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Herbs & Plants

Scrophularia ningpoensis

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Botanical Name : Scrophularia ningpoensis
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Scrophularia
Species: S. ningpoensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms : S. oldhami. Oliv.

Common Name;Ningpo figwort or Chinese figwort

Habitat:Gullies, thickets and wet waste places along the edges of rivers and streams . Bamboo forests, along streams, thickets, tall grasses; below 1500 metres.

Description;
Scrophularia ningpoensis is a  perennial   herb,  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to October, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

click to see the pictures

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in most moist to wet soils in full sun or partial shade. This species is hardy to at least -15°c.

Propagation
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame[238]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer

Medicinal Uses;
Antibacterial;  Antifungal;  Antiphlogistic;  Antipyretic;  Cardiac;  Diuretic;  FebrifugeHaemolyticHypoglycaemic;  Restorative;  Sialagogue;
Tonic;  Vasodilator.

This species has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2,000 years[238]. The root is antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, antiphlogistic, cardiac, diuretic, febrifuge, haemolytic, hypoglycaemic, restorative, sialogogue, tonic and vasodilator. Small doses act as a heart tonic, whilst large doses depress cardiac function. The root is used internally in the treatment of feverish illnesses with symptoms such as rashes, delirium and insomnia, dry cough, throat infections, abscesses and carbuncles. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use

This plant is a known to Chinese medicine for as long as 2000 years. Its root is harvested in autumn in Zhejiang province and neighboring areas, then dried for later use. Taken at small doses, the root acts as a heart tonic, but large doses depress heart’s functioning. It is also used internally as an antipyretic. Besides, the plant’s root have diverse other medical effects, such as antibacterial and antifungal, antiphlogistic, diuretic, febrifuge, haemolytic, hypoglycaemic, restorative, sialogogue as well as vasodilator.

Cautions & Contraindications:
*Use with caution in cases of Spleen or Stomach dampness, or diarrhea due to Spleen deficiency.
*According to some sources, this herb antagonizes Radix Astragali Membranacei, Rhizoma Zingiberis Officinalis, Fructus Zizyphi *Jujubae, and Frucutus Corni Officinalis.
*It is also considered to be incompatible with Rhizoma et Radix Veratri.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scrophularia+ningpoensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrophularia_ningpoensis

http://library.thinkquest.org/25983/2.%20Figwort.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Emilia sonchifolia

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Botanical Name : Emilia sonchifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Emilia
Species: E. sonchifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Cacalia sonchifolia.
Sanskrit Synonyms: Sasasruti, Akhukarni, Dravanti, Sambari

Common Names: lilac tasselflower,Cupid’s Shaving Brush
Hindi; Kirankari, Hirankhuri
Malayalam; mMuyalchevi

Habitats: Native to Tropical Asia.   Waste ground in C. and S. Japan. Moist areas and uncultivated ground at elevations up to 1700 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Emilia sonchifolia is a soft  annual  growing to 0.6 m (2ft).  Leaves simple, lyrate –pinnate with large terminal lobe; flowers purplish in corymbose heads, fruits oblong containing many seeds; seeds long, compressed, having terminal tuft of soft hairs for wind dispersal.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES OF  EMILIA SONCHIFOLIA
It is hardy to zone 9 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
An easily grown plant, succeeding in most well-drained soils in a sunny position. Plants flower better when growing on nutritionally poor soils, producing much lusher growth on rich soils. Plants are drought tolerant once established. Plants are not frost hardy, but they succeed outdoors in Britain as a spring-sown annual. Slugs can be a problem with this plant in a wet spring. The leaves are frequently sold in local markets in Java.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out after the last expected frosts. The seed can also be sown outdoors in situ in the middle of spring

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. Used as a vegetable. The whole plant, including the flowers, can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves are usually harvested and used before the plant flowers. A nutritional analysis of the leaves is available. The powdered plant is used to prepare a cake fermented with yeast (called marcha in Nepal) from which liquor is distilled.

Constituents :
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
•308 Calories per 100g
•Water : 0%
•Protein: 22g; Fat: 3.3g; Carbohydrate: 64.3g; Fibre: 11g; Ash: 10.4g;
•Minerals – Calcium: 2187mg; Phosphorus: 648mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
•Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Medicinal Uses :
Astringent;  Depurative;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  ExpectorantFebrifuge;  Odontalgic;  Ophthalmic.

A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of dysentery. The juice of the leaves is used in treating eye inflammations, night blindness, cuts and wounds and sore ears. The plant is astringent, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge and sudorific. It is used in the treatment of infantile tympanites and bowel complaints. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of diarrhoea. The flower heads are chewed and kept in the mouth for about 10 minutes to protect teeth from decay.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Emilia+sonchifolia
http://enchantingkerala.org/ayurveda/ayurvedic-medicinal-plants/muyalchevi.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilia_sonchifolia

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Lagerstroemia indica

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Botanical Name: Lagerstroemia indica
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Lagerstroemia
Species: L. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales

Common Names:Crape myrtle, Crepe myrtle

Habitat :: Lagerstroemia indica is native to E. Asia – China, Korea.It grows  on open grassy places and on cliffs at low altitudes, also on forest edges

Description:
Lagerstroemia indica is an often multistemmed, deciduous tree with a wide spreading, flat topped, open habit when mature.It grows to 5 m (16ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a medium rate.

click to see the pictures……>....(01)....(1)..…...(2).…(3)...(.4)...
The bark is a prominent feature being smooth, pinkinsh-gray and mottled, shedding each year. Leaves are small and dark green changing to yellow and orange in autumn.

It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) Flowers are white, pink, mauve, purple or carmine with crimped petals, in panicles up to 9cm.

Lagerstroemia indica is frost tolerant, prefers full sun and will grow to 6 metres with a spread of 6 metres.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most well-drained soils in a sunny sheltered position. Succeeds in a hot dry position. Succeeds in soils low in nutrients. Dislikes very alkaline soils. Dormant plants are hardy to about -10°c if the wood is well ripened. They require very hot and humid summers and preferably the protection of a south facing wall if they are to flower in Britain. Plants are hardy in a very sunny position in southern England but they only flower in consistently warm summers. Plants are much hardier when the wood is thoroughly ripened by the sun. A very ornamental plant, there are many named varieties. Flowers are produced in broad panicles on the tips of the current years growth. Any pruning is best carried out in the spring in order to encourage new growth. Young plants grow fairly quickly and will often flower in their first year after planting out. Plants do not transplant well and should be moved with a large rootball. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a greenhouse. Another report says to sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Fair to good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood in the winter in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long in December. High percentage

Medicinal Uses;
AstringentDepurativeDiureticFebrifuge;  Hydrogogue;  Purgative;  Stimulant;  Styptic.

The stem bark is febrifuge, stimulant and styptic. The bark, flowers and leaves are considered to be hydrogogue and a drastic purgative. A paste of the flowers is applied externally to cuts and wounds. The root is astringent, detoxicant and diuretic. A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of colds.

The taste is slightly bitter and biting.  The plant promotes diuresis, resolves clots and bruises. It also is an antidote for poisoning.  A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of colds. . As a diuretic, boil 2 leaves in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and take in sips all day—not to exceed 6 cups weekly.  Boil a slice of bark 7.5 cm x 2.5 cm in 2 quarts of water for 10 minutes and use to bathe wounds and infections.

Other Uses : Wood is hard. A useful timber

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lagerstroemia+indica
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagerstroemia_indica

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Herbs & Plants

Dendranthema grandiflorum

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Botanical Name : Dendranthema grandiflorum
Family : Asteraceae or Compositae
Genus: Dendranthema

Synonyms : Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Ramat. C. sinense
Common name : Florist’s daisy ,Chrysanthemum

Other names › Chrysanthemum hortorum
› Chrysanthemum hortorum hort.
› Chrysanthemum x morifolium
› Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat.
› Dendranthema grandiflora

Habitat :Native to China & Japan grows plenty in Southeast Asia.

Description:
Dendranthema x grandiflorum is a PERENNIAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft).
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

click to see the pictures

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most well-drained fertile soils in a sunny position. This species is not fully hardy in Britain, many of its cultivars requiring greenhouse protection in the colder areas of the country. The chrysanthemum is widely cultivated as an ornamental flowering plant, there are many named varieties. It is also occasionally grown in the Orient for its edible leaves, a number of cultivars have been developed with leaves that are low in bitterness. It has been proposed (1999) to restore this species to Chrysanthemum as C. x morifolium Ramat. since the plant is so widely known under this name.

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to early summer in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. It usually germinates in 10 – 18 days at 15°c but if it does not germinate within 4 weeks then try chilling the seed for 3 weeks in the salad compartment of a fridge[164]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. This is a hybrid species and so will not breed true from seed. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Tea.

The flower heads or petals are parboiled and served as a salad with tofu and seasoned with vinegar or soya sauce. They can also be prepared as tempura, pickled, dried or added to soups. The petals contain about 1.9% protein, 0.9% fat, 5.3% carbohydrate, 0.7% ash. Leaves – cooked . Used as fritters, they are aromatic. Some varieties have been selected for their low bitterness. An aromatic tea is made from the leaves. A tangy aromatic tea is made from the flowers or flower petals[179]. For a sweeter tea only the petals are used.

Medicinal Uses :
Antibacterial;  Antifungal;  CarminativeDepurativeDiaphoreticFebrifuge;  Ophthalmic;  Refrigerant;  Sedative.

Chrysanthemum flowers, known in China as Ju Hua, are a bitter aromatic herb that has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine. The flower heads are drunk as a refreshing tisane and are used to improve vision, soothe sore eyes, relieve headaches, counter infections etc. They are antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, refrigerant and sedative. Taken internally they dilate the coronary artery, thus increasing the flow of blood to the heart, and so are used in the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart diseases and angina. The flowers are harvested when fully open in the autumn and are dried for later use. In China they are steamed before being dried to make them less bitter. The leaf juice is smeared onto wounds.

Chinese Medicine: Disperses wind and clears heat: for wind-heat patterns with fever and headache; Clears the Liver and the eyes: for either wind-heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or excessive tearing, or yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with such symptoms as spots in front of the eyes, blurry vision, or dizziness; Calms the Liver and extinguishes wind: for such symptoms as dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver yang.  The ability of white chrysanthemum to nourish the Liver and clear the eyes is somewhat superior to the other varieties.  It is also known as sweet chrysanthemum (gan ju hua). This variety is often used for diminished vision due to Liver and Kidney yin deficiency.  Yellow chrysanthemum (huang ju hua) has a greater wind-heat dispersing capacity than do the other varieties.  It is most often used in treating eye redness and headache due to externally-contracted wind-heat.  Research has demonstrated that it is a valuable remedy for high blood pressure.

Other Uses : Plants have been grown indoors in pots in order to help remove toxins from the atmosphere. It is especially good at removing chemical vapours, especially formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dendranthema%20x%20grandiflorum
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/41568
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?400932
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79097:dendranthema-x-grandiflorum-ramat-kitam&catid=368:d

http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=080117-1750&o=plants

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