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In The Throes Of Despair

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A combination of nature and nurture leads to post-traumatic stress disorder, say scientist .Both genetic and environmental factors affect people’s risk of developing post-traumatic stress, says new research that illustrates how nature and nurture combine to shape health and behaviour.

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A particular genetic variant makes people much more susceptible to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after harrowing experiences, but only if they have also had an abusive childhood, US scientists have discovered. The findings add to a growing consensus that the debate about whether mental health, personality and behaviour are driven by nature or nurture is founded on a misconception. They indicate strongly that genes and the environment are not mutually exclusive forces, but rather work together to influence human development.

PTSD is a serious anxiety disorder that develops among people who experience unpleasant events, such as war, murders, terrorist attacks or natural disasters. It leads to nightmares, insomnia, flashbacks, mood swings and depression, and can severely impair the ability to live a normal life.

Not everybody who experiences severe trauma develops PTSD, and the risk is known to be influenced by genetics. Studies of twins who served in Vietnam showed that identical pairs, who share all their genes, are more likely both to suffer than are fraternal sets.

Genes, however, do not explain all the variability in people’s risk, and the precise genes and environmental factors that are involved have remained obscure.

A study led by Kerry Ressler, of Emory University in Atlanta, examined the effects of a gene called FKBP5, which is involved in the way the body responds to stress. The DNA code of this gene varies at four points, which allowed the scientists to investigate whether any particular genetic profiles would either raise the risk of PTSD or protect against it.

As PTSD develops only when people have lived through traumatic events, Dr Ressler studied a group of 900 adults who lived in deprived urban communities and were likely to have had violent experiences of the sort that can provoke the disorder.

The participants were also asked to complete a questionnaire that recorded whether they had suffered physical or sexual abuse at a young age. When variations in the FKBP5 gene were examined on their own, the researchers found no effect on PTSD risk. A history of child abuse also made no difference in isolation.

When the two factors were considered together, however, they were found to interact to raise or reduce risk. People with certain variants of FKBP5 were much more likely to develop PTSD after trauma if they had also been abused as children.

“These results are early and will need to be replicated, but they support the hypothesis that combinations of genes and environmental factors affect the risk for stress-related disorders like PTSD,” Dr Ressler said.

“Understanding how gene-environment interactions affect mental health can help us to understand the neuro- biology of these illnesses.”

The results, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, follow other studies that have shown how genetic variants interact with environmental factors to affect behaviour or mental health.

A team led by Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt, of the Institute of Psychiatry, London, has found that a variant of a gene called MAOA predisposes to antisocial behaviour when accompanied by child abuse. Dr Caspi said: “It is part of an emerging body of research that documents not so much that genes cause disease, but rather that genetic differences shape how people respond differently to the same events.”


Ailmemts & Remedies

Amebic Dysentry

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Amebic dysentery (also called gastrointestinal amebiasis) is an attack of diarrhea caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite infects and damages the stomach and intestine, this causes the symptoms. People usually catch the parasite by drinking dirty water or eating contaminated food. The parasite is usually found outside the United States and Western Europe, but can be caught anywhere where there is unclean water or food. In rare cases, the parasite can spread through the blood to the lung, liver, brain, and other organs. If you have anal sex, amebic dysentry can also be caught from your sexual partner.


Symptoms usually begin 2-4 weeks after infection, but sometimes they can start months later. Some people who become infected with this parasite have no symptoms. Most people who catch the parasite will have:

Stomach cramps
Stomach tenderness (soreness)
Diarrhea (10-12 small bowel movements per day)
Bloody diarrhea (because the parasite damages the intestines causing bleeding)
Mucus in the diarrhea (mucus is a slippery thick liquid)
Sickness (feeling sick, being sick)
Slight fever (in some cases)

In more serious cases the diarrhea can be serious and you may need to stay in hospital to recieve intravenous fluids. Other symptoms include:

Back pain

These symptoms can last for months and infrequently lead to peritonitis and other dangerous complications. Another danger exists in the form of a penetration of amœbas into the blood system, from where they are transported into the liver and in infrequent cases into other organs as well. This then causes life-threatening amebic abscesses, which lead to pain and high fever without diarrhea symptoms.

Click for more knowledge on Symptoms of Amebic dysentery
Tests needed for diagonisis:

An infection of the gastrointestinal tract can be determined by a microscopic examination of the stool, even if no symptoms are present.
Your doctor will ask about your medical history and examine you. Your stool (diarrhea) will need to be tested and you will be asked to collect three or more samples to see if you have the parasite before medicine is given. Return the stool samples as soon as possible as the best test results come from fresh stool.

Modern Treatment:
In most cases your doctor will give you pills to kill the parasite that causes amebic dysentery. For mild cases, the medicine is taken for 5-10 days. Your doctor might give you an injection. This medicine should not be taken if you are pregnant.

Most people will only need one type of medicine. It is important that you take all the pills given to you by your doctor in order to get rid of the parasite. If the parasite spreads beyond the intestine, you may need 6-12 months of treatment. Very rarely, surgery is needed for an infection that spreads outside the intestine. Your doctor will want to recheck your stool at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment to make sure all the parasites are gone.

Ayurvedic Treatment:

For Amebic dysentry, Ulcerativive colitiss : Vetpalai pattai 30gm + Mambaruppu 15gm kassayam morning and evening. Masikkai 1gm powder. Kaduukaipoo 1gm powder to eat in fruit juice. AVK eat one tablets 2 times per day. Kilanelli eat one tablets 2 times per day.

Homeopathic treatment for Amebic Dysentry

Natural Remedies for Parasites



Do drink lots of fluids like water, so you don’t lose too much water from diarrhea
Do shower after each bowel movement and wash very carefully with soap and warm water
Do sit in a bathtub filled with warm water for 10-15 minutes after showering as this can help any pain
Do call your doctor right away if you have a high fever, lots of bloody diarrhea, very bad stomach pain, or pain in the right upper side of your stomach
Do practice safe sex as your sexual partner could catch this illness from you. Either you or your sexual partner should wear a latex condom until your doctor confirms that you are better. Ask your doctor for advice about what else you can do to avoid spreading amebic dysentery as an STD

Don’t stop taking your medicine or change your dosage because you feel better unless your doctor says you should do so. It is important that you take all the pills given to you by your doctor in order to kill the parasites.

Recovery Time

With treatment, most people get better in 10-20 days.

What you should do to stop it from happening again?
Take all the medicine given to you by your doctor in order to kill the parasites. Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using the bathroom. If you go to a place that does not have clean water you should only drink bottled water, boiled water, or canned/bottled soda. Don’t have ice in your drinks or eat ice cream.


Always eat good food and drink hygienic water.
Don’t swim in fresh water outside the US or Western Europe, or in dirty pools. Make sure all food is well cooked to kill parasites. If you are sexually active, your partner could catch this illness from you, or you could catch it from your partner. Ask your doctor for advice about how to stop this from happening and practice safe sex. If one of you is infected, either you or your sexual partner should wear a latex condom.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Further information on amebic dysentery can be found from:

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

1600 Clifton Road

Atlanta, GA 30333

Tel: (800) 311-3435 (toll free)

Tel: (404) 639-3534


Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.