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Herbs & Plants

Cornus circinata

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Botanical Name : Cornus circinata
Family :Cornaceae – Dogwood family
Genus :Cornus L. – dogwood
Species: Cornus rugosa Lam. – roundleaf dogwood
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class :Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass :Rosidae
Order :Cornales

Synonym:Cornus rugosa, Swida rugosa.

Common Names :Green Osier,Round-leaf Dogwood,

Habitat :Cornus circinata  is said to grow in Eastern N. America – Quebec to Manitoba and south to Virginia and Illinois. It grows  on side of the road in dry rocky soil. Sun to part-shade. Good screen in summer.

Description:
Cornus circinata  is a rangy  deciduous Shrub, growing  6′ to 8′ tall and 6′ to 7 ‘ wide, with a coarse look. (It would probably look better if it is pruned  regularly.) No particular winter color to the branches, even on younger wood. Sometimes gets a burgundy cast to its leaves in autumn, but color is not reliable. Flowers are inconspicuous; light blue fruits on red stems are interesting in late summer but disappear fast.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

Cultivation :
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate fertility, ranging from acid to shallow chalk. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds in poorly drained soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. A very ornamental and free-flowering plant. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation:  
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed. The seed must be separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination inhibitors. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 – 4 months and sown as early as possible in the year . Scarification may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold stratification. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be very slow, taking 18 months or more. Prick out the seedlings of cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, taken with a heel if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage. Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is cathartic, febrifuge and tonic. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of kidney complaints and TB.
A homoeopathic tincture of the fresh bark is administered in ulcerated conditions of the ucous membranes and in liver complaints and jaundice.

Other Uses:
This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. But deer does not bother it, unlike the other dogwoods .

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/osierg15.html
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/31682/
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Cornus+rugosa
https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CORU

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Herbs & Plants

Cornus sericea

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Botanical Name : Cornus sericea
Family: Cornaceae
Genus:     Cornus
Subgenus: Swida
Species: C. sericea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Cornales

Synonyms: Swamp’s Dogwood. Red Willow. Silky Cornel. Female Dogwood. Blueberry. Kinnikinnik. Rose Willow.
(French) Cornouille.

Common Names:Red Osier Dogwood, Western dogwood, Red willow, Redstem dogwood, Redtwig dogwood, Red-rood, American dogwood, Creek dogwood.

Habitat: Cornus sericea is native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east.It grows on Shores and thickets. Along streams, rivers and moist sites, 450 – 2700 metres

Desciption:
In the wild, it commonly grows in areas of damp soil, such as wetlands. It is a medium to tall deciduous shrub, growing 1.5–4 m tall and 3–5 m wide, spreading readily by underground stolons to form dense thickets. The branches and twigs are dark red, although wild plants may lack this coloration in shaded areas. The leaves are opposite, 5–12 cm long and 2.5–6 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin; they are dark green above and glaucous below; fall color is commonly bright red to purple. The flowers are small (5–10 mm diameter), dull white, in clusters 3–6 cm diameter. The fruit is a globose white berry 5–9 mm diameter.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The Latin specific epithet sericea means “silky”, referring to the texture of the leaves.

Cultivation:  
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate fertility, ranging from acid to shallow chalk. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil and a position in sun or partial shade. Succeeds in poorly drained soils. Plants are hardy to about -35°c. A rampant suckering shrub. A number of cultivars have been developed for their ornamental value. This species is closely allied to C. alba. The flowers are very attractive to bees. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation:  
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed. The seed must be separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination inhibitors. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 – 4 months and sown as early as possible in the year. Scarification may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold stratification. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be very slow, taking 18 months or more. Prick out the seedlings of cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, taken with a heel if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage. Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months

Edible Uses          
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Oil;  Oil;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Oil;  Oil.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Juicy. Bitter and unpalatable according to some reports, it was mixed with other fruits such as juneberries (Amelanchier spp) and then dried for winter use by native North Americans. The fruit can cause nausea. The fruit is up to 9mm in diameter. Seed. No more details are given, but the seeds are quite small and woody, looking rather less than edible. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Root-bark and bark.

Constituents: The active properties are similar to those found in Peruvian Bark, except that there is more gum mucilage and extractive matter and less resin quinine and tannin.

It is tonic astringent and slightly stimulant, used in periodical and typhoid fever. Taken internally it increases the strength and frequency of the pulse, elevating the temperature of the body. It should be used in the dried state, the fresh bark being likely to upset the stomach.

The powdered bark has been used as toothpowder, to preserve the gums and make the teeth white; the flowers have been used in place of chamomile.

Other Uses:
Cornus sericea is a popular ornamental shrub that is often planted for the red coloring of its twigs in the dormant season. The cultivar ‘Flaviramea’, with lime green stems, has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.

Like most dogwood species native to North America, C. sericea can be parasitized by the dogwood sawfly, possibly leaving much of the plant devoid of leaves. A variety of pesticides are effective; however, hand-picking the larvae is also an option.

C. sericea is frequently used for waterway bank erosion protection and restoration in the United States and Canada. Its root system provides excellent soil retention, it is hardy and provides an attractive shrub even when bare in winter, and its ability to be reproduced by cuttings makes it a low cost solution for large scale plantings.

Some Plateau Indian tribes ate the berries to treat colds and to slow bleeding.

Known as cansasa in Lakota, the inner bark was also used by the Lakota and other Native Americans as “traditional tobacco”, either by itself or in a mixture with other plant materials. Among the Algonquian peoples such as the Ojibwe, the smoking mixtures, known as kinnikinnick, blended the inner bark with tobacco, while more western tribes added it to the bearberry leaf to improve the taste.

The Ojibwe used red osier dogwood bark as a dye by taking the inner bark, mixing it with other plants or minerals.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/osierr14.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cornus+sericea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornus_sericea

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Herbs & Plants

Cornus alternifolia

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Botanical Name : Cornus alternifolia
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenus: Swida
Species: C. alternifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Cornales

Synonyms : Swida alternifolia.

Other Names:Green Osier, Alternateleaf dogwood, Alternate Leaf Dogwood, Golden Shadows Pagoda Dogwood, Green Osi

Habitat :Cornus alternifolia is native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to southern Manitoba and Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and Mississippi. It is rare in the Southern United States .
C. alternifolia is found under open deciduous trees, as well as along the margins of forests and swamps. These trees prefer moist, well drained soil.

Description:
Cornus alternifolia is a small deciduous tree growing to 25 feet (rarely 30 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 6 inches diameter. The branches develop characteristic horizontal layers separated by gaps, with a flat-topped crown. Its leaves are elliptic to ovate and grow to 2-5 inches long and 1-2 inches broad, arranged alternately on the stems, not in opposite pairs typical of the majority of Cornus species, the leaves are most often arranged in crowded clusters around the ends of the twigs and appear almost whorled. The topside of the leaves are smooth and green, while the undersides are hairy and a bluish color. Its bark is colored gray to brown. It becomes ridged as it ages. C. alternifolia produces small cream colored flowers with four small petals. The flowers are grouped into cymes, with the inflorescences 2-5 inches across. It bears fruit similar to berries with a blackish blue color. These fruits grow 3-4 inches across.

You may click to see the pictures of       

*Bark: Dark reddish brown, with shallow ridges. Branchlets at first pale reddish green, later dark green.

*Wood: Reddish brown, sapwood pale; heavy, hard, close-grained. Sp. gr., 0.6696; weight of cu. ft., 41-73 lbs.

*Winter buds: Light chestnut brown, acute. Inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot and become half an inch long before they fall.

*Leaves: Alternate, rarely opposite, often clustered at the ends of the branch, simple, three to five inches long, two to three wide, oval or ovate, wedge-shaped or rounded at base; margin is wavy toothed, slightly reflexed, apex acuminate. They come out of the bud involute, reddish green above, coated with silvery white tomentum beneath, when full grown are bright green above, pale, downy, almost white beneath.
*Feather-veined, midrib broad, yellowish, prominent beneath, with about six pairs of primary veins. In autumn they turn yellow, or yellow and scarlet. Petioles slender, grooved, hairy, with clasping bases.

*Flowers: April, May. Perfect, cream color, borne in many-flowered, broad, open cymes, at the end of short lateral branches.

*Calyx: The cup-shaped flowers have four petals that are valvate in bud, unwrapping when in bloom with cream colored, oblong shaped petals with rounded ends. The petals are inserted on disk and the stamens are inserted too and arranged alternately to the petals, being four in number also. The stamens are exserted with filaments long and slender. Anthers oblong, introrse, versatile, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally.

*Pistil: Ovary inferior, two-celled; style columnar; stigma capitate.

*Fruit: Drupe, globular, blue-black, one-third inch across, tipped with remnant of style which rises from a slight depression; nut obovoid, many-grooved. October

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Specimen, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate fertility[1], ranging from acid to shallow chalk. Grows well in heavy clay soils and in dry soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. A fast-growing but short-lived species in the wild, it is closely related to C. controversa. This species is unusual in having alternate leaves whilst almost all other members of this genus have opposite leaves. Plants have a thin bark and this makes them susceptible to forest fires. There is at least one named form selected for its ornamental value. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: Attracts birds, North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed. The seed must be separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination inhibitors. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 – 4 months and sown as early as possible in the year. Scarification may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold stratification. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be very slow, taking 18 months or more. Prick out the seedlings of cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, taken with a heel if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage. Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months.

Medicinal Uses:
Cornus alternifolia was employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes who valued it particularly for its astringent bark which was used both internally and externally to treat diarrhea, skin problems etc. The inner bark was boiled and the solution used as an enema and this solution was also used as a tea to reduce fevers, treat influenza, diarrhea, headaches, voice loss etc. It was used as a wash for the eyes.  A compound infusion of the bark and roots has been used to treat childhood diseases such as measles and worms. It has also been used as a wash on areas of the body affected by venereal disease. A poultice of the powdered bark has been used to treat swellings, blisters etc. Useful in diarrhea and dysentery; as gargle in sore throats; and in typhoid fever and ague.  It is little used in modern herbalism. Preparation: The fresh bark and young twigs are pounded to a pulp and macerated in two parts by weight of alcohol.

Other Uses:
Ornamental use:
The tree is regarded as attractive because of its wide spreading shelving branches and flat-topped head, and is often used in ornamental plantings. The flower clusters have no great white involucre as have those of the Flowering Dogwood, and the fruit is dark purple instead of red and of intensely disagreeable aromatic flavor.

C. alternifolia is susceptible to Golden Canker (Cryptodiaporthe corni), particularly when drought stressed or heat stressed. Proper siting of the plant in partial to full shade, along with adequate mulch and water, will reduce incidence of this pathogen.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagoda_dogwood
http://greenspade.com/pagoda-dogwood-cornus-alternifolia
http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/cornus-alternifolia-pagoda-dogwood.aspx
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Cornus mas

Botanical Name : Cornus mas
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenus: Cornus
Species: C. mas
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Cornales

Common Name :European Cornel or Cornelian Cherry.

Habitat :  Cornus mas  is native to southern Europe (from France to Ukraine), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon and Syria. It grows in woodlands, especially in calcareous soils

Description:
It is a medium to large deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs. The leaves are opposite, 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin. The flowers are small (5–10 mm diameter), with four yellow petals, produced in clusters of 10–25 together in the late winter, well before the leaves appear. The fruit is an oblong red drupe 2 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter, containing a single seed….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Bloom Color: Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Early winter, Late winter, Mid spring, Mid winter. Form: Rounded.

Cultivation :
Landscape Uses:Border, Firewood, Pest tolerant, Hedge, Screen, Specimen, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate fertility, ranging from acid to shallow chalk. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil and a sunny position but also succeeds in light shade. Plants are fairly wind resistant. Plants grow and crop well in pots. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c. At one time the cornelian cherry was frequently cultivated for its edible fruit, though it has fallen into virtual disuse as a fruit crop in most areas. It is still being cultivated in parts of C. Europe and there are some named varieties. ‘Macrocarpa’ has larger fruits than the type. ‘Nana’ is a dwarf form, derived from a yellow-fruited clone. ‘Variegata’ has been seen on a number of occasions with very large crops of fruit, even in years when the type species has not fruited well. ‘Jolico’ has well-flavoured fruits 3 times larger than the species. There are also a number of cultivars with yellow, white and purplish fruit. Seedlings can take up to 20 years to come into fruit. Plants produced from cuttings come into fruit when much younger, though they do not live as long as the seedlings. A very ornamental plant it flowers quite early in the year and is a valuable early food for bees. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.Special Features:Attracts birds, Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed. The seed must be separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination inhibitors. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 – 4 months and sown as early as possible in the year. Scarification may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold stratification. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be very slow, taking 18 months or more. Prick out the seedlings of cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, taken with a heel if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage. Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months
Uses:-

Fruit:
The berries when ripe on the plant bear a resemblance to coffee berries, and ripen in mid to late summer. The fruit is edible, but the unripe fruit is astringent. The fruit only fully ripens after it falls from the tree. When ripe, the fruit is dark ruby red. It has an acidic flavour which is best described as a mixture of cranberry and sour cherry; it is mainly used for making jam, makes an excellent sauce similar to cranberry sauce when pitted and then boiled with sugar and orange, but also can be eaten dried. In Azerbaijan and Armenia, the fruit is used for distilling vodka, while in Albania it is distilled into raki. In Turkey and Iran it is eaten with salt as a snack in summer, and traditionally drunk in a cold drink called kizilcik sherbeti. Cultivars selected for fruit production in Ukraine have fruit up to 4 cm long.

Flower:
The species is also grown as an ornamental plant for its late winter flowers, which open earlier than those of forsythia, and, while not as large and vibrant as those of the forsythia, the entire plant can be used for a similar effect in the landscape.

Wood:
The wood of C. mas is extremely dense, and unlike the wood of most other woody plant species, sinks in water. This density makes it valuable for crafting into tool handles, parts for machines, etc.  Cornus mas was used from the seventh century BC onward by Greek craftsman to construct spears, javelins and bows, the craftsmen considering it far superior to any other wood. The wood’s association with weaponry was so well known that the Greek name for it was used as a synonym for “spear” in poetry during the fourth and third centuries BC. In Italy, the mazzarella, uncino or bastone, the stick carried by the butteri or mounted herdsmen of the Maremma region, is traditionally made of cornel-wood, there called crognolo or grugnale, dialect forms of Italian: corniolo.

The red dye used to make fezzes was produced from its bark and tannin is produced from its leaves.

Garden history:
Cornus mas, the Male Cornel, was named to distinguish it from the true Dogberry, the Female Cornel, C. sanguinea, and so it appears in John Gerard’s Herbal. The shrub was not native to the British Isles. William Turner had only heard of the plant in 1548,  but by 1551 he had heard of one at Hampton Court Palace. John Gerard said that it was to be found in the gardens “of such as love rare and dainty plants” and by the 17th century, the fruits were being pickled in brine or served up in tarts.

The appreciation of the early acid yellow flowers, of little individual interest, is largely a 20th-century development.  The Royal Horticultural Society gave Cornus mas an Award of Merit in 1924.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Oil; Oil.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil; Oil.

Fruit – raw, dried or used in preserves. Juicy, with a nice acid flavour. The fully ripe fruit has a somewhat plum-like flavour and texture and is very nice eating, but the unripe fruit is rather astringent. It is rather low in pectin and so needs to be used with other fruit when making jam. At one time the fruit was kept in brine and used like olives. The fruit is a reasonable size, up to 15mm long, with a single large seed. A small amount of edible oil can be extracted from the seeds. Seeds are roasted, ground into a powder and used as a coffee substitute

Medicinal Uses:
The fruits have a mildly astringent action. The same fruits, when eaten fresh, are a good gastro-intestinal astringent and used for bowel complaints and fevers, while also used in the treatment of cholera.   Apart from its astringent properties, cornel bark can be used as a tonic and febrifuge.  The flowers are used in the treatment of diarrhea.

Other Uses
Dye; Hedge; Hedge; Oil; Oil; Tannin; Wood.

An oil is obtained from the seed. A dye is obtained from the bark. No more details are given. Another report says that a red dye is obtained from the plant, but does not say which part of the plant. The leaves are a good source of tannin. Wood – very hard, it is highly valued by turners. The wood is heavier than water and does not float. It is used for tools, machine parts, etc.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Cornel
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.bestplants.org/plantdetail.pl?ScientificName=Cornus%20mas

http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Cornus+mas

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Herbs & Plants

Bunchberry

Botanical Name :Cornus canadensis
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenus: Chamaepericlymenum
Species: C. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Cornales

Common Name :Bunchberry,Canadian Dwarf Cornel, Canadian Bunchberry, or Crackerberry,Creeping Dogwood

Habitat:It is native to northern China, far eastern Russia, Japan, and North America in montane and boreal coniferous forests, where it is found growing along the margins of moist woods, on old tree stumps, in mossy areas, and amongst other open and moist habitats.

Description:
Cornus canadensis is a slow-growing perennial herbaceous subshrub growing 10–20 cm tall, generally forming a carpet-like mat. The above-ground shoots rise from slender creeping rhizomes that are placed 2.5–7.5 cm deep in the soil, and form clonal colonies under trees. The vertically produced above-ground stems are slender and unbranched. The leaves are oppositely arranged on the stem, but are clustered with six leaves that often seem to be in a whorl because the internodes are compressed. The leafy green leaves are produced near the terminal node and consist of two types: 2 larger and 4 smaller leaves. The smaller leaves develop from the axillary buds of the larger leaves. The shiny dark green leaves have 2 to 3 mm long petioles and leaf blades that are obovate. The blades have entire margins and are 3.5 to 4.8 cm long and 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, with 2 or 3 veins and cuneate shaped bases and abruptly acuminate apexes. In the fall, the leaves have red tinted veins and turn completely red. Inflorescences are made up of compound terminal cymes, with large showy white bracts. The bracts are broadly ovate and 0.8 to 1.2 cm long and 0.5 to 1.1 cm wide, with 7 parallel running veins. The lower nodes on the stem have greatly reduced rudimentary leaves. In late spring to mid summer, white flowers are produced that are 2 mm in diameter with reflexed petals that are ovate-lanceolate in shape and 1.5 to 2 mm long. The calyx tube is obovate in shape and 1 mm long covered with densely pubescent hairs along with grayish white appressed trichomes. Stamens are very short, being 1 mm long. The anthers are yellowish white in color, narrowly ovoid in shape. The styles are 1 mm long and glabrous. Plants are for the most part self-sterile and dependent on pollinators for sexual reproduction. Pollinators include bumblebees, solitary bees, beeflies, and syrphid flies. The fruits look like berries but are drupes. The drupes are green, globose round in shape, and turn bright red at maturity in late summer; each fruit is 5 mm in diameter and contains typically one or two ellipsoid-ovoid shaped stone………

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Bunchberry prefers cool, acidic soils and will not tolerate summersoil temperatures above 65º F. Adequate moisture and good drainage are key and Bunchberry will even grow in rocky crevices if rainfall is sufficient. It can also be grown in bog gardens. It is not tolerant of alkaline soils.

Edible Uses:
The fruits are edible with a mild flavour somewhat like apples. The large seeds within are somewhat hard and crunchy. Birds are the main dispersal agents of the seeds, consuming the fruit during their fall migration. In Alaska, bunchberry is an important forage plant for mule deer, black-tailed deer and moose, which consume it throughout the growing season.

Medicinal Uses:
The flavonoids have earned this plant a reputation as an anti-inflammatory and general analgesic among contemporary herbalists, and researchers are investigating its properties as an anti-cancer agent.  Modern interest in bunchberry’s pharmaceutical qualities may have stemmed from its Native American reputation as an antidote to a variety of poisons.  The leaves have been known to be burned and powdered, then applied to topical sores.  A mild tea made from the roots has been used to treat colic in infants.  The leaves and stems are analgesic, cathartic and febrifuge. A tea has been used in the treatment of aches and pains, kidney and lung ailments, coughs, fevers etc.   The fruits are rich in pectin which is a capillary tonic, antioedemic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and hypotensive. Pectin also inhibits carcinogenesis and protects against radiation.  The mashed roots have been strained through a clean cloth and the liquid used as an eyewash for sore eyes and to remove foreign objects from the eyes.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornus_canadensis
http://www.abnativeplants.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantdetail&plant_id=116

http://www.paghat.com/bunchberry.html