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Claytonia sibirica

Botanical Name : Claytonia sibirica
Family: Montiaceae
Genus: Claytonia
Species: C. sibirica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Claytonia alsinoides. C. sibirica.

Common Names: Siberian Spring Beauty, Siberian Miner’s Lettuce, Candy Flower or Pink Purslane

Habitat:Claytonia sibirica is native to E. Asia – Siberia. Western N. America – Alaska to California. Naturalized in Britain. It grows on damp woods, shaded streamsides etc, especially on sandy acid soils. Thickets of red alder, dogwood, vine-leaf maple, moist shaded coniferous forests from sea level to 2000 metres.

Description:
Claytonia sibirica is a short-lived perennial or annual flowering plant with hermaphroditic flowers which are protandrous and self-fertile. The numerous fleshy stems form a rosette and the leaves are lanceolate. The flowers are 8-20 mm diameter, with five white, candy-striped, or pink petals, flowering is between February and August.

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It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to July, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.

It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
A very tolerant and easily grown plant, it prefers a moist peaty soil and is unhappy in dry situations. It succeeds in full sun though is happier when given some shade and also grows in the dense shade of beech trees. Plants usually self-sow freely. This is an excellent and trouble-free salad plant. It is extremely cold-hardy and can provide edible leaves all year round in all areas of the country even if it is not given protection.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ. The seed usually germinates rapidly.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. They usually have a fairly bland flavour and are quite nice in a salad or cooked as a green vegetable. The leaves have a distinct earthy after-taste rather like raw beetroot. They are available all year round but can turn rather bitter in the summer, especially if the plant is growing in a hot dry position. Although on the small side, the leaves are produced in abundance and are very easily harvested.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is diuretic. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been applied to cuts and sores. The juice of the plant has been used as eye drops for sore red eyes. A cold infusion of the stems has been used as an antidandruff wash for the hair.

Other Uses:
A good ground cover plant for a shady position. This species is a short-lived perennial but it usually self-sows freely and gives a dense weed-excluding ground cover

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claytonia_sibirica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Claytonia+sibirica

Foot order or Smelly foot

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1)

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Description:
Our foot sometimes gives out an unpleasant smell which is very much embarrassing.         ( medical term bromohidrosis)

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It is a type of body odor that affects the feet of humans.The quality of foot odor is often reported as a thick smell. Some describe the smell like that of malt vinegar. However, it can also be ammonia-like. Brevibacteria are considered a major cause of foot odor because they ingest dead skin on the feet and, in the process, convert amino acid methionine into methanethiol, which has a sulfuric aroma. The dead skin that fuels this process is especially common on the soles and between the toes. The brevibacteria is also what gives cheeses such as Limburger, Bel Paese, Port du Salut, Pálpusztai and Munster their characteristic pungency.

Propionic acid (propanoic acid) is also present in many foot sweat samples. This acid is a breakdown product of amino acids by Propionibacteria, which thrive in the ducts of adolescent and adult sebaceous glands. The similarity in chemical structures between propionic acid and acetic acid, which share many physical characteristics such as odor, may account for foot odors identified as being vinegar-like. Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is the other source of foot odor and is a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis which is also present in several strong cheese types.

Other implicated micro-organisms include Micrococcaceae, Corynebacterium and Pityrosporum.

Bart Knols, of Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands, received an “IG Nobel” prize in 2006 for showing that the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae “is attracted equally to the smell of limburger cheese and to the smell of human feet”. Fredros Okumu, of Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania, received grants in 2009 and 2011 to develop mosquito attractants and traps to combat malaria. He uses a blend of eight chemicals, which is four times more effective than an actual human.

Causes;
The feet and hands contain more sweat glands than any other part of the body, with roughly 3,000 glands per square inch. Smelly feet are not only embarrassing, but can be physically uncomfortable as well.

Feet smell for two reasons: 1) shoe wear, and 2) sweating of the feet. The interaction between the perspiration and the bacteria that thrive in shoes and socks generates the odor.

Smelly feet or excessive sweating can also be caused by an inherited condition, called hyperhidrosis, which primarily affects men. Stress, some medications, fluid intake, and hormonal changes also can increase the amount of perspiration our bodies produce.

The main cause is foot sweat. Sweat itself is odorless, but it creates a beneficial environment for certain bacteria to grow and produce bad-smelling substances. These bacteria are naturally present on our skin as part of the human flora. Therefore, more smell is created with factors causing more sweating, such as wearing shoes and/or socks with inadequate air ventilation for many hours. Hair on the feet, especially on the toes, may contribute to the odor’s intensity by adding increased surface area in which the bacteria can thrive.

Given that socks directly contact the feet, their composition can have an impact on foot odor. Polyester and nylon are common materials used to make socks, but provide less ventilation than cotton or wool do when used for the same purpose. Wearing polyester or nylon socks may increase perspiration and therefore may intensify foot odor.[1] Because socks absorb varying amounts of perspiration from feet, wearing shoes without socks may increase the amount of perspiration contacting feet and thereby increase bacterial activities that cause odor

Treatments:
The best home remedy for foot odor is to soak feet in strong black tea for 30 minutes a day for a week. The acid in the tea kills the bacteria and closes the pores, keeping your feet dry longer. Use two tea bags per pint of water. Boil for 15 minutes, then add two quarts of cool water. Soak your feet in the cool solution. Alternately, you can soak your feet in a solution of one part vinegar and two parts water.

Persistent foot odor can indicate a low-grade infection or a severe case of hereditary sweating. In these cases, a prescription ointment may be required to treat the problem.

Treating Excessive Sweating:
A form of electrolysis, called iontophoresis, has been shown to reduce excessive sweating of the feet. However, it is more difficult to administer. In the worst cases of hyperhidrosis, a surgeon can cut the nerve that controls sweating. Recent advances in technology have made this surgery much safer, but may increase sweating in other areas of the body.

Prevention:
Methods of extinguishment may be used even before onset of the odor as prevention. However, a very effective and cheap way to prevent foot odor is with sodium bicarbonate (a mildly basic white salt also known as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, bicarbonate of soda, sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb). Sodium bicarbonate

will create a hostile environment unsuitable for the bacteria responsible for the bad smell. Four pinches of it on each foot everyday are usually enough (two inside the sock and two on the insole of the shoe). Sometimes it might take one or two days before the shoes completely lose their old smell. Washing your feet and applying the sodium bicarbonate daily are also potentially useful solutions.

While there are a number of other remedies, sodium bicarbonate, if bought in a supermarket, costs approximately 20 times less than common odor-eaters or odor-killer powders.

Swabbing feet twice daily with isopropyl alcohol, found at your local drug store, for two weeks is a cheap and highly effective cure. One can also periodically remove their footwear, to reduce foot moisture and thereby reduce bacterial spawn.

Some types of powders and activated charcoal insoles, such as odor eaters, have been developed to prevent foot odor by keeping the feet dry. Special cedarsoles can be recommended for this purpose because of their antibacterial characteristics. Hygiene is considered important in avoiding odor, as is avoidance of synthetic shoes/socks, and rotation of the pairs of shoes worn

In general, smelly feet can be controlled with a few preventive measures:

•Always wear socks with closed shoes.
•Avoid wearing nylon socks or plastic shoes. Instead, wear shoes made of leather, canvas, mesh, or other materials that let your feet breathe.
•Bathe feet daily in lukewarm water, using a mild soap. Dry thoroughly.
•Change socks and shoes at least once a day.
•Check for fungal infections between toes and on the bottoms of your feet. If any redness or dry, patchy skin is observed, get treatment right away.
•Don’t wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row. If you frequently wear athletic shoes, alternate pairs so that the shoes can dry out. Give your shoes at least 24 hours to air out between wearings; if the odor doesn’t go away, discard the shoes.
•Dust your feet frequently with a nonmedicated baby powder or foot powder. Applying antibacterial ointment also may help.
•Practice good foot hygiene to keep bacteria levels at a minimum.
•Wear thick, soft socks to help draw moisture away from the feet. Cotton and other absorbent materials are best.

Extinguishment:

Once foot odor has begun, it can be extinguished, or at least alleviated, by either aromatic deodorants that neutralise the odor by their own smell, or by absorbers of the odor itself.

Among the earliest foot deodorants were aromatic herbs such as allspice, which nineteenth-century Russian soldiers would put in their boots.

Odor absorbers include activated charcoal foot insert wafers, such as Innofresh footwear odor absorbers.

General Tips: To tackle this problem, wash your feet with an antibacterial soap such as Neko and use a fresh pair of cotton socks daily. You can also apply deodorant to the soles of your feet. The best thing would be to buy another pair of work shoes and alternate wearing the two pairs so that the shoes have time to dry out.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot_odor
http://www.wolfpodiatry.com/library/1932/SmellyFeetandFootOdor.html

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Abdominal CT Scan

Introduction:
An abdominal CT scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the belly area. CT stands for computed tomography.
CT scans are pictures taken by a specialized x-ray machine. The machine circles your body and scans an area from every angle within that circle. The machine measures how much the x-ray beams change as they pass through your body. It then relays that information to a computer, which generates a collection of black-and-white pictures, each showing a slightly different “slice” or cross-section of your internal organs. Because these “slices” are spaced only about a quarter-inch apart, they give a very good representation of your internal organs and other structures. Doctors use CT scans to evaluate all major parts of the body, including the abdomen, back, chest, and head.

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CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the area of the body to be visualized. Using very complicated mathematical processes called algorithms, the computer is able to generate a 3-D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information for the physician.

A CT scan is an excellent way to view the organs inside your abdomen. It is especially useful for looking at solid organs, such as the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. It is also excellent for viewing the large blood vessels that pass through the abdomen (the aorta and vena cava) and for finding lymph nodes in the abdomen. Organs that can change their shape when they are empty or full, such as stomach and intestines, are harder for a CT scan to evaluate well, because it is sometimes difficult for a doctor to tell for sure if they are abnormal. Often the CT can give some information about these organs, though. Abdominal CT scans are often used to look for signs of inflammation or infection inside the abdomen in different organs, to look for cancer, or to look for injury to one or another internal organ.

A CT scan provides a better picture of internal organs than traditional x-rays. The benefits of an abdominal CT scan usually far outweigh the risks of radiation exposure.

How the Test is Performed
You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Usually, you will lie on your back with your arms raised above the head.

The health care provider may inject a dye into one of your veins. This helps certain diseases and organs show up better on the images.

Once inside the scanner, the machine’s x-ray beam rotates around you. Small detectors inside the scanner measure the amount of x-rays that make it through the abdomen. A computer takes this information and creates several individual images, called slices.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.

The actual scan time only takes a few minutes, although the entire procedure usually takes much longer.
A CT scan is an excellent way to view the organs inside your abdomen. It is especially useful for looking at solid organs, such as the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. It is also excellent for viewing the large blood vessels that pass through the abdomen (the aorta and vena cava) and for finding lymph nodes in the abdomen. Organs that can change their shape when they are empty or full, such as stomach and intestines, are harder for a CT scan to evaluate well, because it is sometimes difficult for a doctor to tell for sure if they are abnormal. Often the CT can give some information about these organs, though. Abdominal CT scans are often used to look for signs of inflammation or infection inside the abdomen in different organs, to look for cancer, or to look for injury to one or another internal organ.

Why the Test is Performed
An abdominal CT rapidly creates detailed pictures of the belly area. The test may be used to:

*Study blood vessels
*Identify masses and tumors, including cancer
*Look for infections, kidney stones, or appendicitis
.How to Prepare for the Test
If you are having an abdominal CT scan, you might have to fast 2–4 hours before your test. You also may have to drink a large quantity of oral contrast, a fluid that will show up on the CT scan and help define the lining of some internal organs.

Tell your doctor if you’re allergic to x-ray contrast dyes, may be pregnant, or have diabetes and take insulin. Insulin can cause hypoglycemia after missing a meal. or have had difficulty with previous CT scans.

If contrast or sedation is used, you may also be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4-6 hours before the test.

Since x-rays have difficulty passing through metal, you will be asked to remove jewelry and wear a hospital gown during the study.

What happens when the test is performed?
The test is done in the radiology department of a hospital or in a diagnostic clinic. You wear a hospital gown and lie on your back on a table that can slide back and forth through the donut-shaped CT machine. A technician or other health care professional inserts an IV and injects more contrast dye through it. This dye outlines blood vessels and soft tissue to help them show up clearly on the pictures.

The technologist moves the table with a remote control to enable the CT machine to scan your body from all of the desired angles. You will be asked to hold your breath for a few seconds each time a new level is scanned. The technologist usually works the controls from an adjoining room, watching through a window and sometimes speaking to you through a microphone. A CT scan takes about 30–45 minutes. Although it’s not painful, you might find it uncomfortable if you don’t like to lie still for extended periods.

How the Test Will Feel
The x-rays are painless. Some people may have discomfort from lying on the hard table.

Contrast give through an IV may cause a slight burning sensation, a metallic taste in the mouth, and a warm flushing of the body. These sensations are normal and usually go away within a few seconds.

Risk Factors:-
There are a few small risks. The contrast dye used in the test can damage your kidneys, especially if they are already impaired by disease.However, some newer dyes are less likely to cause kidney injuries. If kidney damage does occur, this is usually temporary, although in some rare cases it becomes permanent. If you are allergic to the dye used in the procedure, you may get a rash or your blood pressure may drop enough to make you feel faint until you get treatment. As with x-rays, there is a small exposure to radiation. The amount of radiation from a CT scan is greater than that from regular x-rays, but it’s still too small to be likely to cause harm unless you’re pregnant.

An abdominal CT scan is usually not recommended for pregnant women, because it may harm the unborn child. Women who are or may be pregnant should speak with their health care provider to determine if ultrasound can be used instead.

CT scans and other x-rays are strictly monitored and controlled to make sure they use the least amount of radiation. CT scans do create low levels of ionizing radiation, which has the potential to cause cancer and other defects. However, the risk associated with any individual scan is small. The risk increases as numerous additional studies are performed.

In some cases, a CT scan may still be done if the benefits greatly out weigh the risks. For example, it can be more risky not to have the exam, especially if your health care provider thinks you might have cancer.

The most common dye used is iodine based. A person who is allergic to iodine may have nausea, sneezing, vomiting, itching, or hives. Rarely, the dye may cause anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic response).

Results:-
What Abnormal Results Mean

The CT scan may show the following:

*Abdominal aortic aneurysm
*Abscesses
*Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy
*Acute cholecystitis
*Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy
*Addison’s disease
*Amebic liver abscess
*Appendicitis
*Bilateral hydronephrosis
*Bowel wall thickening
*Carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter
*Cholangiocarcinoma
*Choledocholithiasis
*Cholelithiasis
*Chronic bilateral obstructive uropathy
*Chronic cholecystitis
*Chronic pancreatitis
*Chronic unilateral obstructive uropathy
*Complicated UTI (pyelonephritis)
*Cystinuria
*Cysts
*Echinococcus
*Enlarged lymph nodes
*Enlarged organs
*Gastrointestinal or bowel obstruction
*Glucagonoma
*Hairy cell leukemia
*Hepatocellular carcinoma
*Histoplasmosis; disseminated
*Hodgkin’s lymphoma
*Islet of Langerhans’ tumor
*Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
*Nephrocalcinosis
*Nephrolithiasis
*Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
*Ovarian cancer
*Pancreatic abscess
*Pancreatic carcinoma
*Pancreatic pseudocyst
*Pancreatitis
*Pheochromocytoma
*Primary hyperaldosteronism
*Pyelonephritis – acute
*Pyogenic liver abscess
*Renal cell carcinoma
*Retroperitoneal fibrosis
*Sclerosing cholangitis
*Stones (bladder, kidney, liver, gall bladder)
*Testicular cancer
*Tumors
*Unilateral hydronephrosis
*Ureterocele
*Wilms’ tumor
*Wilson’s disease
*Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Additional conditions under which the test may be performed include the following:-
*Acute renal failure
*Alcoholic liver disease (hepatitis/cirrhosis)
*Atheroembolic renal disease
*Chronic glomerulonephritis
*Chronic renal failure
*Cushing syndrome
*Cushing syndrome caused by adrenal tumor
*Injury of the kidney and ureter
*Medullary cystic kidney disease
*Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I
*Polycystic kidney disease
*Reflux nephropathy
*Renal artery stenosis
*Renal vein thrombosis
*Skin lesion of histoplasmosis

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
The radiologist can probably give you preliminary results within a day. The formal reading of your CT scan might take another day.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/abdominal-ct-scan.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htm

Gene ‘linked to higher gout risk’

A reason why millions worldwide fall prey to the painful joint condition gout may have been uncovered.

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..Gout can be disfiguring and painful

A rise in UK gout cases has been blamed on increasingly unhealthy lifestyles.

However, genetic analysis of more than 12,000 people, published in the journal Nature Genetics, has found that a gene variant may also raise the risk.

Researchers at the MRC Human Genetics Unit, in Edinburgh, said the gene, and the protein it controls, might one day be targeted by new gout drugs.

In a healthy body, uric acid, a waste product found in the blood, is removed by the kidneys and passes out of the body in urine.

However, in some people the kidney cannot get rid of it properly and it builds up in the blood, forming crystals in the joints, leading to inflammation, stiffness and pain.

Various food types have been blamed, with the consensus that diets rich in refined sugars, protein and alcohol increase the risk.

Many thousands of people have a diet which appears to increase the risk of gout, but far fewer actually develop the illness.

Now scientists at the MRC Human Genetics Unit may have worked out why that is.

The gene variation they found, in the SLC2A gene, appears to make it harder for the body to remove uric acid from the blood.

Testing and treatment

Professor Alan Wright, who led the research, said: “The gene is a key player in determining the efficiency of uric acid transport across the membranes of the kidney.”

His colleague Harry Campbell said: “Some people will have higher or lower risk of gout depending on the form of the gene they inherited.

“This discovery may allow better diagnostic tools for gout to be developed.”

At the moment, drug treatment for patients is limited.

Although gout is a disease more usually found in a historical textbook, it is estimated that one million people in the UK suffer from it in some form.

Professor Stuart Ralston, from the British Society for Rheumatology, said that he often came across patients whose lifestyles did not fit the traditional view of over-consumption.

“Until recently you would associate gout with boozing and rich food, but there are plenty of other patients who are quite abstemious. This might be a genetic marker for gout risk.

“What is exciting is that it could be a target for new gout drugs.”

Dr Andrew Bamji, president of the British Society for Rheumatology, said that the research supported a recent study which suggested that too many sugary soft drinks could trigger gout.

He said: “It appears that this gene also plays a role in the control of levels of fructose sugar in the body, which would explain the finding that soft drinks were linked to attacks.”

Click to learn more about:->

What is Gout

Gout surge blamed on sweet drinks

Lower gout risk for coffee lovers

Gout treatments ‘remain unproven’

Sources:BBC NEWS: 10Th.March.’08