Tag Archives: Diabetes

Gymnema silvestre

Botanical Name : Gymnema silvestre

Family: Asclepiadaceae
Genus: Gymnema
Species: G. sylvestre
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Name :Gurmari, Gurmarbooti, Gurmar, periploca of the woods, meshasring.

Alternative names:
Despite the part used being the leaf, one common name of this species is miracle fruit, a name shared by two other species: Synsepalum dulcificum and Thaumatococcus daniellii. Both species are used to alter the perceived sweetness of foods.

In English the species is also known as gymnema, Cowplant and Australian cowplant.

This species also goes under many other names such as; Gurmari, Gurmarbooti, Gurmar, periploca of the woods and Meshasringa. The Hindi word Gur-mar (Madhunaashini in Sanskrit, Chakkarakolli in Malayalam,Podapatri in Telugu), literally means sugar destroyer. Meshasringa (Sanskrit) translates as “ram’s horn”, a name given to the plant from the shape of its fruits. Gymnema derives from the Greek words “gymnos”  and “n?ma” (????) meaning “naked” and “thread” respectively, the species epitheton sylvestre means “of the forest” in Latin.

Habitat :  Gymnema silvestre is   native to the tropical forests of southern and central India where it has been used as a natural treatment for diabetes for nearly two millennia.

Description:
Gudmar or Gymnema Sylvestre is Large climbers, rooting at nodes, leaves elliptic, acuminate, base acute to acuminate, glabrous above sparsely or densely tomentose beneath; Flowers small, in axillary and lateral umbel like cymes, pedicels long; Calyx-lobes long, ovate, obtuse, pubescent; Corolla pale yellow campanulate, valvate, corona single, with 5 fleshy scales. Scales adnate to throat of corolla tube between lobes; Anther connective produced into a membranous tip, pollinia 2, erect, carpels 2,unilocular; locules many ovuled; Follicle long, fusiform1.

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Chemical composition:
The major bioactive constituents of Gymnema sylvestris are a group of oleanane type triterpenoid saponins known as gymnemic acids. The latter contain several acylated (tigloyl, methylbutyroyl etc.,) derivatives of deacylgymnemic acid (DAGA) which is 3-O-glucuronide of gymnemagenin (3, 16, 21, 22, 23, 28-hexahydroxy-olean-12-ene)2. The individual gymnemic acids (saponins) include gymnemic acids I-VII, gymnemosides A-F, gymnemasaponins.

G. sylvestre leaves contain triterpene saponins belonging to oleanane and dammarene classes. Oleanane saponins are gymnemic acids and gymnemasaponins, while dammarene saponins are gymnemasides. Besides this, other plant constituents are flavones, anthraquinones, hentri-acontane, pentatriacontane, ? and ?- chlorophylls, phytin, resins, d-quercitol, tartaric acid, formic acid, butyric acid, lupeol, ?-amyrin related glycosides and stigmasterol. The plant extract also tests positive for alkaloids. Leaves of this species yield acidic glycosides and anthroquinones and their derivatives.

Gymnemic acids have antidiabetic, antisweetener and anti-inflammatory activities. The antidiabetic array of molecules has been identified as a group of closely related gymnemic acids after it was successfully isolated and purified from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. Later, the phytoconstituents of Gymnema sylvestre were isolated, and their chemistry and structures were studied and elucidated.

Medicinal Uses:
While it is still being studied, and the effects of the herb are not entirely known, the herb has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels when used for an extended period of time. Additionally, Gymnema reduces the taste of sugar when it is placed in the mouth, thus some use it to fight sugar cravings. From extract of the leaves were isolated glycosides known as Gymnemic acids, which exhibit anti-sweet activity.

This effect lasts up to about 2 hours. Some postulate that the herb actually reduces cravings for sugar by blocking sugar receptors in the tongue. This effect was observed in rats in a 2003 study conducted by CH Lemon, et al. It is currently being used in an all natural medication for diabetes with other ingredients such as cinnamon, chromium, zinc, biotin, banaba plant, huckleberry and bitter melon.

The active ingredients are thought to be the family of compounds related to gymnemic acid: purified gymnemic acids are widely used as experimental reagents in taste physiology and have also been shown to affect experimental diabetes, reduce intestinal transport of sugars. and fatty acids. Extracts of Gymnema is not only claimed to curb sweet tooths but also for treatment of as varied problems as hyperglycemia, obesity, high cholesterol levels, anemia and digestion. The leaves were also used for stomach ailments, constipation, water retention, and liver disease; historically these claims are not supported by scientific studies.[8] According to the Sushruta of the Ayurveda it helps to treat Madhumeha ie glycosuria.[citation needed]

In 2005, a study made by King’s College, London, United Kingdom, showed that a water-soluble extract of Gymnema Sylvestre, caused reversible increases in intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in mouse and human ?-cells when used at a concentration (0.125 mg/ml) without compromising cell viability. Hence forth these data suggest that extracts derived from Gymnema Sylvestre may be useful as therapeutic agents for the stimulation of insulin secretion in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.[9] According to research done by Persaud and colleagues in 1999 the raise in insulin levels may be due to regeneration of the cells in the pancreas.  Gymnema can also help prevent adrenal hormones from stimulating the liver to produce glucose, thereby reducing blood sugar levels  Clinical trials with diabetics in India have used 400 mg per day of water-soluble acidic fraction of the gymnema leaves. However, Gymnema cannot be used in place of insulin to control blood sugar by people with either Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes.

In 2010, King’s College, London, United Kingdom performed another study on Gymnema Sylvestre. OmSantal Adivasi extract, a high molecular weight extract from the plant Gymnema Sylvestre was found to improve the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycemic control after OmSantal Adivasi administration was related to increased circulating levels of insulin and/or C-peptide. Experimenting with human islets in vitro, there was a rapid onset response to OmSantal Adivasi exposure, continued for extent of exposure to OmSantal Adivasi, and also a rapid reverse if there was a withdrawal of OmSantal Adivasi. OmSantal Adivasi created a biphasic pattern of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This resulted in enhanced rates of insulin secretion being maintained for length of exposure to OmSantal Adivasi. Other Gymnema Sylvestre extracts induce cell damage to the membrane causing pathological and unregulated release of insulin to BETA-cells. OmSantal Adivasi has a low concentration of saponin, what causes damage to cell membranes, which would be degraded during digestion. OmSantal Adivasi directly stimulates BETA-cells of the islets of Langerhans, reducing fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. OmSantal Adivasi experiments, in vitro, initiated insulin secretion at a sub-stimulatory concentration of glucose. OmSantal Adivasi has been shown to effectively reduce blood glucose and increase plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in humans

Indian physicians first used Gymnema to treat diabetes over 2,000 years ago.  . In the 1920s, preliminary scientific studies found some evidence that Gymnema leaves can reduce blood sugar levels, but nothing much came of this observation for decades.  It is a taste suppressant.  By topical application gymnema has been shown to block the sweet and some of the bitter taste, but not salt and acid taste.  By keeping off the sweet taste it helps to control a craving for sugar.  Responsible for this are considered saponins.  Gymnema has also shown mild hypoglycemic effect.  Topically (applied to the tongue, mainly to the tip or by chewing) it is used to control a craving for sugar, recommended as an aid to a weightloss diet and diabetes.  Internally it is used as an adjuvant (tea, h.p.) for diabetes. Gymnema leaves raise insulin levels, according to research in healthy volunteers. Based on animal studies, this may be due to regeneration of the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. Other animal research shows that Gymnema can also improve uptake of glucose into cells and prevent adrenaline from stimulating the liver to produce glucose, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. The leaves are also noted for lowering serum cholesterol and triglycerides.  In the past, powdered Gymnema root was used to treat snake bites, constipation, stomach complaints, water retention, and liver disease.

Gurmar, also known as Gymnema or Gymnema Sylvestre, is often referred to as “sugar destroyer” and has been used in Ayurveda since the 6th century BC. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for several centuries as a safe and natural approach to help regulate sugar metabolism. The key component of Gymnema – Gymnemic Acids – mimics glucose molecules, numbing receptor sites on the tongue. Gymnema contains Gymnemic acid, Quercitol, Lupeol, Beta-Amyrin and Stigmasterol, all of which are thought to help the body maintain healthy blood glucose levels.

Benefits of Gymnema Sylvestre (Gurmar)
Gymnema may:

*Help abolish the taste of sugar*
*Help manage sugar cravings and sugar addictions*
*Help support healthy glucose metabolism*
*Help maintain healthy blood sugar levels*
*Support healthy weight*

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbalprovider.com/gymnema-sylvestre.html?src=ggl&w=gymnema-sylvestre&gclid=CLjflMqo8qoCFQHf4AodDghbPA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnema_sylvestre
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

http://www.nutrasanus.com/gymnema-sylvestre.html

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Jarul (Lagerstroemia speciosa)

Botanical Name : Lagerstroemia speciosa
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Lagerstroemia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Species: L. speciosa
Synonym: Lagestroemia reginae.

Common Names:Giant Crape-myrtle, Queen’s Crape-myrtle,Queen’s flower, pride of India, queen’s crape myrtle,
Banabá Plant for Philippines and Jarul for India  Bengladesh.

Habitat : Native to tropical southern Asia.

Description:
It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall, with smooth, flaky bark. The leaves are deciduous, oval to elliptic, 8-15 cm long and 3-7 cm broad, with an acute apex. The flowers are produced in erect panicles 20-40 cm long, each flower with six white to purple petals 2-3.5 cm long.It has smooth rounded leaves.

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The red-orange leaves have higher levels of corosolic acid.The beautiful flowers are racemes and are pink, purple or purplish – pink.The fruit is oval, about one inch long and splits in six pieces when mature; the seeds are small and have winged flaps.


Cultivation:

It is grown in South East Asia, India and the Philippines.It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas.This tree should be planted under full sun; can be planted on most soils but it has low salt tolerance. Plant in a frost free location or protect from frost.

Propagation :Seeds.
You may click to see :In Vitro Propagation of Lagerstroemia spp. from Nodal Explants and Gaseous Composition in the Culture Headspace.

Medicinal Uses:
Traditional medicinal applications :
The roots are used for stomach problems.
Tea of the leaves is used against diabetes mellitus and for weight loss.
Banaba leaves are able to lower blood sugar due to, among other phytochemicals; acid (triterpenoid glycoside). This is not the only active phyto-chemical, though.

The phytochemicals in the leaves of Banaba works at the molecular level by fine-tuning the damaged insulin receptor, which is the cause of insulin resistance.

Banaba also contains concentrations of dietary fiber and minerals such as magnesium and zinc.
It helps the body handling glucose and is as such also effective in weight loss and against obesity.
The hypoglycemic (blood sugar lowering) effect is similar to that of insulin (which induces glucose transport from the blood into body cells).

The tea is therapeutic against ailments such as diabetes, kidney- and urinary problems. The taste is pleasant and smooth; in Japan it is known as “slimming tea.”

Banaba can also be applied against gout (metabolic arthritis); the leaves contain Valoneic Acid Dilactone (VAD). This acts as as an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase to lower uric acid levels.

The effect of VAD is stronger than Allopurinol (brand names: Aloprim®, Zyloprim®) and is without the side effects commonly associated with this drug.

Click to learn more :banabaherb.com :
Antidiabetes and Anti-obesity Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa :

Other Uses :
The reddish brown wood of Banaba is used for home building, furniture, boats, etc.The Queen’s flower will stand out in every garden and is a beautiful landscape tree.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.tropilab.com/queen-flow.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagerstroemia_speciosa

http://www.tropical-biology.org/research/dip/species/Lagerstroemia%20speciosa.htm

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Diabetes Stem Cell Therapy Patients Show Remarkable Improvement

Cellonis, a Beijing and HK-based biotech company, with its new personalized diabetes treatment concept has demonstrated an amazing improvement in their treated patients’ conditions. The ongoing clinical study shows the treatment’s best case could reconstruct a patient’s natural insulin production and even reverse later complications like kidney failure. Treated patients may have the chance to return to the normal activities non-diabetes sufferers take for granted.

………...CLICK  & SEE

The clinical study, jointly conducted by scientists and doctors of the Cellonis clinical research team, aims to help patients be free from insulin and oral drugs, by reconstructing their natural insulin production damaged by either autoimmune disorder (T1DM) or hyperglycemia and also improve insulin sensitivity (T2DM). Using injections of autologous stem cells from the patient’s bone marrow, the research team believes that this therapy could help patients return to a life without annoying everyday injections and drugs.

“Most of the patients in our clinical study are now taking less synthetic insulin or oral drugs for BG control,” says Dr. Chase Dai, Chief Medical Officer at Cellonis. “We appear to have restored the biological insulin producing function of the body. We are excited to see that some patients have been treatment-free for five months now, and we believe the effect of the stem cell therapy can last much longer. We were also encouraged by some other happy surprises during the clinical study.

“For example, this therapy appears to reverse chronic kidney failure. It was a surprise for all of my team to observe that the kidney function of a 75- year-old patient improved remarkably.”

This patient had suffered from diabetes for years, gradually developing diabetic foot and nephropathy. He can now walk freely after having been confined to bed or a wheelchair for six months, and his quality of life has improved significantly. Moreover, he only needs kidney dialysis one time a week instead of three times. In a follow-up visit he excitedly told us that he was hopeful that in the near future he could be completely rid of diabetes.

Diabetes, an increasingly spreading disease, can lead to life-threatening diseases such as blindness, amputation, strokes, or kidney failure in its natural course. Current treatments, including insulin, cannot change this situation.

“We believe that our stem cell therapy will bring promising hope for patients suffering from diabetes and its complications,” comments Cindy Hao, CEO of Cellonis. “Personalized diabetes therapies for patients of various conditions will be developed by Cellonis in the near future. We believe what we have restored for patients will not only be their natural insulin production, but also a normal life filled with the activities non-diabetes sufferers can enjoy daily.”

Cellonis Biotechnologies focuses on R&D and the clinical application of novel personalized stem cell therapies and immunotherapies for patients with diseases including cancer, diabetes and central nervous system disorders.

You may click to see:->

Diabetes Hope – Successful Pilot Study of Immature Adult Stem Cells

RESEARCH FROM 90?S CURES TYPE 1 DIABETES!

Pancreas cells to produce insulin

Source: Elements4Health June 24th. 2010

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Study Links Birth Weight Gene To Diabetes

Mothers who give birth to babies with low birth weight may want to monitor their child’s health as they grow, as a new study is suggesting that babies that are born at a low weight have a stronger chance of developing type 2 diabetes.

According to a report published in the journal, Nature Genetics, researchers have discovered two genetic regions that influence birth weight, one of which is also associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.

Researchers analyzed more than 38,000 patients from 19 different studies and found that the gene ADCY5, a factor in causing low birth weight, is also associated with type 2 diabetes. It was found that individuals who had this gene variant had a 25 percent higher risk of developing the condition later in their lifetime.

“It was a surprise to see such strong genetic effects for a characteristic, such as birth weight, which is subject to powerful influences from so many environmental factors,” said researcher Mark McCarthy. “These discoveries provide important clues to the mechanisms responsible for the control of growth in early life and may lead us to a better understanding of how to manage growth problems during pregnancy.”

Individuals who suffer from the condition can take diabetes natural remedies to treat their symptoms without worrying about the side effects that comes with some prescription medication.

Source:
Better Health Research; 8th April.2010

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Coconut Oil Could Ward Off Type 2 Diabetes.

Diet Rich  Coconut Oil Could Stop Type 2 Diabetes.  A diet rich in coconut oil could ward off Type 2 diabetes.

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The oil, used in foods such as margarine, helps prevent insulin resistance.

This is where muscle and fat cells stop reacting to insulin, the hormone that helps to mop up excess sugar in the blood.
Australian scientists used mice to compare the effects of coconut oil-rich foods with a lard-based diet, consumed by many in the developed world.
The results showed coconut-fed mice were much less likely to develop resistance to insulin. Previously, coconut oil has had a mixed reception because it is high in saturated fat, which is linked to high cholesterol.

But coconut fat is now known to be made up of so-called ‘medium chain’ fatty acids, regarded as healthier than the long-chain fatty acids found in animal products such as butter or lard.

Source: Mail online:23rd. Sept. 2009

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