Tag Archives: Dental plaque

Vaccinium angustifolium

Botanical Name: Vaccinium angustifolium
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Species: V. angustifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms : V. lamarckii. Camp. V. pennsylvanicun angustifolium. V. pensylvanicum. Lam. non Mill.

Common Names: Low Sweet Blueberry, Lowbush blueberry

Habitat: Vaccinium angustifolium is native to eastern and central Canada (from Manitoba to Newfoundland) and the northeastern United States, growing as far south as the Great Smoky Mountains and west to the Great Lakes region. It grows in dry open barrens, peats and rocks.

Description:
Vaccinium angustifolium is a low spreading deciduous shrub growing to 60 cm tall, though usually 35 cm tall or less. The leaves are glossy blue-green in summer, turning purple in the fall. The leaf shape is broad to elliptical. Buds are brownish red in stem axils. The flowers are white, bell-shaped, 5 mm long. The fruit is a small sweet dark blue to black berry. This plant grows best in wooded or open areas with well-drained acidic soils. In some areas it produces natural blueberry barrens, where it is practically the only species covering large areas.

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The Vaccinium angustifolium plant is fire-tolerant and its numbers often increase in an area following a forest fire. Traditionally, blueberry growers burn their fields every few years to get rid of shrubs and fertilize the soil. In Acadian French, a blueberry field is known as a “brûlis” (from brûlé, burnt) because of that technique, which is still in use.
Cultivation :
Requires a moist but freely-draining lime free soil, preferring one that is rich in peat or a light loamy soil with added leaf-mould. Prefers a very acid soil with a pH in the range of 4.5 to 6, plants soon become chlorotic when lime is present. Succeeds in full sun or light shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Requires shelter from strong winds. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40°c. Dislikes root disturbance, plants are best grown in pots until being planted out in their permanent positions. Cultivated for its edible fruits, there are some named varieties. It succeeds in cold northerly locations such as Maine in N. America] and in C. Sweden. However, it is said to have little or no value as a fruit crop in Britain. The typical species is not as well known as its subspecies V. angustifolium laevifolium. House. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – sow late winter in a greenhouse in a lime-free potting mix and only just cover the seed. Stored seed might require a period of up to 3 months cold stratification. Another report says that it is best to sow the seed in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Once they are about 5cm tall, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8cm with a heel, August in a frame. Slow and difficult. Layering in late summer or early autumn. Another report says that spring is the best time to layer. Takes 18 months. Division of suckers in spring or early autumn

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw, cooked or used in preserves etc. A very sweet pleasant flavour with a slight taste of hone. Largely grown for the canning industry, it is considered to be the best of the lowbush type blueberries. The fruit can be dried and used like raisins. The fruit is about 12mm in diameter. This is the earliest commercially grown blueberry to ripen. A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruits.
Medicinal Uses :
The Chippewa Indians used the flowers to treat psychosis. The fruit contains anthocyanosides. These chemical compounds are very powerful antioxidants that are very effective in the prevention of heart disease and cancer. A tea made from the leaves has been used as a blood purifier and in the treatment of infant’s colic. It has also been used to induce labour and as a tonic after a miscarriage

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_angustifolium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+angustifolium
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html

Dental Plaque

Definition:Dental plaque is biofilm (usually colorless) that builds up on the teeth. If not removed regularly, it can lead to dental cavities (caries) or periodontal problems (such as gingivitis).

It is the sticky, colorless film of bacteria that forms on teeth. It makes teeth “feel fuzzy” to the tongue and is most noticeable when teeth are not brushed.

The microorganisms that form the biofilm are almost entirely bacteria (mainly streptococcus mutans and anaerobes), with the composition varying by location in the mouth. Examples of such anaerobes include fusobacterium and Actinobacteria.

The microorganisms present in dental plaque are all naturally present in the oral cavity, and are normally harmless. However, failure to remove plaque by regular toothbrushing means that they are allowed to build up in a thick layer. Those microorganisms nearest the tooth surface convert to anaerobic respiration; it is in this state that they start to produce acids which consequently lead to demineralization of the adjacent tooth surface, and dental caries. Saliva is also unable to penetrate the build-up of plaque and thus cannot act to neutralize the acid produced by the bacteria and remineralize the tooth surface.

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Dental plaque is a thin film containing bacteria, which is constantly forming on the surfaces of teeth. It is a soft, whitish substance. It is not easily detected until the coating on the teeth becomes quite thick. It accumulates in the areas which are not naturally cleansed by the action of the tongue or the lips and also those areas which are relatively inaccessible to brushing. If dental plaque persists, mineral substances in saliva, principally, calcium salts, combine with the dental plaque to form a hard deposit, termed calculus (tartar), which can only professionally be removed.

Plaque build up can also become mineralized and form calculus (tartar).


Causes:

Plaque develops when foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches) such as milk, soft drinks, raisins, cakes, or candy are frequently left on the teeth. Bacteria that live in the mouth thrive on these foods, producing acids as a result. Over a period of time, these acids destroy tooth enamel, resulting in tooth decay. Plaque can also develop on the tooth roots under the gum and cause breakdown of the bone supporting the tooth
Prevention and treatment:

Frequency of brushing and flossing with good technique is important, because the nature (i.e. composition) of the microorganisms change as the plaque ages. Therefore, plaque which is 12 hours old for example is much less damaging than plaque which has not been removed in days.

Oral hygiene practices have evolved largely during the time they have been most needed, i.e. the 20th and 21st centuries. The sudden increase in tooth decay is almost certainly attributable to changes in diet, such as the introduction of refined sugar and, later, candy.

Mouthwash (also mouth rinse) is used for oral hygiene. Antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse claims to kill the bacteria that cause plaque, gingivitis, and halitosis. Anti-cavity mouthwash contains fluoride, protecting against tooth decay.

Few Tips:

* Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a soft, rounded-tip bristled toothbrush. Pay particular attention to the space where the gums and teeth meet. Use a fluoride-containing toothpaste.
* Floss between teeth at least once a day to remove food particles and bacteria.
* See your dentist or oral hygienist every 6 months for a check-up and teeth cleaning.
* Ask your dentist if a dental sealant is appropriate for you. Dental sealants are a thin, plastic coating that are painted on the chewing surfaces of teeth to protect them from cavities and decay.
* Eat a balanced diet and limit the number of between-meal snacks. If you need a snack, choose nutritious foods such as plain yogurt, cheese, fruit, or raw vegetables. Vegetables, such as celery, help remove food and help saliva neutralize plaque-causing acids.

*Massage your gum with a finger daily and then wash your mouth.

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You may click to see also:What is Dental Plaque?

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_plaque
http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/plaque-and-your-teeth

Tooth Abscess (Dental Abscess)

What is a Tooth Or Dental abscess?

A Tooth abscess or Dental abscess occurs when the nerve of a tooth has become infected. This is usually due to dental decay, but may also be caused by injury to the tooth. Pus is formed, which can only escape through the root of the tooth. This causes pressure under the tooth, which makes it painful if touched. The pain is intense and throbbing may affect the side of the face.

You may click to see pictures of different tooth abscess

An abscess usually develops as a complication of dental caries, which gradually destroys the layer of enamel on the outside of the tooth and the inner dentin, allowing bacteria to invade the soft central core, or pulp, of the tooth. Eventually, a dental abscess may form. the pulp may also become infected if a tooth is damaged by a blow to the mouth.

An abscess may also form as a result of certain forms of gum disease. Periodontitis is usually caused by a buildup of dental plaque in a pocket that forms between a tooth and gum.

Usually the abscess originates from a bacterial infection that has accumulated in the soft pulp of the tooth. This is usually but not always associated with what is commonly described as a dull throbbing excruciating ache.

A tooth abscess typically originates from dead pulp tissue, usually caused by untreated tooth decay, cracked teeth or extensive periodontal disease. A failed root canal treatment may also create a similar abscess.

There are two types of dental abscess. A periapical abscess starts in the dental pulp and is most common. A periodontal abscess begins in the supporting bone and tissue structures of the teeth.

A dental abscess can be extremely painful and may cause the affected tooth to loosen in its socket.

What are the symptoms?
Common symptoms of an acute tooth abscess is a toothache or a persistent, throbbing pain at the site of the infection.Putting pressure or warmth on the tooth can induce extreme pain.

In some cases, a tooth abscess may perforate bone and start draining into the surrounding tissues creating local facial swelling. The lymph glands in the neck in some cases will become swollen and tender in response to the infection.
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The main symptoms of a dental abscess develop gradually and may include:-

· Dull aching around either or both of the cheekbones.
· Severe pain on touching the affected tooth and on biting or chewing.
· Loosening of the affected tooth.
· Red, tender swelling of the gum over the root of the tooth.
· Release of pus into the mouth.

If the abscess is not treated, the infection may make a channel from the tooth to the surface of the gum, and a painful swelling, known as a gumboil, may form. If the gumboil bursts, foul-tasting pus is released and the pain decreases. In some cases, the channel may persist, leading to a chronic abscess that discharges pus periodically. If the infection spreads to surrounding tissues, your face may become swollen and painful, and you may also develop a fever. If you suspect that you have a dental abscess, you should consult your dentist as soon as possible.

What should you do if you get a dental abscess?

You should seek advice from a dentist urgently to get the abscess drained. It may be possible to drain the pus through the tooth itself so the tooth can be saved (root canal treatment). If not, the tooth will need to be extracted to prevent the abscess recurring.

Sometimes, a dental abscess may burst. This allows the pus to drain and can ease the pain. The process can be encouraged by using a hot salt-water mouthwash (a teaspoon of salt to a cup of water).

Do not apply any heat directly to the face – a hot-water bottle, for example – as this will make the swelling worse. However, something cold on the face may ease the swelling, while painkillers occasionally help reduce the pain. In severe cases, antibiotics may be necessary.

Treatment:
Your dentist will ask you about your symptoms and examine your teeth and gums. He or she may take an x-ray of your mouth to confirm the diagnosis.

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One treatment for an abscessed tooth is to extract it, thereby removing the source of infection. However, in select cases a root filling or root canal therapy may be able to save the tooth by cleaning the source of infection in the pulp chamber and root canal system (for more information see Root canal therapy). Another possible treatment of an abscessed tooth is an invasive surgery through the cheek.The doctor will then remove the tooth, ridding the source of infection. Finally, the doctor will insert a tube through the cheek routing it the site of the tooth so any other pus may drain out through the tube in to either a Jackson-Pratt bulb or directly onto a surgical sponge.

If the abscess has been caused by decay, your dentist may try to save tooth. under local anesthesia, a hole is drilled through the top of the tooth to release the pus and relieve the pain. if there is a gumboil, a small cut may be made in the boil to drain the pus. The cavity is then cleaned with an antiseptic solution. a small tube may be left in place for a few days to allow any remaining pus to drain, and you will probably be given a course of antibiotics. Once the infection has cleared up, you will probably need root canal treatment. If it is not possible to save the tooth, it will be extracted.

To treat an abscess caused by gum disease, your dentist may use a probe to scrape out the plaque from the pocket between the affected tooth and gum. afterward, the pocket is washed out with an antiseptic solution. In severe cases, the tooth may be extracted.

What is the prognosis?
Most treatment is successful, but a small area of infection may persist and further treatment may be required.

Untreated Consequences:
An untreated severe tooth abscess may become large enough to perforate bone and extend into the soft tissue. From there it follows the path of least resistance. Largely dependent on the location of the infected tooth; the thickness of bone, muscle and fascia attachments, the infection then spreads either internally or externally.

External drainage may begin as a boil which bursts allowing pus drainage from the abscess, intraorally (usually through the gum) or extra orally. Chronic drainage will allow an epithelial lining to form in this communication to form a pus draining canal (fistula). Sometimes this type of drainage will immediately relieve some of the painful symptoms associated with the pressure.

Internal drainage is of more concern as growing infection makes space within the tissues surrounding the infection. Severe complications requiring immediate hospitalisation include Ludwig’s angina, which is a combination of growing infection and cellulitis which closes the airway space causing suffocation in extreme cases. Also infection can spread down the tissue spaces to the mediastinum which has significant consequences on the vital organs such as the heart. Another complication, usually from upper teeth, is a risk of septicaemia (infection of the blood), from connecting into blood vessels. Brain abscess, while extremely rare, is also a possibility.

Depending on the severity of the infection, the sufferer may feel only mildly ill, or may in extreme cases require hospital care.

How can a dental abscess be avoided?

Keeping your teeth healthy is the best way to prevent dental abscess.
Try to avoid cavities by reducing your intake of sugary foods and drinks – have them as an occasional treat, at mealtimes only. Brush your teeth twice daily using a toothpaste containing fluoride. To get the most benefit from the fluoride, do not rinse the toothpaste away after brushing.

Visit your dentist regularly, at agreed intervals. This way, problems can be diagnosed early and your treatment will be more straightforward.Remember that even if the abscess drains by itself, you should seek advice from your dentist for further assessment.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
Resources:
http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=68
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tooth_abscess
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/dentalabscess.htm
http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/decay_process.htm

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Gum Bleeding

Bleeding gums is among the common conditions affecting the oral cavity. The Chinese might have noticed bleeding gums as early as 2500 BC. They termed the associated diseases as “Ya-Kon” which means diseases of soft tissue surrounding the teeth. This problem still continues to affect us even with so many modern facilities available in the field of oral care. Gum disease begins with plaque, a sticky film of food particles, germs and saliva. If not removed, plaque will settle at the gum line. The germs will produce toxins that makes the gums red, tender and likely to bleed when brushing your teeth. There are chronic conditions and even some medications that can cause plaque to accumulate more quickly. The purpose of daily brushing rinsing and flossing is to clean away this plaque. When this plaque is not removed it can harden into tartar which builds up along the gum line and traps germs below. The mildest form of gum disease is called gingivitis and is the most common.

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The primary cause of gingivitis is the bacteria that coat your teeth, and if oral hygiene is poor, it forms a sticky white substance called plaque. The bacteria here proliferates faster and produces toxins that irritates your gums, keeping them swollen and red. When they are left untreated, they will destroy the tissues connecting the gums to the tooth, and eventually the tooth to the bones, causing a deep pocket and eventually attacks the bony structure. It has now progressed into what we call periodontitis, which is an irreversible form of gum disease.

ROOT CAUSES:
The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Bleeding gums as a symptom.

Poor dental hygiene

Gingivitis

Gum disease

Periodontitis

Trench mouth

Poorly fitting dentures

Leukemia

Diabetes

Pregnancy

Dry mouth (type of Dental conditions)

Vitamin deficiency

Certain medications

SYMPTOMS:

Bad Breath

Bleeding is usually noticed during brushing, or flosing with water or in the saliva, while spitting.

Eating of any coarse food items may induce bleeding

HOME REMEDY: With a pinch of salt soaked in a glass of lukewarm water, you now create a homemade saline solution. Use this to rinse in the morning and in the evening. This will help increase circulation in your gums and reduce the swelling.

No matter how well and how often you brush your teeth, you can’t reach the areas between your teeth and below the gums. Make the habit of flossing. Floss comes in very handy. Keep one in your bag or at your office. After meal, floss it!

LIFE STYLE :To brush your teeth to gain maximum benefits.
Push the loaded brush as far as you can into the area where the tooth meets the gum (sulcus).

Use a vibrating motion (very small wiggling motion) so that the bristles that are forced into the sulcus remain there as you vibrate. It’s an agitating type of motion. Do not use wide circular motions. Repeat this action as you move along the gum line for three to five seconds at each spot on both the cheek and tongue side.

Repeat this procedure until you have completed both upper and lower gum lines, inside and out. Whenever necessary spit out any build up of toothpaste and saliva until you finish. When done just rinse your mouth with filtered water.

Do this once a day gradually increasing to twice a day. When you are able to do it twice a day, do so for two weeks. After two weeks, your gums should have become very tough and should have a pink-white color.

WATER IRRIGATION:

Another important tool that you should have is a water pik system. Do not underestimate the power of water. Water can do a lot of damage (as you have seen with floods and huge tidal waves) and it can also be your friend.

An oral irrigator can drastically inhibit the formation of plaque and tartar. As time goes by, plaque, if not removed, turns into tartar. An oral irrigator pulls away approximately 50% of the negative bacteria with each use, leaving good bacteria that are needed to fight microbes.

A toothbrush is not designed to clean anything more than 1-3 mm, which is a normal healthy gum condition. Therefore an oral irrigator is necessary to reach those areas that cannot be maintained with the toothbrush and floss alone.

In the conclution it can be said if you perform the proper treatments to your teeth and do it right, and use the tools available to you, you shouldn’t have to suffer from gum disease or bleeding gums. You’ll have healthy white teeth with rosy-red and pink gums that will last you a life time and keep the rest of your body healthy to boot.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Source:Allayurveda.com

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Gum Disease

If you haven’t had gum problems yet, chances are you will: Three out of four adults overage 35 experience tender, swollen, or bleeding gums at some point in their lives. But there are plenty of things you can do to relieve pain, heal the gums, and preserve your teeth.

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Symptoms
Red, swollen, and tender gums.
A toothache made worse by hot, cold, or sweet foods or liquids.
Chronic bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth.
Loose or missing teeth.

When to Call Your Doctor
See your dentist if you experience red, swollen gums or loose teeth. It may save your
teeth. Have your teeth professionally cleaned if you haven’t done so in the previous year.

What It Is
There are two main types of gum disease: gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis — marked by tender, inflamed gums — occurs when bacteria in the mouth form a thin, sticky film called plaque that coats the teeth and gums. If ignored, plaque will turn into tartar, a hard mineral shell that erodes gum tissue. Over time this will lead to the more serious — and harder to treat — condition known as periodontitis. In advanced periodontal disease, the gums recede in places and pockets form around the teeth, allowing bacteria to eat away at the bone anchoring the teeth.

What Causes It
Poor oral hygiene — including improper brushing, flossing, or rinsing — is the leading
cause of gum disease. Other precipitating factors include a high-sugar diet, lack of vitamin C or other nutrients, and smoking (the chemicals in tobacco smoke harm gums and teeth). In addition, certain medications can make gum disease worse because they inhibit saliva production, which helps wash away bacteria and sugars. Genetic factors likely make some people particularly susceptible to gum disease. Women seem to be more prone to gum problems during pregnancy and menopause because of hormonal changes. Diabetes and other chronic diseases that can lower resistance to infection also increase the risk.

How Supplements Can Help
Various supplements — used together — can help heal sore and bleeding gums. Benefits
should be noticed within two weeks. People at high risk for gum disease can also take them on a long-term preventive basis.

What Else You Can Do
Floss at least once a day and brush at least twice with a soft-bristle brush. It is
important to use the proper technique, including brushing the tongue, which collects the
same bacteria that stick to your teeth. If you’re not sure you’re flossing or brushing
correctly, ask your dentist or dental hygienist to show you how. Plan to spend five minutes or so each session.

Massaging of gum with yor finger and flowsing at least twice daily is said to be very helpful.
Limit your intake of sweets and sticky carbohydrates — or at least brush as soon as
possible after eating them. These foods can accumulate in gum spaces and pockets,
particularly in older people, who tend to have more exposed roots in their teeth.
See a dentist at least once a year for a professional cleaning — or more often if you have
a problem that needs special attention. Try natural toothpastes and mouthwashes containing the herb bloodroot. These supply an antibacterial substance called sanguinarine that helps reduce and prevent the accumulation of dental plaque — the first step in gum disease. Make a chamomile tea mouthwash using 2 or 3 teaspoons of herb per cup of hot water. Steep for 10 minutes, strain, and cool. Use as a daily mouthwash or gargle. Commission E, a noted panel of health experts in Germany that reviews herbal supplements, officially recognizes chamomile as an effective gargle or mouthwash for the treatment of gingivitis.

Supplement Recommendations

Vitamin C/Flavonoids
Coenzyme Q10
Vitamin E
Folic Acid Liquid
Vitamin C Powder

Vitamin C/Flavonoids
Dosage: 1,000 mg vitamin C and 500 mg flavonoids twice a day.
Comments: Reduce vitamin C dose if diarrhea develops.

Coenzyme Q10
Dosage: 50 mg twice a day.
Comments: For best absorption, take with food.

Vitamin E
Dosage: Break open a 400 IU capsule; rub contents on gums.
Comments: Alternate with folic acid/vitamin C treatments.

Folic Acid Liquid
Dosage: Dip swab in liquid; apply along gum line every other day.
Comments: Follow up with vitamin C powder. Alternate with vitamin E gum treatment every other day.

Vitamin C Powder
Dosage: Using 1/2 tsp. powder, brush along gum line every other day.
Comments: Alternate with vitamin E treatment every other day.

Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs (Reader’s Digest)

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