*Asystasia parvula C.B.Clarke
*Asystasia querimbensis Klotzsch
*Asystasia pubescens Klotzsch
*Asystasia subhastata Klotzsch
*Asystasia quarterna Nees
*Asystasia scabrida Klotzsch
*Asystasia floribunda Klotzsch
*Asystasia coromandeliana Nees
*Justicia gangetica L.
*Asystasia acuminata Klotzsch
*Asystasia coromandeliana Nees var. micrantha Nees
*Asystasia multiflora Klotzsch
*Asystasia ansellioides C.B.Clarke var. lanceolata Fiori
*Asystasia podostachys Klotzsch
Common Names : Chinese Violet, Coromandel or Creeping Foxglove,Asystasia
Habitat :Chinese Violet is widespread throughout the Old World Tropics, and introduced into tropical Americas and Hawaii, where it has become naturalized. Both subspecies of this plant have been introduced to Australia where A. g. micrantha is on the National Environmental Alert List and must be reported when found. The original range of the subspecies is unclear, but it is likely that A. g. gangetica was limited to Asia, and A. g. micrantha was limited to Africa
This plant is a spreading herb or groundcover, reaching 2 feet in height or up to 3 feet if supported. The stems root easily at the nodes. The leaves are simple and opposite. The fruit is an explosive capsule which starts out green in colour, but dries to brown after opening……
In some parts of Africa, the leaves are eaten as a vegetable.
Chinese Violet is used as an herbal remedy in traditional African medicine. The leaves are used in many parts of Nigeria for the management of asthma, and scientific investigation has shown some basis for this use.
Chinese Violet is used as an ornamental plant in several places.This is also an important plant for honeybees, butterflies and other insects. In southern Africa there are at least six species of butterfly that use A. g. micrantha as a larval foodplant; Junonia oenone, Junonia hierta, Junonia natalica, Junonia terea, Protogoniomorpha parhassus and Hypolimnas misippus. The vigorous growth of A. g. micrantha in tropical regions makes it a weed which can smother certain indigenous vegetation where it has been introduced.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Botanical Name : Citrus hystrix DC., Rutaceae), Family: Rutaceae Other Names:Kieffer lime, Thai lime, wild lime, makrut, or magrood, Burmese: shauk-nu Indonesian: jerk purut, jeruk sambal
Malay: duan limau purut Philippino: swangi Thai: makrut, som makrut
The leaves of this member of the citrus family are responsible for the distinctive lime-lemon aroma and flavour that are an indispensable part of Thai and, to a lesser extent, Indonesian cooking.
The leaves of the kaffir lime tree are a dark green color with a glossy sheen. They come in two parts: the top leaflet is lightly pointed at its tip and is attached to another leaflet beneath that is broader on its upper edge. The size of the leaves can vary quite a bit, from less than an inch to several inches long.
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The fruit is dark green and round, with a distinct nipple on the stem end. It has a thick rind, knobby and wrinkled, and one of its common names is ‘porcupine orange’. As the fruit becomes older, the color fades to a lighter, yellowish green. Though the juice is infrequently use in cooking, the zest of the rind is often used for making curry pastes.
The leaves and rind have a perfume unlike any other citrus, sometimes called mysterious or haunting. There is a combined lemon/lime/madarin aroma but clearly an identity of its own.
Kaffir lime leaves are precious to many Thai dishes, from soups and salads to curries and stir-fried dishes. They blend blend with lemon grass and lime juice in tom yam to give the soup its wholesome lemony essence. In soupy dishes, add the leaves whole or torn into smaller pieces, using them as one would bay leaves to flavour broth or stew.
Salads or garnishes require fresh leaves. Dried leaves cannot be substituted. The leaves, when young and tender, are finely shredded and added to salads and sprinkled over curries for a burst of flavour. Being rather thick, they must be cut very fine, like threads, and the thick mid-rib removed. To sliver kaffir lime leaves finely, stack three to four leaves of similar size together and slice them very thinly with a sharp knife. It is faster to cut diagonally , which gives the hands better leverage, or roll a few leaves at a time into a tight roll before slicing. If fresh kaffir lime leaves are not available, use the tender new leaves of lime, lemon or grapefruit. They won’t have the same fragrance but are preferable to using dried kaffir lime leaves in some dishes.
When making a soup or stock, whole fresh or dried leaves may be added, as they are removed after cooking. Finely chopped fresh or crumbled dry kaffir lime leaves are used in dishes like tom yum, strir fries and curries, especially those containing coconut cream. The flavour also combines well with basil, cardamom, chiles, cilantro, cumin, curry leaves, lemon grass, galangal, ginger, mint, tamarind, turmeric and coconut milk.
Though the juice is seldom used in cooking, the peel of the fruit, with its high concentration of aromatic oils, is indispensable in many curry pastes and is one reason why Thai curries taste refreshingly unique. The zest also imparts a wonderful piquant flavour to such delectable favorites as fried fish cakes, and it blends in powerfully with such spicy, chile-laden stews as “jungle soup” (gkaeng bpah). Because it’s strong flavour can over power the more subtle ones in a dish, the rind should be used sparingly, grated or chopped finely and reduced in a mortar with other paste ingredients until indistinguishable..
Kaffir lime is used extensively in Thai cooking. Both the zest and leaves are very useful. The fruit looks like wrinkled lime, big wrinkles. Thai people believed the juice is excellent hair rinse to prevent hair from falling out. The zest of the lime is an ingredient in red curry paste.
The juice is rarely used in Thai cooking, but the zest is common.
Recently, Thai growers have developed and started growing a kaffir lime without wrinkles that is easier to pack and ship around the world.
The leaf look like any citrus leaf, but it has two connecting leaves. I often call it the double leaf. Many recipes calls for its leaves. If the leaf is used whole, in soup, most people do not eat the leaf itself. The only time the leaf is eaten is when it sliced very thin for recipes like Tod Mun.
The citrus juice used to be included in Thai ointments and shampoos, and in tonics in Malaysia. Kaffir lime shampoo leaves the hair squeaky clean and invigorates the scalp. Kaffir lime has also been used for ages as a natural bleach to remove tough stains.
The essential oils in the fruit are incorporated into various ointments, and the rind is an ingredient in medical tonics believed to be good for the blood. Like lemon grass and galangal, the rind is also known to have beneficial properties for the digestive system.
In folk medicine, the juice of kaffir lime is said to promote gum health and is recommended for use in brushing teeth and gums. It is believed to freshen one’s mental outlook and ward off evil spirits
The leaves can be used fresh or dried, and can be stored frozen.
The juice and rinds of the kaffir lime are used in traditional Indonesian medicine; for this reason the fruit is sometimes referred to in Indonesia as jeruk obat – literally “medicine citrus”. The oil from the rind has strong insecticidal properties.
The leaves may be recognized by their distinctive two sections. For simmering in soups or curries the leaves are used whole. Frozen or dried leaves may be used for simmering if fresh leaves are not available. The finely grated rind of the lumpy-skinned fruit has its own special fragrance. If you can obtain fresh kaffir limes, they freeze well enclosed in freezer bags and will keep indefinitely in that state. Just grate a little rind off the frozen lime and replace lime in freezer until next required. The leaves freeze well too. dried kaffir lime leaves should be green, not yellow, and are best kept under the same conditions as other dried herbs. They will keep for about 12 months in an airtight pack, out of light, heat and humidity.
Common Names: Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree,The Curry Tree (Tamil: karivepallai, Malayalam: kariveppila, Kannada: karibevina soppu, Konkani: karibeva paallo, Telugu: karivepaku , kadipatta, Bengali: Kari Gaas) It produces the leaves known as Curry leaves or Sweet Neem leaves. Karivepillai in Tamil means black neem as the appearance of the leaves look similar to the neem leaves.
The small and narrow leaves somewhat resemble the leaves of the Neem tree; therefore they are also referred to as Kadhi Patta (Hindi), Mithho Limdo (Gujarati) Kadhielimba (Marathi), (Patta meaning leaf and Kadhi being a popular dish that consists of a thin soup or stew made from yogurt, among dishes this leaf is used to spice) Karivepaku in Telugu (aaku means leaf), Karuveppilai (translated to Black Neem leaf) in Tamil and Malayalam, Karu/Kari meaning black, ilai meaning leaves and veppilai meaning Neem leaf. In the Kannada language it is known as Kari Bevu. Other names include Karivepaku Karuveppilai, noroxingha (Assamese), Bhursunga Patra (Oriya), and Karapincha (Sinhalese).
Habitat: .The curry tree is native to India; today, it is found wild or become wild again, almost everywhere in the Indian subcontinent excluding the higher levels of the Himalayas. In the East, its range extends into Burma.
The name curry plant is often used for Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae), a relative of immortelle; several subspecies grow in the European Mediterranean countries. The essential oil shows considerable infraspecific variation; its main components are monoterpene hydrocarbons (pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene) and monoterpene-derived alcohols (linalool, terpinene-4-ol, nerol, geraniol, also their acetates); further important aroma components are nonterpenoid acyclic Î²-ketones, which give rise to a somewhat disagreeable flavour (e.g., 2,5,7-trimethyldec-2-en-6,8-dione, 2,5,7,9-tetramethyldec-2-en-6,8-dione, 2,5,7,9-tetramethylhendec-2-en-6,8-dione, 3,5-dimethyloctan-4,6-dione, 2,4-dimethylheptan-3,5-dione).
It is a small tree, growing 4-6 m tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm diameter. The leaves are pinnate, with 11-21 leaflets, each leaflet 2-4 cm long and 1-2 cm broad. They are highly aromatic. The flowers are small white, and fragrant. The small black, shiny berries are edible, but their seeds are poisonous.
The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König.
The leaves are highly valued as seasoning in South Indian and Sri Lankan cooking, much like bay leaves and especially in curries with fish or coconut milk. They are also used as an ingredient in the popular marathi dish karhi. In their fresh form, they have a short shelf life though they may be stored in a freezer for quite some time; however, this can result in a loss of their flavour[original research?]. They are also available dried, though the aroma is much inferior.
The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Their properties include much value as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-hypercholesterolemic etc. Curry leaves are also known to be good for hair, for keeping them healthy and long .
Although most commonly used in curries, leaves from the Curry Tree can be used in many other dishes to add spice.
Seeds must be planted fresh; dried or shriveled fruits are not viable. Plant either the whole fruit (or remove the pulp) in potting mix and keep moist but not wet. Sensory quality:
Fresh and pleasant, remotely reminiscent of tangerines.
Fresh leaves are rich in an essential oil, but the exact amount depends besides freshness and genetic strain also on the extraction technique. Typical figures run from 0.5 to 2.7%.
The following aroma components have been identified in curry leaves of Sri Lanka (in parentheses, the content in mg/kg fresh leaves): Î²-caryophyllene (2.6â€‰ppm), Î²-gurjunene (1.9), Î²-elemene (0.6), Î²-phellandrene (0.5), Î²-thujene (0.4), Î±-selinene (0.3), Î²-bisabolene (0.3), furthermore limonene, Î²-trans-ocimene and Î²-cadinene (0.2â€‰ppm). (Phytochemistry, 21, 1653, 1982)
Newer work has shown a large variability of the composition of the essential oil of curry leaves. In North Indian plants, monoterpenes prevail (Î²-phellandrene, Î±-pinene, Î²-pinene), whereas South Indian samples yielded sesquiterpenes: Î²-caryophyllene, aromadendrene, Î±-selinene. (Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17, 144, 2002)
Uses: Its leaves are highly aromatic and are used as an herb. Their form is small and narrow and somewhat resemble the leaves of the Neem tree; therefore they are also referred to as Kari Bevu, translated to Black Neem, in the Kannada language and Karivepaku in Telugu again translating to the same meaning. In Tamil and Malayalam it is known as Karuveppilai, ilai meaning leaves. Other names include Kari Patta (Hindi), Kadi Patta (Marathi), Limda(Gujarati) and Karapincha (Sinhalese).
They are commonly used as seasoning in Indian and Sri Lankan cooking, much like bay leaves and especially in curries with fish or coconut milk. In their fresh form, they have a short shelf life and may be stored in a freezer for up to a week; they are also available dried, although the aroma is clearly much inferior.
In Burma, however, a completely different definition of â€œcurryâ€ is in use: Burmese â€œcurriesâ€ owe their flavour to a fried paste of ground onions and other spices (see onion for details). Lastly, in Indonesia, any spicy food may be termed a curry (kari in Indonesian). Sometimes, one even hears about Ethiopian (see long pepper) or Caribbean â€œcurriesâ€, whatever this may mean (except, perhaps, the least common denominator of all those: Spiciness).
Said to be tonic and stomachic. In India, the young leaves are taken for dysentery and diarrhea. The leaves and the stem are used as a tonic, stimulant and carminative. An infusion of the toasted leaves is anti-emetic. A paste of the bark and roots is applied to bruises and poisonous bites. The seeds are used to make a medicinal oil called ‘zimbolee oil.’ Fresh juice of the leaves mixed with lemon juice and sugar is prescribed for digestive disorders, and eating 10 curry leaves every morning for 3 months is thought to cure hereditary diabetes. A few drops of the juice are believed to keep eyes bright. A liberal intake of curry leaves impedes premature greying of the hair. The leaves, boiled in coconut oil, are massaged into the scalp to promote hair growth and retain color. The leaves may also be used as a poultice to help heal burns and wounds. Juice from the berries may be mixed with lime juice and applied to soothe insect bites and stings.
Curry leaves possess the qualities of herbal tonic.They strengthen the functions of stomach. and promots its action.They are also used as a mild laxative.The leaves may be taken mixed with other mild testing herbs. The juice extracted from 15 grams of leaves may be taken with buttermilk.
Digestive Disorders:Fresh juice of curry leaves and sugar,is an effective medicine for morning sickness,vomiting and nausea due to indigestion and excessive use of fats.One or two teaspoon of juice leaves mixed with teaspoon of lime juice may be taken in these conditions.The curry leaves ground to a fine paste and mixed with buttermilk can be taken in an empty stomach with beneficial results in case of stomach upsets.
Tender curry leaves are used in diarrhoea,dysentry and piles.They should be taken mixed with honey.The bark of the tree is also useful in bilious vomiting.A teaspoon of powder or decoction of the dry bark should be given with cold water in this condition.
Diabetes: Eating 10 fresh fully grown curry leaves every morning for three months is said to prevent diabetes due to heredity factors. It can cure diabetes due to obesity as the leaves have weight reducing properities.
Kidney Disorders:The root of the curry plant also has medicinal properities.The juice of the root can be taken to relieve pain associated with kindeys.
Premature Greying of Hair: Liberal intake of curry leaves is considered beneficial in preventing premature greying of hairs.These leaves have the properity of naurishing the hair roots.New hair roots that grow are healther with normal pigments.The leaves can be used in the form of CUTNEY or the juice may be squeezed and taken in buttermilk or lassi.
Burns and Bruises: Curry leaves can be effectively used to treat burns,bruises and skin eruptions.They should be applied as a poultice over the affected areas.
Eye Disorders: Fresh juice of curry leaves suffused in the eyes makes them look bright.It also prevents the early development of cataract.
Insect Bites: Fruits of tree,which are berries,are edible,They are green when raw but purple when ripe.Juice of these barries, mixed with equal proportion of lime juice is an effective fluid for external application in insect stings and bites of poisonous creatures.
Hair Tonic: When leaves are boiled with coconut oil till they are reduced to blackened residue, the oil forms an excellent hair tonic to stimulate hair growth and in retaining the natural pigmentation.
Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Help taken from:h,ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curry_leaves http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Murr_koe.html and Herbs That Heal
Synonyms: T.copticum. Ammi copticum. Carum copticum. Other names: .
Carom, omoum,Ajowan, Bishop’s Weed , Seeds Of Bishop’s Weed,Wishep’s weed or Ajova Seed, is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. It is the small seed-like fruit of the Bishop’s Weed plant, (Trachyspermum ammi syn. Carum copticum), egg-shaped and grayish in colour. The plant has a similarity to parsley.
Habitat :It originated in the eastern Mediterranean, possibly Egypt, and spread up to India from the Near East.
Ajowan is an erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent, branched annual plant that grows upto 90 cm. Stems are striate and leaves are distant and pinnately divided. Small white flowers are on terminal or seemingly lateral pedunculate, compound umbels. The fruits are ovoid, greyish brown, aromatic cremocarps with single seed.
Ajowan grows on all kinds of soil but does well on loams or clayey loams, both as a dry crop and under irrigation. Seeds are sown from September to November. The plants flower in about two months and the fruits become ready for harvesting when then flower heads turn brown. They are pulled out, dried on mats and the fruits are separated by rubbing by hands or feet.
Aroma and flavour
The sensoric quality of ajowan is similar to thyme, but stronger and less subtle. The essential oil (2.5 to 5% in the dried fruits) is dominated by thymol (35 to 60%); furthermore, a-pinene, b-cymene, limonene and e-terpinene have been found.
Ajwain originated in the Middle East, possibly in Egypt. It is now primarily grown and used in the Indian Subcontinent, but also in Iran, Egypt and Afghanistan. It is sometimes used as an ingredient in berbere, an Ethiopian spice mixture
Ajwain flavour chicken,Palda,Fried Bhindi,Papdi,Jalebi Paratha and Amritsari Fish.
Usage of ajowan is almost confined to Central Asia and Northern India. Ajowan is particularly popular in savoury Indian recipes like savoury pastries, snacks and breads. For example, the Bengali spic mixture panch phoron is sometimes enhanced with ajowan. Ajowan enjoys, however, some popularity in the Arabic world and is found in berebere, a spice mixture of Ethiopia which shows both Indian and Arabic heritage. In Southern Indian cuisine (which is predominantly vegetarian), tadka-like preparations are not only applied to dried lentils and beans, but also to green vegetables.
Herbal dishes of Chattisgarh, India is Ajwain Ka Halwa. Material required: Ajwain, Cow ghee, Gud and Ata(wheet flower)
Method: Cow ghee is taken in a pan, Ajwain, gud and ata are required to be roasted till the color turns redish and then water or milk is added. It is served hot.
Medicinal and Other use:
Ajowan is much used as a medicinal plant is ayurvedic medicine for its antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative properties. The seeds are used to ease asthma and indigestion. It is also widely used to treat diarrhoea and flatulence. In the West, thymol is used in medicines against cough and throat irritation. The thymol content makes ajowan a potent fungicide.
Ajwain holds a reputed position as medicinal herb in different systems of medicine in India. According to Ayurveda, its seeds are hot, bitter, pungent, stomachic, appetizer, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, carminative, laxative and cure ascites, abdominal tumours, spleen enlargement, piles, vomiting, abdominal pain, good for heart and toothache etc. According to Unani system of medicine, the seeds are bitter and hot, carminative, diuretic, good in weakness of limbs, paralysis, chest pains etc. it is useful in treatment of ear boils, liver spleen, hiccup, vomiting, dyspepsia, kidney troubles, inflammation etc. Ajwain Ke Halwa is a sweet preparation popular among the senior natives and traditional healers of Chhattisgarh. It is not prepared by the natives. The senior natives and traditional healers are aware of above mentioned medicinal uses of Ajwain but they prepare Ajwain Ke Halwa only for female patients having gynaecological troubles. This preparation is considered as a boon for these patients.
Ajowan is recommended for diarrhea, cholera, heartcare , stresscare . Oil extracted from the fruit contains cardiac depressive activity. Green Earth Products is engaged in manufacturing, exporting and global sourcing of a complete range of herbal extracts such as carum coptium (soft ext ratio 8:01). The healing & preventative effects of carum coptium have led to wide demand of this extract in the western societies. We export Carum coptium to various countries of the world.
In the Middle East, ajowan water is often used for diarrhoea and wind and in India the seeds are a home remedy for indigestion and asthma. For reasons of both flavor and practicality its natural affinity is with starchy foods and legumes. Because of its thymol content, it is a strong germicide, anti-spasmodic, fungicide, and anthelmintic. Regular use of Ajwain leaves seems to prevent kidney stone formation. It also has aphrodisiac properties and the Ananga Ranga prescribes it for increasing the enjoyment of a husband in the flower of his life
Ajwain is very useful in alleviating spasmodic pains of the stomach and intestines, in adults as well as children. Any colicky pain due to flatulence (gas), indigestion and infections in the intestines can easily be relieved by taking one teaspoonful of ajwain along with 2-3 pinches of common salt in warm water. Use half the dose in children. Mixed with buttermilk it is a good anti-acidic agent
For chronic bronchitis and asthma, mix ajwain with jaggery (gur). Heat the mixture to make a paste and take 2 teaspoonsful twice a day. However, diabetics should not take this preparation because of the sugar content. It helps to bring out the mucus easily. It also helps in chronic cold.
In an acute attack of common cold or migraine headache, put ajwain powder in a thin cloth and smell this frequently. It gives tremendous symptomatic relief according to some Ayurvedic experts.
If people who consume excessive alcohol develop discomfort in the stomach, taking ajwain twice a day, will be very useful. It will also reduce the craving and desire for alcohol.
Some Home Remedies:
# Chucking wishep’s weed into the mouth cures coryza and cough.
# If a pregnant woman takes wishep’s weed then it helps her in digestion of food, increases her appetite, controls her flatulation and her uterus gets purified.
# Grinding dry wishep’s weed and wrapping the powder thus formed in a piece of cloth and then smelling or sniffing this cloth, cures coryza.
# Taking powdered wishep’s weed along with powdered sesame, cures diabetes.
# If three “rattis” of the flowers of wishep’s weed and along with ghee and honey is taken thrice a day, it cures cough by clearing out the phlegms from the body.
# If wishep’s weed is taken with hot water, it cures cough too.
# If 3 gms of powdered wishep’s weed is taken with hot water, flatulation gets cured.
# If powdered wisheps weed is made into paste and then pasted on to a cold body, it regains temperature.
# If a bundle of wishep’s weed is heated on a heating pan and applying this heat on the cold hands and feet of a person suffering from cholera or asthma, helps in regarding the temperature
# Drinking warm water after having wishep’s weed, cures indigestion, flatulation, pain and excessive formation of saliva.
# If the oil of wishep’s weed is applied on the joints of a rheumatic patient and then trying a bundle filled with wishep’s weed is applied on it, gives relief from pain.
# The flower of wishep’s weed controls the intensity of Hysteria.
# Eating the flower of wishep’s weed controls the development of worms in the intestines.
# Use of wishep’s weed by a woman who has just given birth to a child, helps her in producing milk.
# If a bundle of wishep’s weed is kept in the vagina after the birth of a child, it gives protection against germs.
# If the oil of wishep’s weed is massaged on the part of the body having sweeling, it gives relief.
Click to learn more about Ajowan Other Uses: The seeds are rich in essential oil, 30 – 35% of which is thymol, which is more commonly found in Thymus species. The essential oil is added to epoxy derivatives. It is used in perfumes.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
(http://www.harvestfields.ca/CookBooks/spice/ajwan.htmland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajwain and http://www.urday.com/spice.html)