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Fragaria californica

 

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Botanical Name: Fragaria californica
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Potentilleae
Subtribe: Fragariinae
Genus: Fragaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : Fragaria vesca californica. (Cham.&Schldl.)Staudt.

Common Name : Californian Strawberry

Habitat : Fragaria californica is native to South-western N. AmericaCalifornia. It grows in shaded, fairly damp places in woodland.

Description:
Fragaria californica is a perennial plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft). The plant is pretty, fast-spreading shady groundcover, with white flowers and red thimble-sized fruit that is the yummiest of any native strawberry. It looks lovely creeping among stepping stones, spilling out of a pot, or spreading in between shade-loving perennials like Columbine and Coral Bells. It is deer resistant once established, and likes dappled light and occasional water.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects

Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. A vigorous plant, spreading rapidly by means of runners. It flowers freely with us, but has not set fruit on our Cornwall trial ground as yet, possibly because all our plants are one clone.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Fruit – raw. Aromatic, sweet and succulent. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter. The fresh or dried leaves are used to brew an excellent tea.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent.

The leaves are astringent. A decoction has been used in the treatment of dysentery[

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.yerbab.uenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=274
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+californica

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Herbs & Plants

Convolvulus arvensis

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Botanical Name :Convolvulus arvensis
Family: Convolvulaceae
Genus: Convolvulus
Species: C. arvensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms : Cornbind. Ropebind. Withywind. Bearwind. Jack-run’-in’-the-Country. Devil’s Garters. Hedge Bells.

Common Names: Field bindweed

Habitat :Convolvulus arvensis is native to Europe and Asia.

Description:
Convolvulus arvensis is a climbing or creeping herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.5–2 m high. The leaves are spirally arranged, linear to arrowhead-shaped, 2–5 cm long and alternate, with a 1–3 cm petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 1-2.5 cm diameter, white or pale pink, with five slightly darker pink radial stripes. Flowering occurs in the mid-summer, when white to pale pink, funnel-shaped flowers develop. Flowers are approximately 0.75-1 in. (1.9-2.5 cm) across and are subtended by small bracts. Fruit are light brown, rounded and 1/8 in. (0.3 cm) wide. Each fruit contains 2 seeds that are eaten by birds and can remain viable in the soil for decades.
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There are two varieties:

1. Convolvulus arvensis var. arvensis. Leaves broader.
2. Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius. Leaves narrower

Although  Convolvulus arvensis  produces attractive flowers, it is often unwelcome in gardens as a nuisance weed due to its rapid growth and choking of cultivated plants. It was most likely introduced into North America as a contaminant in crop seed as early as 1739, as an invasive species. Plants typically inhabit roadsides, grasslands and also along streams. Its dense mats invade agricultural fields and reduce crop yields; it is estimated that crop losses due to this plant in the United States exceeded US$377 million in the year 1998 alone.

Cultivation:        
Prefers a lighter basic soil of low to medium fertility. Bindweed is a very deep-rooting plant with a vigorous root system that extends to a considerable distance and is very hard to eradicate from the soil. Even a small piece of the root will grow into a new plant if it is left in the ground. Once established this plant soon becomes a pernicious weed. It is a climbing plant that supports itself by twining around any support it can find and can soon swamp and strangle other plants. The flowers close at night and also during rainy weather. Although visited by numerous insects, the flowers seldom set fertile seed. On sunny days the flowers diffuse a scent of heliotrope. The plant harbours tobacco mosaic virus of the Solanaceae and so should not be grown near potatoes, tomatoes and other members of that family.

Propagation: 
Seed – best sown in situ as soon as it is ripe, it germinates in the autumn[164]. This species can become a real pest in the garden so it is unwise to encourage it.

Edible Uses:  
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The plant has been used as a flavouring in a liqueur called ‘Noyeau’. No details are given as to which part of the plant is used.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used:  Root, root resin

Cholagogue;  Diuretic;  Laxative;  Purgative;  Stings;  Women’s complaints.

The root, and also a resin made from the root, is cholagogue, diuretic, laxative and strongly purgative. The dried root contains 4.9% resin. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of fevers. A tea made from the flowers is laxative and is also used in the treatment of fevers and wounds. A cold tea made from the leaves is laxative and is also used as a wash for spider bites or taken internally to reduce excessive menstrual flow.

Other Uses:  
Dye;  String.

The stem is used as a twine for tying up plants etc. It is fairly flexible and strong but not long-lasting. A green dye is obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resourcesa:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/convol96.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convolvulus_arvensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Convolvulus+arvensis

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Herbs & Plants

Ipomoea purga

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Botanical Name :Ipomoea purga
Family: Convolvulaceae – Morning-glory family
Genus :Ipomoea L. – morning-glory
Species: Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne – jalap
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms: Convolvulus purge Wender.; Ipomoea schiedeana Zucc.; Exogonium purge (Wender.) Benth. y Convolvulus officinalis Pelletan. and Convolvulus Pelletan officinalis.

Common Names:The purge, jalap, jalap root, lemongrass and umbrella (McDonald, 1994: Martinez, 1979), black Mechoacan. Tolompatl, tlanoquiloni and camotic in Nahuatl, Totonac language suyu (Martinez, 1979).

Habitat : Ipomoea purga is native to Mexico and it is naturalized in other parts of the neotropics. It grows on  woodland on the eastern slopes of the Mexican Andes.

Description:
Ipomoea purga is a Perennial herb, lying on the ground and entangled in other plants. Size: The stems of up to 7 m long.

Stem: Branching, smooth, twining climbing, green or purple, without hairs.

Leaves: Alternate, ovate, up to 12.5 cm long and 7.7 cm wide, slightly pointed, the margins entire, base cordate to aflechada, without hairs. Los pecíolos de hasta 6 cm de largo, lisos, sin pelillos. Petioles up to 6 cm long, smooth, without hairs.

Inflorescencia: De 1 a 2 flores sobre largos pedúnculos, en las axilas de las hojas. Inflorescence: 1 to 2 flowers on long stems in the axils of the leaves.

Flowers: The calyx of 5 sepals dark green, overlapping one another, somewhat unequal, the outer slightly larger than the interior, up to 10 mm long and up to 7 mm wide, the apex with a tiny notch, margins are integers and somewhat translucent; the corolla magenta-purple, trumpet-shaped tube (up to 6 cm long) very thin (slightly swollen at its middle), which widens towards the apex abruptly forming an almost limbo circular, slightly 5-angled (up to 6 cm in diameter), without hairs, stamens 5 somewhat unequal, exceeding the corolla, the filaments white, without hairs, style white, slightly longer than the stamens, without hairs.

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Nuts and seeds: dried fruit, a capsule conical, up to 10 mm long and up to 8 mm wide, without hairs, which opens at maturity to release seeds. Las semillas 4, negras, globoso-triangulares, cubiertas de pelillos. Seeds 4, black, globose-triangular, covered with hairs.

Root: It has a swollen root, up to 10 cm in diameter, and additionally a small tuberculitos.

Click to see the pictuires :

Ipomoea purga is rather difficult to break down, but if triturated with cream of tartar, sugar of milk, or other hard salts, the process of pulverization is much easier, and the powder rendered much finer. When in powder form in order to ingest, the color is a pale grayish-brown.

Discovery:
Ipomoea purga was discovered by Spanish conquistadores while settling among Mexican native peoples. It was introduced to Europe in 1565 as a medical herb used to treat an array of illnesses up until the 19th century when better medical practices had been discovered.
Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained humus-rich soil in a sunny position. This species is not very frost tolerant, though it might be possible to grow it outdoors in a very sheltered position in the mildest areas of Britain. Either cut the plant back or thin out the shoots in the spring. 218245

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Semi-ripe cuttings in the summer.

Chemical constituents:
Ipomoea purga resin can be dissolved in either alcohol or diethyl ether. The resin that is insoluble in ether is odorless while the resin insoluble in alcohol does have an odor and is typically a brownish color. The convolvulinolic acid (C28H52O14)that is produced in Ipomoea purga can be broken down into a sugar molecule (C6H12O6) and a form of crystallized convolvulinolic acid (C16H30O3) when diluted.

Medicinal Uses;
Jalap is such a powerful cathartic that its medicinal value is questionable.  Even in moderate doses it stimulates the elimination of profuse watery stools, and in larger doses it causes vomiting.When applied to a wound, it is said to induce purgation.

The tuber is a resinous acrid herb with an unpleasant taste that is often used as a purgative. It is taken internally in the treatment of constipation, colic and intestinal parasites. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/convolvulaceae/ipomoea-purga/fichas/ficha.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=IPPU6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipomoea_purga#cite_note-Jalap-2

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ipomoea+jalapa

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Herbs & Plants

Kupit-kupit

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Botanical Name : Merrremia emarginata (Burm. f) Hallier f
Family :         Convolvulacea
Genus :         Merremia
Species : Merremia emarginata (Burm.f.) Hallier f.


Other Scientific Name
s:Merrremia gangetica ,Convolvulus reniformis Roxb. ,Evolvulus emarginatus Burm f,Ipomoea reniformis (Roxb.) Sweet,Lepistemon reniformis Hassk.

Common Names
:Kupit-kupit (Ilk.),Kidney-leaf morning glory (Engl.)

Habitat : Weedy in fields, roadsides, grasslands, on clay to sandy soils, forest floors; 0-200 m. Guangdong, Hainan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa].

Description:
Herbs perennial, prostrate; axial parts sparsely hirtellous or glabrescent. Stems rooting at nodes, becoming tuberculate. Petiole 0.2-3.7 cm; leaf blade reniform to broadly ovate, 0.5-3.5 X 0.6-3.5 mm, glabrous or sparsely appressed pilose, base cordate, margin entire or coarsely crenate, apex obtuse to broadly rounded or slightly emarginate. Inflorescences subsessile, 1(-3)-flowered; bracts unequal, ovate to linear, pubescent, apex acute. Pedicel 2-4 mm. Sepals obovate to circular or subquadrate, ± pubescent abaxially, margin long ciliate; outer 2 sepals 2.5-3 mm, apex obtuse, hoodlike and distinctly mucronate; inner 3 sepals 3-6 mm, deeply emarginate. Corolla yellow, tubular-campanulate, 5-9 mm, midpetaline bands distinctly 5-veined, purplish tinged outside, inside pubescent basally; limb slightly 5-lobed. Filaments pubescent basally. Ovary glabrous. Capsule enclosed by persistent calyx, brown-black, ± globular, 5-6 mm, longitudinally grooved, glabrous, apiculate. Seeds grayish brown, ca. 2.5 mm, glabrous. 2n = 30.

click & see the pictures

Stems roots at the nodes, and are 10 to 80 cm in length. Leaves are small, kidney-shaped to somewhat heart-shaped, 6 to 15 mm long, often wider than long, and irregularly toothed. Flowers, one to three, occur in short stalks in the axils of leaves. Sepals are rounded, about 4 mm long, with few to many white, weak hairs. Corolla is yellow, nearly twice as long as the calyx. Capsule is rounded and about 5 mm in diameter.

Considered deobstruent, diuretic, alterative.

Edible Uses:
In India, leaves eaten as greens. Young leaves are fried with groundnut oil and other spices and used with bread, called “Roti” made from Sorghum flour. Leaves are also used in soups.


Medicinal Uses:

Parts used :Leaves, tops.

Folkloric
*In the Philippines, decoction of leaves and tops used as diuretic.
*Leaves used as alterative; used in rheumatism and neuralgia.
*Also used for coughs and headache.
*In India, leaf juice given for migraine; also used as ear drops to relieve abscesses and ulcers. Root is used to treat diseases of the eyes and gums.

Studies :-
• Antioxidant / a-Amylase Inhibition / Cytotoxicity: In a study of several extracts, the methanol showed better antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging method. The methanol and hexane extracts exhibited a-amylase inhibitory activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de/root/index.php?page_id=14&id=1085
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200018872
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kupit-kupit.html

http://malherbologie.cirad.fr/Adventrop/especes/m/mrrem/mrrem_a.html

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Sankapushpi(Hemidesmus indicus)

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Botanical Name : Hemidesmus indicus
Family Name: Asclepiadaceae
Vernacular Name: Sans-Sariba ,Hind -Anantamula , Eng– Indian sarasaparilla
Parts used –roots, leaves, stem

Habitat :A twining perennial herb, Convolvulus pluricaulis occurs in the plains of Northern Indian and Bihar.

Botanical Description: A prostrate herb, woody in nature.

Branches: 4″-12″ in length and hairy.
Leaves: Linear, lower pairs opposite, 0.5″-1.5″ length
Flower: Light pink or white
Calyx: Hairy

CLICK TO SEE..>.…(01).
The whole plant is one of the most important Medha Rasayana drugs in Ayurveda. Its use impro.ves the balance and vitiation in Kapha-vata-pitta doshas and the herb is astringent and bitter

Constituents:
Chemical studies of whole plant have shown the presence of glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Shankha pushpine, (the alkaloid) has been identified as active principle. B. sitosterol glycoside, Hydroxy Cinnamic acid, Octacosanol tetracosane alongwith glucose, sucrose also have been isolated from the plant drugs.
Pharmacological and Clinical Studies
The extract reduced the spontaneous activity of mice, the reduction being more marked in amphetamine treated hyperactive mice. The extract also exhibited potentiation of phenobarbitone hypnosis in mice and morphine analgesia in albino rats. The extract caused reduction on the fighting response of mice and abolished conditioned avoidance response without affecting the escape response. The electrically induced seizures in rats and induced tremors in mice were antagonized by the extract (Sharma et at -1965). Different types of stress including psychological, chemical and traumatic were produced in Rats and Rabbits treated with Shankhapushpi, active principles showed marked reduction in I-131 uptake, Acetylcholine, etc.

This suggests that probably the drug affects various glands through neuro-humors particularly acetylcholine (Jour Res. Ind. Med J. 1974). A study on a series of 30 cases of Anxiety status was conducted with the syrup of Shankhapushpi. A significant reduction in symptoms as well as anxiety level was found which established its psychotropic property. A comparative study of barbiturate Hypnosis potentiation effect of Medhya Rasayana drugs Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis) and Mandukaparni (Hydrocotyle asiatica) – (Shukla S.P.). Clinical evaluation of Medhya Rasayana in cases on Non-Depressive Anxiety neurosis significant clinical relief and favorable shift of grade of clinical of Anxiety and Depression scale were also found reduced (Kaushik K. E. Singh R. H. Ancient Science of Life, May 1992).

Medicinal Uses:
Shankpushpi is used traditionally to treat nervous debility, insomnia, fatigue, low energy level.
The whole herb is used medicinally in the form of decoction with cumin and milk in fever, nervous debility, loss of memory.

Shankhapushpi is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported to reduce mental tension. The ethanolic extract of the plant reduces total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and nonesterfied fatty-acid.

The roots are bitter, sweet, cooling, aromatic, refrigerant, emollient, depurative, carminative, appetizer, diaphoretic, expectorant.

Useful in vitiated pitta, burning sensation, leucoderma,leprosy, skin diseases, pruritis, asthma, opthalmopathy, hyperdipsia, hemicrania, epileptic fits, dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, leucorrhoea, syphilis, abscess, arthralgia, nad general debility.

Leaves are useful in vomiting, wounds, leucoderma  and Latex is good for conjunctivitis.

Stems are bitter, diaphoretic, laxative useful in unflammations, cerebropathy, hepatopathy, nephropathy, syphilis, leucoderma, odontalgia, cough, asthma.

Shankhapushpi or Convolvulus pluricaulis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient system of Indian medicine, as a rasayana which is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows shankhpushpi to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that shankhapushpi may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme

The whole herb is used medicinally in the form of decoction with cumin and milk in fever, nervous debility, loss of memory, also in syphilis, and scrofula. ‘. Shankhapushpi is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported to reduce mental tension. The ethanolic extract of the plant reduces total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and nonesterfied fatty-acid.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Reources:
http://www.rubalherbal.com/shop/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=832
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#sankapushpi
http://shankhapushpi.com/aboutsankhapushpi.html
http://www.garrysun.com/shankhapushpi.html
http://www.ayurvedas.com/Prajnaforte.htm

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