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Viburnum lentago

Botanical Name : Viburnum lentago
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:V. lentago
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Common Names: Nannyberry, Sheepberry, or Sweet viburnum

Habitat :Viburnum lentago is native to northern N. AmericaNew Brunswick to Saskatchewan, south to Virginia and Nebraska It grows on rich soils along woodland borders, edges of streams etc, it is also found on rocky hillsides etc.

Description:
Viburnum lentago is a large shrub or small tree growing upwards to 30 ft (9 m) tall with a trunk up to ~10 inches (25 cm) diameter and a short trunk, round-topped head, pendulous, flexible branches. The bark is reddish- to grayish-brown, and broken into small scales. The twigs are pale green and covered with rusty down at first, later becoming dark reddish brown, sometimes glaucous, smooth, tough, flexible, and produce an offensive odor when crushed or bruised. The winter buds are light red, covered with pale scurfy down, protected by a pair of opposing scales. Flower-bearing buds are ~3/4 in (2 cm) long, obovate, long pointed; other terminal buds are acute, ~1/3 to 1/2 in (10–15 mm) long, while lateral buds are much smaller. The bud scales enlarge with the growing shoot and often become leaf-like.

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Like all viburnums, the leaves are arranged in opposite pairs on the twigs; they are oval, ~2 – 4 in (5–10 cm) long and ~3/4 in – 2 in (2–5 cm) broad, wedge-shaped, rounded or subcordate at base, with an acuminate apex and a finely serrated margin, and a winged petiole. They open from the bud involute, bronze green and shining, hairy and downy; when full grown are bright green and shining above, pale green and marked with tiny black dots beneath. In autumn they turn a deep red, or red and orange.

The flowers are small, 5–6 mm diameter, with five whitish petals, arranged in large round terminal cymes 5–12 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The calyx is tubular, equally five-toothed, persistent; the corolla is equally five-lobed, imbricate in the bud, cream-white, one-quarter of an inch across; lobes acute, and slightly erose. There are five stamens, inserted on the base of the corolla, alternate with its lobes, exserted; filaments slender; anthers bright yellow, oblong, introrse, versatile, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally. The pistil has a one-celled inferior ovary, the style thick, short, light green, and the stigma broad; there is one ovule in each cell. The fruit is a small round blue-black drupe, 8–16 mm long on a reddish stem; it is thick skinned, sweet and rather juicy, and edible. The stone is oblong oval, flattened.

The roots are fibrous, wood is ill-smelling. It grows in wet soil along the borders of the forest, often found in fence corners and along roadsides. The wood is dark orange brown, heavy, hard, close-grained, with a density of 0.7303
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Screen, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c. A fast-growing but short-lived species in the wild. It readily sprouts from the roots and forms thickets, a habit that is undesirable in small gardens. The plants grow well, but do not usually fruit well in Britain. This is probably because they are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Special Features:North American native, Attracts butterflies, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring[80]. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame[200]. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame[78, 113]. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. It can also be dried for winter use. The fruit is variable in size and quality, the best being about 15mm long, pulpy, very sweet, somewhat juicy and pleasant tasting but with a thick skin and a single large seed. The fruit is said to be best after a frost but it is sometimes dry.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is antispasmodic. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat irregular menstruation and the spitting of blood. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of measles. An infusion of the leaves has been drunk, or a poultice of leaves applied, in the treatment of dysuria.

Other Uses:
Hedge; Hedge; Wood.

The plant is grown as a hedge in N. America. Wood – heavy, hard, close grained, malodorous. Of no commercial value due to the small size of the trees.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_lentago
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+lentago

Fragaria ovalis

Botanical Name: Fragaria ovalis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species: F. virginiana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Rocky Mountain Strawberry

Habitat: Fragaria ovalis is native to South-western N. America. It grows in the coniferous forests in Arizona. Found at 2100 – 3300 metres in the Rockies.

Description:
Fragaria ovalis is a perennial plant, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. Used in breeding programmes with F. x ananassa in order to convey winter hardiness and for producing ever-bearing and day-neutral varieties.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions

Edible Uses:Fruits & leaves…..The fruit is eaten raw, cooked or used in preserves etc. Small but tasty. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The dried leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses: Not Known

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_strawberry
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+ovalis

Fragaria nubicola

Botanical Name : Fragaria nubicola
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species: F. nubicola
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Indian Strawberry

Habitats: Fragaria nubicola is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Kashmir to western China. It grows in open grassland at elevations of 1600 – 4000 metres in Nepal. Meadows on mountain slopes, forests in valleys and forest edge at elevations of 2500 – 3900 metres.

Description:
Fragaria nubicola is a low-growing, softly hairy perennial herb with trifoliate leaves, and long runners rooting at the nodes. White flowers, 1.5-2.5 cm across, have 5 broadly obovate petals. The 5 sepals alternate with the petals. Leaves are long-stalked, with 3 leaflets which are ovate, 2.5-4 cm long, deeply and coarsely toothed. Himalayan Strawberry is found in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Burma, at altitudes of 1800-3800 m. Flowering: April-June and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. It is distinguished by its 1 cm round red berry and entire sepals.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. However, judging by its native range, it is likely to succeed outdoors in many areas of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. Likes a mulch of pine or spruce leaves.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: .…Fruit  is  eaten raw. It has a very pleasant strawberry flavour.
Medicinal Uses :

Astringent…….The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of profuse menstruation. The unripe fruit is chewed to treat blemishes on the tongue.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fragaria_nubicola
http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Himalayan%20Strawberry.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+nubicola

Fragaria californica

 

Botanical Name: Fragaria californica
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Potentilleae
Subtribe: Fragariinae
Genus: Fragaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : Fragaria vesca californica. (Cham.&Schldl.)Staudt.

Common Name : Californian Strawberry

Habitat : Fragaria californica is native to South-western N. AmericaCalifornia. It grows in shaded, fairly damp places in woodland.

Description:
Fragaria californica is a perennial plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft). The plant is pretty, fast-spreading shady groundcover, with white flowers and red thimble-sized fruit that is the yummiest of any native strawberry. It looks lovely creeping among stepping stones, spilling out of a pot, or spreading in between shade-loving perennials like Columbine and Coral Bells. It is deer resistant once established, and likes dappled light and occasional water.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects

Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. A vigorous plant, spreading rapidly by means of runners. It flowers freely with us, but has not set fruit on our Cornwall trial ground as yet, possibly because all our plants are one clone.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Fruit – raw. Aromatic, sweet and succulent. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter. The fresh or dried leaves are used to brew an excellent tea.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent.

The leaves are astringent. A decoction has been used in the treatment of dysentery[

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.yerbab.uenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=274
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+californica

Teucrium scorodonia

Botanical Name :Teucrium scorodonia
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Teucrium
Species: T. scorodonia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Wood Sage. Large-leaved Germander. Hind Heal. Ambroise. Garlic Sage.

Common Name: wood sage or woodland germander

Habitat: Teucrium scorodonia is  native of Europe and Morocco, found in woody and hilly situations among bushes and under hedges, where the soil is dry and stony. It is frequent in such places in most parts of Great Britain.

Description;
Teucrium scorodonia is a perennial and creeping herb. It reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) of height. It is a hairy shrub with erect and branched stems. The leaves are petiolate, irregularly toothed, triangular-ovate to oblong shaped, lightly wrinkled. The inflorescence is composed by one-sided (all flowers “look” at the same side) pale green or yellowish flowers bearing four stamens with reddish or violet filaments. These flowers grow in the axils of the upper leaves and are hermaphrodite, tomentose and bilabiate but lack an upper lip, as all Teucrium ones. The flowering period extends from June through August. These plants are mainly pollinated by Hymenoptera species.

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The whole plant is softly hairy or pubescent. The small labiate flowers are in onesided spike-like clusters, the corollas greenish-yellow in colour, with four stamens, which have yellow anthers, and very noticeable purple and hairy filaments. The terminal flowering spike is about as long again as those that spring laterally below it from the axils of the uppermost pair of leaves.

Cultivation: Teucrium scorodonia is generally collected in the wild state, but will thrive in any moderately good soil, and in almost any situation.

It may be increased by seeds, by cuttings, inserted in sandy soil, under a glass, in spring and summer; or by division of roots in the autumn.

Edible Uses: Condiment……..The plant resembles hops in taste and flavour. An infusion of the leaves and flowers is used as a hop substitute for flavouring beer in some areas. It is said to clear the beer more quickly than hops, but imparts too much colour to the brew

Parts Uses:The whole herb, collected in July.

Constituents: A volatile oil, some tannin and a bitter principle.
Medicinal Uses:
Alterative; Appetizer; Astringent; Carminative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Skin; Tonic; Vulnerary.

The herb is alterative, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, tonic and vulnerary. It is harvested in July and can be dried for later use. The herb is often used in domestic herbal practice in the treatment of skin afflictions, diseases of the blood, fevers, colds etc. It is an appetizer of the first order and is equal to gentian root as a tonic.
Teucrium scorodonia or wood sage may be used for all infections of the upper respiratory tract, especially for colds and influenza. It may be used as a diaphoretic in all fevers. It can prove beneficial in some cases of rheumatism. There is a marked stimulation of gastric juices, thereby aiding digestion and relieving flatulent indigestion. It’s equal to gentian root as a bitter tonic. Externally wood sage will speed the healing of wounds, boils and abscesses.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/gersag10.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teucrium_scorodonia

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Teucrium+scorodonia

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

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