hardening of your lens, which in turn develops with aging. As your lens becomes less flexible, it can no longer change shape, and close-up images appear out of focus.

Tests and diagnosis:
Presbyopia is diagnosed by a basic eye exam. This exam is generally administered by either an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. An ophthalmologist, who has a doctor of medicine (M.D.) degree, is a specialist trained to diagnose and manage eye disorders, including those that may require either medical or surgical treatment. An optometrist, who has a doctor of optometry (O.D.) degree, can perform many of the same services as an ophthalmologist, such as evaluating your vision, prescribing corrective lenses and diagnosing common eye disorders. In some states, optometrists also treat selected eye disorders with drugs. However, an optometrist may refer you to an ophthalmologist for more complex eye problems and for surgical procedures.

A complete eye examination involves a series of tests. Your eye doctor may use odd-looking instruments, aim bright lights directly at your eyes and request that you look through an array of lenses. Each test is necessary and allows your doctor to evaluate a different aspect of your vision.

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, if you don’t wear glasses or contacts, have no symptoms of eye trouble and are at a low risk of developing eye disease, you should have your eyes examined at the following intervals:

*Every five to 10 years under age 40
*Every two to four years between ages 40 and 64
*Every one to two years beginning at age 65

However, if you wear glasses or contacts, have your eyes checked more often. And if you notice any problems with your vision, schedule an appointment with your eye doctor as soon as possible, even if you’ve recently had an eye exam. Blurred vision may suggest you need a prescription change or have another eye problem that may need evaluation and treatment.

Treatment:
Presbyopia is not routinely curable – though tentative steps toward a possible cure suggest that this may be possible – but the loss of focusing ability can be compensated for by corrective lenses including eyeglasses or contact lenses. In subjects with other refractory problems, convex lenses are used. In some cases, the addition of bifocals to an existing lens prescription is sufficient. As the ability to change focus worsens, the prescription needs to be changed accordingly.

In order to reduce the need for bifocals or reading glasses, some people choose contact lenses to correct one eye for near and one eye for far with a method called “monovision”. Monovision sometimes interferes with depth perception. There are also newer bifocal or multifocal contact lenses that attempt to correct both near and far vision with the same lens.

Controversially, eye exercises have been quoted as a way to delay the onset of presbyopia, but there is no evidence that they work.

Nutrition
At least one scientific study reported that taking lutein supplements or otherwise increasing the amount of lutein in the diet resulted in an improvement in visual acuity, while another study suggested that lutein supplementation might slow aging of the lens. Lutein is found naturally in both the lens of the eye and the macula, the central area of the retina.

The goal of treatment is to compensate for the inability of your eyes to focus on nearby objects. Treatment options include wearing corrective lenses, undergoing refractive surgery or getting lens implants.

Corrective lenses
If you had good, uncorrected vision before developing presbyopia, you may be able to use nonprescription reading glasses. But check with your eye doctor about what’s right for you.

Reading glasses sold over-the-counter are labeled on a scale that corresponds to the degree of magnification (power). The least powerful are labeled +1.00, and the most powerful +3.00. When purchasing reading glasses, try out a few different powers until you find the magnification that allows you to read comfortably. Test each pair on printed material held about 14 to 16 inches in front of your face.

You’ll need prescription lenses for presbyopia if over-the-counter glasses are inadequate or if you already wear corrective lenses for nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism. Your choices include:

Prescription reading glasses. If you have no other vision problems, you can have prescription lenses for reading only.

Bifocals. These glasses come in two styles — those with a visible horizontal line and those without a line (progressive bifocals). When you look through progressive bifocals at eye level, the lenses correct your distance vision. This correction gradually changes to reading correction at the bottom.

Trifocals. These glasses have corrections for close work, middle-distance vision — such as for computer screens — and distance vision. Trifocals can have visible lines or progressive lenses.

Bifocal contacts. Bifocal contact lenses, like bifocal glasses, provide distance and close-up correction on each contact. The bottom, reading portion of the lens is weighted to keep the lens correctly positioned on your eye. These are frequently difficult to fit and often do not provide altogether satisfactory visual results.

Monovision contacts. With monovision contacts, you wear a contact lens for distance vision in your dominant eye and a contact lens for close-up vision in your nondominant eye. Your dominant eye is generally the one you use when you’re aiming a camera to take a picture.

Modified monovision. With this option, you wear a bifocal contact lens in your nondominant eye and a contact lens set for distance in your dominant eye. You use both eyes for distance and one eye for reading. Your brain learns which lens to favor — depending on whether you’re viewing things close up or far away — so you don’t have to consciously make the choice of which eye to use.

Refractive surgery:-
Refractive surgery changes the shape of your cornea. For presbyopia, this treatment — equivalent to wearing monovision contact lenses — may be used to improve close-up vision in the nondominant eye. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that people try monovision contacts to determine if they can adjust to this kind of correction before considering refractive surgery.

Most refractive surgical procedures were developed to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Few studies have been published about the long-term effectiveness of monovision refractive surgery for people with presbyopia, but some evidence suggests that the surgery may help some people with presbyopia reduce their dependence on corrective lenses. Eventually, though, many people who have had refractive surgery will still need corrective lenses for reading.

Refractive surgical procedures include the following:

Conductive keratoplasty (CK). This procedure uses radio frequency energy to apply heat to very tiny spots around the cornea. The degree of change in the cornea’s curvature depends on the number and spacing of the spots, as well as the way in which the corneal tissue heals after the treatment. The results of CK are variable and unstable in many people.

New surgical options to treat presbyopia are being researched and are already available in many countries. One example is Refractec Inc.’s conductive keratoplasty, or NearVision CK treatment, which uses radio waves to create more curvature in the cornea for a higher “plus” prescription to improve near vision. The method was FDA-approved for the temporary reduction of presbyopia in April 2004. (In 2002 it had been approved for mild farsightedness.) Click to read more about how CK works.
…………………….CLICK & SEE

The eye’s lens stiffens with age, so it is less able to focus when you view something up close. The result is blurred near vision. (Illustration: Varilux).
A highly experimental treatment is a soft, elastic polymer gel that researchers say would be injected into the capsular bag, the cavity that contains the natural lens. In theory, the gel would replace the natural lens and serve as a new, more elastic lens. Experiments also have centered on laser treatment of the eye’s hardened lens to increase flexibility and improve focus.

With the recent introduction of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses, some people undergoing cataract surgery may be able to achieve clear vision at all distances. Also, an elective procedure known as refractive lens exchange may enable you to replace your eye’s natural lens with an artificial one using presbyopia-correcting lenses.

Other methods are being researched as well. Click to read more about surgical options for presbyopia.

Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). With this procedure, your eye surgeon uses a laser or an instrument called a keratome to make a thin, hinged flap in your cornea. Your surgeon then uses an excimer laser to remove inner layers of your cornea to steepen its domed shape. An excimer laser differs from other lasers in that it doesn’t produce heat.

Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). Instead of creating a flap in the cornea, the surgeon creates a flap only in the cornea’s thin protective cover (epithelium). Your surgeon will use an excimer laser to reshape the cornea’s outer layers and steepen its curvature and then reposition the epithelial flap.

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This procedure is similar to LASEK, except the surgeon removes the epithelium. It will grow back naturally, conforming to your cornea’s new shape.

Lens implants
Another procedure used by some ophthalmologists involves removal of your clear natural lens and replacement with a synthetic lens inside your eye (intraocular lens implant). The synthetic lens implant is designed to allow your eye to see things both near and at a distance. However, synthetic lens implants haven’t been entirely satisfactory; recipients have experienced problems with glare and blurring. In addition, this surgery carries with it the same risks associated with cataract surgery, such as inflammation, infection, bleeding and glaucoma.

.
Lifestyle modification and home remedies:
Although you can’t prevent presbyopia, you can help protect your eyes and your vision. Follow these steps:

Have your eyes checked. Regardless of how well you see, have your eyes checked regularly for problems.
Control chronic health conditions. Certain conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can affect your vision if you don’t receive proper treatment.

Recognize symptoms. Sudden loss of vision in one eye, sudden hazy or blurred vision, flashes of light, black spots, or halos or rainbows around lights may signal a serious medical problem, such as acute glaucoma or stroke, or some other treatable retinal condition, such as a retinal tear or retinal detachment. Talk to your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms.

Protect your eyes from the sun. Wear sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is especially important if you spend long hours in the sun or are taking a prescription medication that increases your sensitivity to UV radiation.

Eat healthy foods. Try to eat plenty of fruits and leafy greens and other vegetables; these foods generally contain high levels of antioxidants as well as vitamin A and beta carotene. They’re also vital to maintaining healthy vision.
Use the right glasses. The right glasses optimize your vision. Having regular exams will ensure that your eyeglass prescription is correct.
Use good lighting. Turn up the light for better vision.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyopia
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/presbyopia.htm
MayoClinic.com

Categories
Diagnonistic Test

Snellen Test for Visual Acuity

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Definition:
A Snellen test uses a chart with different sizes of letters or forms to evaluate your visual acuity-that is, the sharpness of your vision. The test shows how accurately you can see from a distance.
……………………………CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

A Snellen chart is an eye chart used by eye care professionals and others to measure visual acuity. Snellen charts are named after the Dutch ophthalmologist Herman Snellen who developed the chart in 1862.

Description
The traditional Snellen chart is printed with eleven lines of block letters. The first line consists of one very large letter, which may be one of several letters, for example E, H, N, or A. Subsequent rows have increasing numbers of letters that decrease in size. A patient taking the test covers one eye, and reads aloud the letters of each row, beginning at the top. The smallest row that can be read accurately indicates the patient’s visual acuity in that eye.
………………………………..
The symbols on an acuity chart are formally known as “optotypes.” In the case of the traditional Snellen chart, the optotypes have the appearance of block letters, and are intended to be seen and read as letters. They are not, however, letters from any ordinary typographer’s font. They have a particular, simple geometry in which:

the thickness of the lines equals the thickness of the white spaces between lines and the thickness of the gap in the letter “C”
the height and width of the optotype (letter) is five times the thickness of the line.
Only the ten letters C, D, E, F, L, N, O, P, T, Z are used in the traditional Snellen chart. The perception of five out of six letters (or similar ratio) is judged to be the Snellen fraction.

Wall-mounted Snellen charts are inexpensive and are sometimes used for rough assessment of vision, e.g. in a primary-care physician’s office. Whenever acuity must be assessed carefully (as in an eye doctor’s examination), or where there is a possibility that the examinee might attempt to deceive the examiner (as in a motor vehicle license office), equipment is used that can present the letters in a variety of randomized patterns.

According to BS 4274:1968 (British Standards Institution) “Specification for test charts for determining distance visual acuity” the minimum illumination for externally illuminated charts should be 480 lx, however this very important parameter is frequently ignored by physicians, making many test results invalid.

Snellen fraction
Visual acuity = Distance at which test is made / distance at which the smallest optotype identified subtends an angle of 5 arcminutes.[citation needed]

“20/20” (or “6/6”) vision
Snellen defined “standard vision” as the ability to recognize one of his optotypes when it subtended 5 minutes of arc. Thus the optotype can only be recognized if the person viewing it can discriminate a spatial pattern separated by a visual angle of 1 minute of arc.

In the most familiar acuity test, a Snellen chart is placed at a standard distance, twenty feet in the US. At this distance, the symbols on the line representing “normal” acuity subtend an angle of five minutes of arc, and the thickness of the lines and of the spaces between the lines subtends one minute of arc. This line, designated 20/20, is the smallest line that a person with normal acuity can read at a distance of twenty feet.

Three lines above, the letters have twice the dimensions of those on the 20/20 line. The chart is at a distance of twenty feet, but a person with normal acuity could be expected to read these letters at a distance of forty feet. This line is designated by the ratio 20/40. If this is the smallest line a person can read, the person’s acuity is “20/40,” meaning, in a very rough kind of way, that this person needs to approach to a distance of twenty feet to read letters that a person with normal acuity could read at forty feet. In an even rougher way, this person could be said to have “half” the normal acuity.

Outside of the US, the standard chart distance is six meters, normal acuity is designated 6/6, and other acuities are expressed as ratios with a numerator of 6.

Acuity charts are used during many kinds of vision examinations, such as “refracting” the eye to determine the best eyeglass prescription. During such examinations, acuity ratios are never mentioned.

The biggest letter on an eye chart often represents an acuity of 20/200, the value that is considered “legally blind.” Many people with refractive errors have the misconception that they have “bad vision” because they “can’t even read the E at the top of the chart without my glasses.” But in most situations where acuity ratios are mentioned, they refer to best corrected acuity. Many people with moderate myopia “cannot read the E” without glasses, but have no problem reading the 20/20 line or 20/15 line with glasses. A legally blind person is one who cannot read the E even with the best possible glasses.

Criticism
Snellen charts have been the target of some criticism. The fact that the number of letters increases while the size decreases introduces two variables, rather than just one. Some people may simply (or unconsciously) memorize the Snellen chart before being tested by it, or between tests of one eye and the other, to give the impression that their vision is good. Several studies indicate that the crowding together of letters makes them inherently more difficult to read. Another issue is that there are fairly large and uneven jumps in acuity level between the rows. To address these concerns, more modern charts have been designed that have the same number of letters on each row and use a geometric progression to determine the size of each row of letters. Also, some letters are harder to distinguish than others, such as P vs F, C vs G, Q vs O, etc.

How to prepare for the test?
No preparation is necessary.

How the Test is performed?
You stand or sit at a specific distance from the eye chart. Usually you are told to cover one eye with a cardboard piece or with your hand while you read letters with the other eye and say them out loud for the doctor.

In an eye clinic, you may have a more sophisticated version of this test in which you look at the chart through different strengths of lenses (a little bit like looking through a telescope) so that your doctor can find the proper strength of glasses or contact lenses for you. Sometimes the Snellen chart you see in an eye clinic is actually a reflection on a mirror from a projector in the back of the room. This enables eye doctors to use a variety of charts without you having to move from your chair. The test takes only a few minutes.

Risk Factor:
There are no risks.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
You can find out immediately whether your vision is normal (“20/20”) or whether you have a vision problem. Glasses do not correct every vision problem, but an eye doctor can tell you if they will help.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snellen_chart
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/snellen-test-for-visual-acuity.htm

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Injuries

 

a small piece of iron has lodged near the marg...Image via Wikipedia

It’s common for a speck of dirt to get blown into your eye, for soap to wash into your eye, or for you to accidentally bump your eye. For these types of minor eye injuries, home treatment is usually all that is needed.

click to see the pictures

Some sports and recreational activities increase the risk of eye injuries.
*Very high-risk sports include boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.

*High-risk sports include baseball, football, tennis, fencing, and squash.

*Low-risk sports include swimming and gymnastics (no body contact or use of a ball, bat, or racquet).

Blows to the eye:-
Direct blows to the eye can damage the skin and other tissues around the eye, the eyeball, or the bones of the eye socket. Blows to the eye often cause bruising around the eye (black eye) or cuts to the eyelid. If a blow to the eye or a cut to the eyelid occurred during an accident, be sure to check for injuries to the eyeball itself and for other injuries, especially to the head or face. Concern about an eye injury may cause you to miss other injuries that need attention.

Burns to the eye:-
Burns to the eye may be caused by chemicals, fumes, hot air or steam, sunlight, tanning lamps, electric hair curlers or dryers, or welding equipment. Bursts of flames or flash fires from stoves or explosives can also burn the face and eyes.

*Chemical burns can occur if a solid chemical, liquid chemical, or chemical fumes get into the eye. Many substances will not cause damage if they are flushed out of the eye quickly. Acids and alkali substances can damage the eye. It may take 24 hours after the burn to determine the seriousness of an eye burn. Chemical fumes and vapors can also irritate the eyes.

*Bright sunlight (especially when the sun is reflecting off snow or water) can burn your eyes if you do not wear sunglasses that filter out ultraviolet (UV) light. Eyes that are not protected by a mask can be burned by exposure to the high-intensity light of a welder’s equipment (torch or arc). The eyes also may be injured by other bright lights, such as from tanning booths or sunlamps.

For more information, you may click to see :-> Burns to the Eye.

Foreign objects in the eye:-
A foreign particle  in the eye, such as dirt, an eyelash, a contact lens, or makeup, can cause eye symptoms.

*Objects may scratch the surface of the eye (cornea) or become stuck on the eye. If the cornea is scratched, it can be hard to tell whether the object has been removed, because a scratched cornea may feel painful and as though something is still in the eye. Most corneal scratches are minor and heal on their own in 1 or 2 days.

*Small or sharp objects traveling at high speeds can cause serious injury to many parts of the eyeball. Objects flying from a lawn mower, grinding wheel, or any tool may strike the eye and possibly puncture the eyeball. Injury may cause bleeding between the iris and cornea (hyphema), a change in the size or shape of the pupil, or damage to the structures inside the eyeball. These objects may be deep in the eye and may require medical treatment.

In the case of a car air bag inflating, all three types of eye injuries can occur. The force of impact can cause a blow to the eye, foreign objects may enter the eye, and chemicals in the air bag can burn the eye.
Eye injuries can be prevented by using protective eyewear. Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when working with power tools or chemicals or doing any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.

After an eye injury, you need to watch for vision changes and symptoms of an infection. Most minor eye injuries can be treated at home. You may click to See :->the Home Treatment.

EMERGENCIES:-
Call emergency services immediately!

Do you have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.

*An object has punctured and penetrated the eye. Note: Do not bandage or put any pressure on the eye. If an object has penetrated the eyeball, hold the object in place to prevent further movement and injury to the eye.
*An eyeball is bulging out of its socket or looks abnormal after an injury.
*Sudden partial or complete vision loss has occurred in one or both eyes. Note: Treatment is needed within 90 minutes to save vision.


*Severe pain continues after 30 minutes of flushing a chemical from the eye.
*Normal vision is limited to one functional eye.

PREVENTION:-

The following tips may help prevent eye injuries.

*Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when you hammer nails or metal, work with power tools or chemicals, or do any activity that might cause a burn to your eyes. If you work with hazardous chemicals that could splash into your eyes, know how to flush chemicals out, and know the location of the nearest shower or sink.

*If you are welding or near someone else who is welding, wear a mask or goggles designed for welding.

*Wear protective eyewear during sports such as hockey, racquetball, or paintball that involve the risk of a blow to the eye. Baseball is the most common sport to cause eye injuries. Fishhook injuries are another common cause of eye injuries.
Protective eyewear can prevent sports-related eye injuries more than 90% of the time. An eye examination may be helpful in determining what type of protective eyewear is needed.

*Injuries from ultraviolet (UV) light can be prevented by wearing sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) rays and by wearing broad-brimmed hats. Be aware that the eye can be injured from sun glare while boating, sunbathing, or skiing. Use eye protection while you are under tanning lamps or using tanning booths. Laser pointers have not been shown to cause eye injury.

*Wear your seat belt when in a motor vehicle. Use child car seats.

Prevention tips for children:-
Eye injuries are common in children, and many can be prevented. Most eye injuries happen in older children. They happen more often in boys than in girls. Toys—from crayons to toy guns—are a major source of injury, so check all toys for sharp or pointed parts. Household items, such as elastic cords, can also strike the eye and cause injury.

Teach your children about eye safety. :-

*Be a good role model—always wear proper eye protection.

*Get protective eyewear for your children and help them use it properly.

*Teach children that flying toys should never be pointed at another person.

*Teach children how to carry sharp or pointed objects properly.

*Teach children that any kind of missile, projectile, or BB gun is not a toy.

*Use safety measures near fires and explosives, such as campfires and fireworks.

Any eye injury that appears unusual for a child’s age should be evaluated as possible child abuse.

Sources: MSN Health & Fitness

 

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Bug That Causes Bad Breath Nailed

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Solobacterium moorei is the organism largely responsible for chronic bad breath, or halitosis, biologists reported at the annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research in Dallas.

Persistent bad breath, which can be very embarrassing, is often caused by the breakdown of bacteria in the mouth, producing foul-smelling sulphur compounds that reside on the surface of the tongue.

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“Tongue bacteria produce malodorous compounds and fatty acids, and account for 80 to 90% of all cases of bad breath,” said Betsy Clark, a student at the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine.

Some cases of bad breath originate in the lungs or sinuses.

In a study of 21 people with chronic bad breath and 36 subjects without this problem, Clark and colleagues found S moorei in every patient that had halitosis compared with only four comparison subjects. The four people without halitosis infected with S moorei all had periodontitis, an infection of the gums that can also lead to chronically bad breath.

In a previous study of eight patients with halitosis and five without, S moorei was “always found in patients with halitosis and never in patients who did not have this problem,” Dr Violet I Haraszthy, who was involved in both studies, noted. “A number of other studies have also found this bacterium in halitosis patients.”

Sources: The Times Of India