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Ailmemts & Remedies

Gestational Diabetes

Definition:
Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy (especially during their third trimester). Gestational diabetes is caused when insulin receptors do not function properly. This is likely due to pregnancy-related factors such as the presence of human placental lactogen that interferes with susceptible insulin receptors. This in turn causes inappropriately elevated blood sugar levels.

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Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucose in blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.

As with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy in general, babies born to mothers with untreated gestational diabetes are typically at increased risk of problems such as being large for gestational age (which may lead to delivery complications), low blood sugar, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also cause seizures or stillbirth. Gestational diabetes is a treatable condition and women who have adequate control of glucose levels can effectively decrease these risks. The food plan is often the first recommended target for strategic management of GDM.

Clasifications:
There are two subtypes of gestational diabetes:
Type A1: abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), but normal blood glucose levels during fasting and two hours after meals; diet modification is sufficient to control glucose levels

Type A2: abnormal OGTT compounded by abnormal glucose levels during fasting and/or after meals; additional therapy with insulin or other medications is required

Approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM, resulting in more than 200,000 cases annually. The prevalence may range from 1 to 14% of all pregnancies, depending on the population studied and the diagnostic tests employed.

Symptoms:
Because gestational diabetes does not cause much symptoms, the patient need to be tested for the condition. This is usually done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. It is surprised if your test shows a high blood sugar level and is important for the patient to be tested for gestational diabetes, because high blood sugar can cause problems for both the pregnent woman and the baby.Sometimes, a pregnant woman has been living with diabetes without knowing it. If she has the  symptoms of diabetes  and that may include:

*Increased thirst.
*Increased urination.
*Increased hunger.
*Blurred vision.

Pregnancy causes most women to urinate more often and to feel more hungry, so having these symptoms doesn’t always mean that a woman has diabetes.Doctor should be consulted wheather  these symptoms are for diabetes  and then he can suggest for the test of diabetes.

*Infections:
Since diabetes interferes with the body’s ability to fight infections, the pregnant woman may experience frequent infections in areas such as the bladder, vagina and skin. White blood cells defend the body against bacteria, but these cells aren’t able to function normally when a person has a high blood sugar. A woman with gestational diabetes may also complain of a yeast infection in the vagina or on the skin. Yeast cells are normally present in the vaginal area in small amounts. The vaginal secretions and urine contain more glucose when a woman has gestational diabetes. The yeast cells use the glucose as food, which causes the cells to multiply. With the body’s immune system compromised by the high level of glucose in the blood, this increase in yeast cells turns into a yeast infection.

*High Blood Sugar:
Since a woman may not have any noticeable symptoms of gestational diabetes and symptoms can mimic regular pregnancy symptoms, screening for this condition is part of prenatal care for at-risk women between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. The doctor will initially order a blood test called a glucose challenge test. If the glucose challenge test indicates a high blood sugar level, the doctor may order a glucose tolerance test to confirm the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Both tests involve drinking a sweet glucose solution and having your blood drawn after a prescribed amount of time.

Causes:
Almost all women have some degree of impaired glucose intolerance as a result of hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. That means that their blood sugar may be higher than normal, but not high enough to have diabetes. During the later part of pregnancy (the third trimester), these hormonal changes place pregnant woman at risk for gestational diabetes.

During pregnancy, increased levels of certain hormones made in the placenta (the organ that connects the baby by the umbilical cord to the uterus) help shift nutrients from the mother to the developing fetus. Other hormones are produced by the placenta to help prevent the mother from developing low blood sugar.

They work by resisting the actions of insulin.
Over the course of the pregnancy, these hormones lead to progressive impaired glucose intolerance (higher blood sugar levels). To try to decrease blood sugar levels, the body makes more insulin to get glucose into cells to be used for energy.
Usually, the mother’s pancreas is able to produce more insulin (about three times the normal amount) to overcome the effect of the pregnancy hormones on blood sugar levels. If, however, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, blood sugar levels will rise, resulting in gestational diabetes.

Risk factors:
Any woman can develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:

*Age greater than 25. Women older than age 25 are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
*Family or personal health history. the risk of developing gestational diabetes increases if the woman has prediabetes — slightly elevated blood sugar that may be a precursor to type 2 diabetes — or if a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes.the woman is also more likely to develop gestational diabetes if she had it during a previous pregnancy, if the woman delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms), or if she had an unexplained stillbirth.
*Excess weight. You’re more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you’re significantly overweight with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher.
*Race factor. For reasons that aren’t clear, women who are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

Complications:
Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes that’s not carefully managed can lead to uncontrolled blood

sugar levels and cause problems for patient and the baby, including an increased likelihood of needing a C-section to deliver.

Complications that may affect the baby are:
1.Excessive birth weight. Extra glucose in your bloodstream crosses the placenta, which triggers your baby’s pancreas to make extra insulin. This can cause the baby to grow too large (macrosomia). Very large babies — those that weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, sustain birth injuries or require a C-section birth.

2.Early (preterm) birth and respiratory distress syndrome. A mother’s high blood sugar may increase her risk of early labor and delivering her baby before its due date. Or her doctor may recommend early delivery because the baby is large.

3.Babies born early may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult. Babies with this syndrome may need help breathing until their lungs mature and become stronger. Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes may experience respiratory distress syndrome even if they’re not born early.

4.Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because their own insulin production is high. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia may provoke seizures in the baby. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby’s blood sugar level to normal.

5.Type 2 diabetes later in life. Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.
Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby’s death either before or shortly after birth.

Complications that may affect the patient are:
1.High blood pressure and preeclampsia. Gestational diabetes raises your risk of high blood pressure, as well as, preeclampsia — a serious complication of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten the lives of both mother and baby.

2.Future diabetes. If the pregnent woman has gestational diabetes, she is more likely to get it again during a future pregnancy and also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes as she gets older. However, making healthy lifestyle choices such as eating healthy foods and exercising can help reduce the risk of future type 2 diabetes.Of those women with a history of gestational diabetes who reach their ideal body weight after delivery, fewer than 1 in 4 eventually develops type 2 diabetes.

Diagnosis:
Gestational diabetes usually starts halfway through the pregnancy. All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to screen for the condition. Women who have risk factors for gestational diabetes may have this test earlier in the pregnancy.

Once the pregnent woman is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, she can see how well she is doing by testing the glucose level at home. The most common way involves pricking her finger and putting a drop of the blood on a machine that will give her the glucose reading.

Treatment:
The goals of treatment are to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels within normal limits during the pregnancy, and to make sure that the growing baby is healthy.

Watching the baby:
1.The health care provider should closely check both the patient  and the baby throughout the pregnancy. Fetal monitoring will check the size and health of the fetus.

2.A nonstress test is a very simple, painless test for the patient and the baby.

3.A machine that hears and displays the baby’s heartbeat (electronic fetal monitor) is placed on the abdomen.
The health care provider can compare the pattern of the baby’s heartbeat to movements and find out whether the baby  is doing well.

Diet and exercise:
The best way to improve the pregnent woman’s diet is by eating a variety of healthy foods.She should learn how to read food labels, and check them when making food decisions.The doctor or dietitian  should advice the diet chart and that should be strictly followed  during pregnancy.

In general, when the pregnent woman has gestational diabetes the diet should:
*Be moderate in fat and protein.

#Provide  carbohydrates through foods that include fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates (such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice)
Be low in foods that contain a lot of sugar, such as soft drinks, fruit juices, and pastries.

#If managing the diet does not control blood sugar (glucose) levels, she may be prescribed diabetes medicine by mouth or insulin therapy.
Most women who develop gestational diabetes will not need diabetes medicines or insulin, but some will.

Prevention:
Theoretically, smoking cessation may decrease the risk of gestational diabetes among smokers.Physical exercise has not been found to have a significant effect of primary prevention of gestational diabetes in randomized controlled trials. It may be effective as tertiary prevention for women who have already developed the condition.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestational_diabetes
http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/gestational-diabetes-symptoms
http://www.ehow.com/list_6080912_signs-symptoms-gestational-diabetes.html
http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/gestational_diabetes
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/risk-factors/CON-20014854
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/gestational-diabetes/overview.html

Categories
Suppliments our body needs

Apple Cider Vinegar

Other names: cider vinegar, ACV, acetic acid

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Apple cider vinegar is a type of vinegar made by the fermentation of apple cider. During this process, sugar in the apple cider is broken down by bacteria and yeast into alcohol and then into vinegar. Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid (like other types of vinegar) and some lactic, citric and malic acids.

Unlike white vinegar, apple cider vinegar is a light yellow-brown color and is often sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with a dark, cloudy sediment called mother of vinegar (consisting mainly of acetic acid bacteria) settled at the bottom of the bottle.

Unfiltered and unpasteurized apple cider vinegar is sold in health food stores, online and in some grocery stores.

Although other types of vinegar — such as white vinegar, balsamic vinegar, red wine vinegar and rice wine vinegar — are used mainly in cooking, apple cider vinegar is used primarily for health purposes. Hippocrates was said to have used it as a health tonic and American soldiers are said to have used it to combat indigestion, pneumonia and scurvy.

But it wasn’t until the book Folk Medicine: A Vermont Doctor’s Guide to Good Health, written by D.C. Jarvis, M.D., was published in 1958 that the medicinal use of apple cider vinegar took off. Jarvis recommended apple cider vinegar as a cure-all, explaining that it was unusually rich in potassium (compared to other food sources, it is not). He said that mixing the apple cider vinegar with honey, a mixture he called “honegar,” enhanced the healing power of the vinegar. Jarvis also wrote that apple cider vinegar could destroy harmful bacteria in the digestive tract and recommended as a digestive tonic to be consumed with meals.

Although the year it was released it didn’t attract much attention, the following year, Folk Medicine became a bestseller and stayed on the bestseller list for months. According to Time magazine, it sold more than 245,000 copies in a single week and received many testimonials by people who felt they benefited from the apple cider vinegar and honey mixture.

In the 1970s, apple cider vinegar became popular once again, this time by proponents who had read Jarvis’ book and suggested that apple cider vinegar along with kelp, vitamin B6 and lecithin could help people lose weight by speeding metabolism and burning fat at a faster rate.

Why Do People Use Apple Cider Vinegar

Diabetes
Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of apple cider vinegar’s possible health benefits is its effect on blood glucose levels. Several small studies suggest that vinegar (both apple cider vinegar and other types) may help to lower glucose levels.

For example, a preliminary study by researchers at Arizona State University, published in the journal Diabetes Care, examined people with type 2 diabetes. Study participants took either two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar or water with one ounce of cheese at bedtime for two days. The researchers found taking two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar at bedtime had a favorable impact on blood glucose levels the next morning. Prior to the study, the average fasting blood glucose level was 137 mg/dL. It decreased by 2% with the cheese and by 4% with the vinegar, a statistically significant difference. In people with a fasting glucose level above 130 mg/dL prior to the study, the vinegar reduced glucose levels by as much as 6%. The study was very small and the duration was short, so more research is needed.

Other studies have found that vinegar can lower the post-meal rise in glucose. The acetic acid in vinegar is thought to slow starch digestion and reduce the glycemic index of starchy foods. For example, a small study compared the effect of vinegar with white bread on blood glucose and insulin levels. Researchers found that those who took vinegar with white bread had lower post-meal blood glucose and insulin levels and it also appeared to increase satiety ratings.

Weight Loss
Apple cider vinegar has become popular as a “fat-burner” and as a natural appetite suppressant. In fact, there’s even an apple cider vinegar diet, which involves taking one to three teaspoons of apple cider vinegar or apple cider vinegar pills before each meal.

The earliest proponent of apple cider vinegar for weight loss was Jarvis, who wrote that people who consumed apple cider vinegar regularly would burn fat instead of store it. Although some say that the pectin, enzymes, vitamins, or potassium may help with weight loss, there is no reliable research showing that either apple cider vinegar or the combination of apple cider vinegar, kelp, vitamin B6 and lecithin can influence metabolic rate or the help us “burn fat” faster than we normally would.

One small study in 2005 found that those who ate a piece of bread with a small amount of white vinegar felt more full and satisfied than those who ate the bread alone. It’s possible that vinegar may affect satiety by lowering the glycemic index of carbohydrates eaten at a meal. More research is needed.

Alkaline Acid Balance
Some alternative practitioners suggest apple cider vinegar as part of a diet to restore alkaline acid balance. The theory behind the alkaline diet is our blood is slightly alkaline, with a normal pH level of between 7.35 and 7.45. Our diet should reflect this pH level and be slightly alkaline. All foods we eat, after being digested and metabolized, release either an acid or alkaline base (bicarbonate) into blood. The foods that people tend to overeat –- grains, meat, dairy products — all produce acid.

Proponents of the alkaline-acid theory believe that a diet high in acid-producing foods leads to lack of energy, excessive mucous production, infections, anxiety, irritability, headache, sore throat, nasal and sinus congestion, allergic reactions and makes people prone to conditions such as arthritis and gout. Despite being an acidic solution, some proponents of apple cider vinegar believe it has an alkalinizing effect on the body, which is why one to two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar in water is recommended as a daily health tonic. Although it’s a popular remedy, the effectiveness of the remedy and the theory haven’t been researched.

Dandruff
A home remedy for dandruff is to mix 1/4 cup apple cider vinegar with 1/4 cup water. The vinegar solution is thought to restore the restore the pH balance of the scalp and discourage the overgrowth of malassezia furfur, the yeast-like fungus thought to trigger dandruff.

The vinegar mixture is usually poured into a spray bottle and spritzed on the hair and scalp, avoiding the eye and ear area. A towel is then wrapped around the head and left on 15 minutes to an hour. After that, the vinegar can be washed from the hair. Alternative practitioners often recommend it once to twice a week for dandruff.

High Cholesterol
A 2006 study found that rats fed acetic acid (the main ingredient in vinegar) had significantly lower total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Large, human trials are needed to see if the same results occur in humans.

Acid Reflux
Apple cider vinegar in water is a popular home remedy for acid reflux. It’s based on a theory by some alternative medicine practitioners that heartburn and reflux are actually symptoms of insufficient stomach acid caused by aging, poor diet or overusing antacids or other medications. Alternative practitioners usually rely on laboratories that conduct alternative tests to assess stomach acidity prior to any treatment. Critics say that insufficient stomach acid, or hypochlorhydria, isn’t a common condition and that it isn’t a known cause of acid reflux or heartburn.

Apple cider vinegar isn’t recommended as a home remedy for acid reflux or heartburn, because it may damage the delicate lining of the digestive tract and it could possibly worsen the problem. If you have acid reflux or heartburn, see a qualified health practitioner for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

Acne
Apple cider vinegar is a home remedy for acne. A typical application is one part apple cider vinegar to three parts water and the solution is dabbed onto the pimple. Although some people swear by it, caution should be used because there have been case reports of skin damage and burns from using full-strength vinegar on the face.

Blood Pressure
Preliminary studies suggest that the acetic acid in vinegar may help to lower blood pressure. How it might work is unclear, although studies suggest that it may increase levels of nitric oxide, a compound in the body that relaxes blood vessels, or it might inhibit an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme from producing angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict or narrow.

Side Effects and Safety Concerns:
Undiluted apple cider vinegar, in liquid or pill form, may damage the esophagus and other parts of the digestive tract. Apple cider vinegar drinks may damage tooth enamel if sipped.

One case report linked excessive apple cider vinegar consumption with low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia) and low bone mineral density. People with osteoporosis, low potassium levels and those taking potassium-lowering medications should use caution.

People with allergies to apples should avoid apple cider vinegar.

Apple cider vinegar tablets may become lodged in the throat or esophagus and cause serious damage to those tissues.

Vinegar applied to the skin may cause burns and scarring.

Excessive doses of apple cider vinegar have been found to cause damage to the stomach, duodenum and liver in animals.

The quality of apple cider vinegar tablets varies. A 2005 study compared eight brands of apple cider vinegar supplements and found that the ingredients didn’t correspond with the ingredients listed on the packaging, and that the chemical analysis of the samples led researchers to question whether any of the products were actually apple cider vinegar or whether they were just acetic acid.

Possible Drug Interactions:
Theoretically, prolonged use of apple cider vinegar could lead to lower potassium levels, which could increase the risk of toxicity of cardiac glycoside drugs such as Lanoxin (digoxin), insulin, laxatives and diuretics such as Lasix (furosemide).

Because apple cider vinegar may affect blood glucose and insulin levels, it could theoretically have an additive effect if combined with diabetes medications. Apple cider vinegar may also lower blood pressure, so it may have an additive effect if combined with high blood pressure medications.

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Resources:Fushimi T, Suruga K, Oshima Y, Fukiharu M, Tsukamoto Y, Goda T. Dietary acetic acid reduces serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Br J Nutr. (2006) 95.5: 916-924.

Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2005) 59.9: 983-988.

White AM, Johnston CS. Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2007) 30.11: 2814-2815.

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