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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Diaper rash

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Other Names:-Nappy rash,Diaper dermatitis
Definition:
Diaper rash  is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants.

Generic rash or irritant diaper dermatitis (IDD) is characterized by joined patches of erythema and scaling mainly seen on the convex surfaces, with the skin folds spared.

{Diaper dermatitis with secondary bacterial or fungal involvement tends to spread to concave surfaces (i.e. skin folds), as well as convex surfaces, and often exhibits a central red, beefy erythema with satellite pustules around the border (Hockenberry, 2003).}

Diaper rash  is a red, patchy irritation found on baby’s skin in the genital area, the folds of the thighs and the buttocks.Almost every baby will get diaper rash at least once during the first 3 years of life, with the majority of these babies 9-12 months old. .

Diaper rash appears on the skin under a diaper. Diaper rash typically occurs in infants and children younger than 2 years, but the rash can also be seen in people who are incontinent or paralyzed. Read more about the causes, symptoms, and treatments for diaper rash.

There are many misconceptions about a baby’s  Diaper Rash:

*Baby‘s bottom is always  be perfectly smooth and rash-free
*Diaper rash is abnormal
*Diaper rash is a sign of food or formula allergies
*Diaper rash means the baby has bad diarrhea or a yeast infection

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Having a diaper rash is a normal part of being a baby. There are many ways you can limit the amount of rash, but from time to time it will flare up again.  But sometimes Diaper rash may alarm parents and annoy babies, but most diaper rash cases can be resolved with simple at-home treatments.

Symptoms:
Diaper rash is characterized by the following:

*Skin signs. Diaper rash is marked by red, puffy and tender-looking skin in the diaper region — buttocks, thighs and genitals.
*Changes in your baby’s disposition. You may notice your baby seems more uncomfortable than usual, especially during diaper changes. A baby with a diaper rash often fusses or cries when the diaper area is washed or touched.

Diaper rashes can occur intermittently, anytime your child wears diapers, but they’re more common in babies during their first 15 months, especially between 8 and 10 months of age.

When to visit  a doctor:-
Diaper rash is usually easily treated and improves within a few days after starting home treatment. If your baby’s skin doesn’t improve after a few days of home treatment with over-the-counter ointment and more frequent diaper changes, talk to your doctor. Sometimes, diaper rash leads to secondary infections that may require prescription medications.

Have your child examined if:

*The rash is severe
*The rash worsens despite home treatment
Also see your child’s doctor if the rash occurs along with any of the following:

*Fever
*Blisters or boils
*A rash that extends beyond the diaper area
*Pus or weeping discharge


Causes:

Babies are so susceptible to diaper rash that wet and soiled diapers can irritate baby’s delicate skin. Naturally, if  baby is in a wet diaper for too long, she or he will be more prone to getting a rash.

Some of the most common causes of diaper rash to be aware of are:

*Irritation due to bowel movements
*Irritation due to moisture from sweat and urine
(even the most absorbent diapers leave some wetness behind)
*Not drying the skin thoroughly after a diaper change
*Diaper chafing/friction
*Diarrhea, which may be caused by antibiotics
*Change in food or introducing new foods

Irritant diaper dermatitis develops when skin is exposed to prolonged wetness, decreased skin pH caused by urine and feces, and resulting breakdown of the stratum corneum, or outermost layer of the skin. In adults, the stratum corneum is composed of 25 to 30 layers of flattened dead keratinocytes, which are continuously shed and replaced from below. These dead cells are interlaid with lipids secreted by the stratum granulosum just underneath, which help to make this layer of the skin a waterproof barrier. The stratum corneum’s function is to reduce water loss, repel water, protect deeper layers of the skin from injury and to repel microbial invasion of the skin (Tortora and Grabowski, 2003). In infants, this layer of the skin is much thinner and more easily disrupted.

Effects of urine:-

Although wetness alone macerates the skin, softening the stratum corneum and greatly increasing susceptibility to friction injury, urine has an additional impact on skin integrity because of its effect on skin pH. While studies show that ammonia alone is only a mild skin irritant, when urea breaks down in the presence of fecal urease it increases skin acidity (lower pH), which in turn promotes the activity of fecal enzymes such as protease and lipase (Atherton, 2004; Wolf, Wolf, Tuzun and Tuzun, 2001). These fecal enzymes increase the skin’s permeability to bile salts and act as irritants in and of themselves.

There is no detectable difference in rates of diaper rash in conventional disposable diaper wearers and reusable cloth diaper wearers. “Babies wearing superabsorbent disposable diapers with a central gelling material have fewer episodes of diaper dermatitis compared with their counterparts wearing cloth diapers. However, keep in mind that superabsorbent diapers contain dyes that were suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).” [1] (Kazzi, 2006) Whether wearing cloth or disposable diapers they should be changed frequently to prevent diaper rash, even if they don’t feel wet.

Effects of diet:-

The interaction between fecal enzyme activity and IDD explains the observation that infant diet and diaper rash are linked, since fecal enzymes are in turn affected by diet. Breast-fed babies, for example, have a lower incidence of diaper rash, possibly because their stools have lower pH and lower enzymatic activity (Hockenberry, 2003). Diaper rash is also most likely to be diagnosed in infants 8–12 months old, perhaps in response to an increase in eating solid foods and dietary changes around that age that affect fecal composition. Any time an infant’s diet undergoes a significant change (i.e. from breast milk to formula or from milk to solids) there appears to be an increased likelihood of diaper rash (Atherton and Mills, 2004).

The link between feces and IDD is also apparent in the observation that infants are more susceptible to developing diaper rash after treatment with antibiotics, which affect the intestinal microflora (Borkowski, 2004; Gupta & Skinner, 2004). Also, there is an increased incidence of diaper rash in infants who have suffered from diarrhea in the previous 48 hours, which may be because fecal enzymes such as lipase and protease are more active in feces which have passed rapidly through the gastrointestinal tract (Atherton, 2004).

The incidence of diaper rash is lower among breastfed infants—perhaps due to the less acidic nature of their urine and stool. (Kazzi, 2006)

Treatments:-

The most effective treatment, although not the most practical one, is to discontinue use of diapers, allowing the affected skin to air out. Thorough drying of the skin before diapering is a good preventive measure, since it’s the excess moisture, either from urine and feces or from sweating, that sets the conditions for a diaper rash to occur. Various moisture-absorbing powders, such as talcum or starch, also help prevention.

Another approach is to block moisture from reaching the skin, and commonly recommended remedies using this approach include oil-based protectants or barrier cream, various over-the-counter “diaper creams”, petroleum jelly and other oils. Such sealants sometimes accomplish the opposite if the skin is not thoroughly dry, in which case they serve to seal the moisture inside the skin rather than outside.

Over-the-counter products:-

Various diaper rash medications are available without a prescription. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist for specific recommendations. Some popular over-the-counter ointments are:

*A + D
*Balmex
*Desitin
*Hydrocortisone
*Zinc oxide paste

Zinc oxide is the active ingredient in many diaper rash creams. These products are usually applied in a thin layer to the irritated region throughout the day to soothe and protect your baby’s skin. Zinc oxide can also be used to prevent diaper rash on normal, healthy skin.

Zinc oxide-based ointments are quite effective, especially in prevention, because they have both a drying and an astringent effect on the skin, being mildly antiseptic without causing irritation.

In persistent or especially bad rashes, an antifungal cream often has to be used. In cases that the rash is more of an irritation, a mild topical corticosteroid preparation, e.g. hydrocortisone cream, is used. As it is often difficult to tell a fungal infection apart from a mere skin irritation, many physicians prefer an antifungal-and-corticosteroid combination cream.

Some sources claim that diaper rash is more common with cloth diapers, yet others claim that the type of diaper makes no difference, but that cloth diapers can speed the healing process. In truth the material of the diaper is relevant inasmuch as it can wick and keep moisture away from the baby’s skin.

Prevention:

A few simple strategies can help decrease the likelihood of diaper rash developing on your baby’s skin:

*Change diapers often. Remove dirty diapers promptly. If your child is in child care, ask staff members to do the same.
*Rinse your baby’s bottom with water as part of each diaper change. You can use a sink, tub or water bottle for this purpose. Moist washcloths and cotton balls also can aid in cleaning the skin. Don’t use wipes that contain alcohol or fragrance.
*Pat your baby dry with a clean towel. Don’t scrub your baby’s bottom. Scrubbing can further irritate the skin.
*Don’t overtighten diapers. Diapers that are too tight prevent airflow into the diaper region, setting up a moist environment favorable to diaper rashes. Tightfitting diapers can also cause chafing at the waist or thighs.
*Give your baby’s bottom more time without a diaper. When possible, let your baby go without a diaper. Exposing skin to air is a natural and gentle way to let it dry. To avoid messy accidents, try laying your baby on a large towel and engage in some playtime while he or she is bare-bottomed.
*Wash cloth diapers carefully. Pre-soak heavily soiled cloth diapers and use hot water to wash them. Use a mild detergent and skip the fabric softeners and dryer sheets because they can contain fragrances that may irritate your baby’s skin. Double rinse your baby’s diapers if your child already has a diaper rash or is prone to developing diaper rash. If you use a diaper service to clean your baby’s diapers, make sure the diaper service takes these steps as well.
*Consider using ointment regularly. If your baby gets rashes often, apply a barrier ointment during each diaper change to prevent skin irritation. Petroleum jelly and zinc oxide are the time-proven ingredients included in many prepared diaper ointments. Using these products on clear skin helps keep it in good condition.
*After changing diapers, wash your hands well. Hand washing can prevent the spread of bacteria or yeast to other parts of your baby’s body, to you or to other children.

Cloth or disposable diapers:-
Many parents wonder about what kind of diapers to use. When it comes to preventing diaper rash, there’s no compelling evidence that cloth diapers are better than disposable diapers or vice versa, though disposables may keep baby’s skin slightly drier. Because there’s no one best diaper — use whatever works best for you and your baby. If one brand of disposable diaper irritates your baby’s skin, try another.

Whether you use cloth diapers, disposables or both kinds, always change your baby as soon as possible after he or she soils the diaper to keep the bottom as clean and dry as possible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaper_rash
http://www.dailyglow.com/skin-problems/baby-skin-rash.html?xid=g_&gclid=CJbdvPji26ACFcvV5wodbzUVCA
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diaper-rash/DS00069
http://www.askdrsears.com/html/11/T081400.asp
http://www.myadbaby.com/diaper_rash.html?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=diaper%2Brash%2Bpictures&utm_campaign=diaper%2Brash&buf=999999

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Categories
Pediatric

How To Prevent Diaper Rash

 CLICK & SEE

It has been said that if there were no diapers, there would be no diaper rashes. Even with meticulous care, all infants will occasionally develop an irritated bottom. Preventing the rash is a parent’s goal, but if an infant does get one, home treatment will usually keep the irritation from turning into more than just a nuisance.

CLICK & SEE.>..diaper rashes

Diaper rashes are actually caused by a combination of factors. First and foremost, the area under a diaper is warm, moist, and poorly ventilated, conditions ideal for the development of a rash. Second, the infant’s outermost layer of skin is soft and thin, making it highly susceptible to injury from bacteria, fungi, and the chemicals found in urine and stool. Third, the sequence of wetting and drying makes the skin more susceptible to the constant rubbing of a diaper against the skin. Add other conditions, such as skin or food allergy, diarrhea, and the use of medications (antibiotics, for example) it’s a wonder that a baby’s bottom is not always irritated.

Remember, diapers are used to keep urine and stool off the infant’s clothes and environment. Since all babies must wear diapers, the best any parent or caregiver can do is to try to prevent a rash from developing. Parents usually discover through trial and error just which diapering routines or products work best for their infant.

Here are some suggestions that will help:

· Never leave a baby alone on the changing table or any surface above the floor. Even a newborn can make a sudden turn and fall. Keep all supplies together in one place so the infant is always attended.

· Make sure the baby is always clean and dry. Promptly change the infant whenever the diaper is wet or soiled and gently clean the area with a soft washcloth. Do not over clean as scrubbing only damages the skin. Avoid harsh soaps – water alone is probably all that is needed. Gently pat the diaper area with a soft towel and leave the area exposed to air for a few minutes before putting on a new diaper. When the skin is completely dry, apply a light diaper cream containing zinc oxide. Although these white creams are not totally necessary, they do create a barrier so that stool and urine will not irritate the skin.

 

  • Choose diapers that have sufficient absorbency to keep the baby dry longer. Some of the new disposable diapers have chemicals that draw moisture away from the skin. These diapers absorb tremendous amounts of fluids – I recently took my 17-month old granddaughter swimming and her diaper weighed more than her when we got out of the pool! Change brands if a particular disposable diapers irritates the child.

  • Keep diapers and outer clothing fitting loose. The tighter the diaper and clothes, the less air gets to the baby’s skin.

  • Talcum powders should not be used. If babies inhale the powder, it can irritate the lungs and cause pneumonia. Cornstarch based powders may be less dangerous, but are not necessary since the new disposable diapers have a smooth inner lining.

Additional measures parents can take once a rash appears include:

 

  • Remove the diapers whenever possible. Fresh air is a great healer and without urine and stool touching the skin, the rash might clear up on its own. To keep any mess to a minimum, place the child diaperless on a surface that is easily washed or lay the baby down on soft towels with a waterproof sheet underneath. When the weather is nice, a few minutes’ exposure to sunshine may be helpful.

  • Disposable diapers can be altered to breathe easier by snipping the elastic bands around the legs in several places. Tearing holes in the plastic liner of the disposable diaper will also help allow more air in.

  • The diapers should be changed even more frequently than before. Until the rash is better, wake the baby up at least once during the night to change a wet diaper.

  • Instead of wiping the baby’s skin with a washcloth, use a running stream of plain water from the sink or a squeeze bottle. A cotton ball dipped in baby oil will gently remove any remaining diaper cream or stool from the irritated skin. Pat the area thoroughly dry before applying a new layer of diaper cream so that the medication does not seal in any moisture.

  • Avoid baby wipes since they contain alcohol, perfumes, and other chemicals that will irritate already inflamed skin. Sometimes the less applied to the baby’s skin the better off the infant will be!

  • Sometimes a diaper rash is caused by a yeast infection. This type of irritation is usually bright red, covers a large area, and is surrounded by red dots. Yeast diaper rashes are frequently seen following bouts of diarrhea or after a child has been on antibiotics. An over-the-counter antiyeast medication, such as MonostatR may be helpful, or see the child’s pediatrician for a prescription cream.

Most diaper rashes can be treated at home and usually clear up in three to five days. However, if the baby’s bottom becomes raw, bleeds, develops blisters or open sores, spreads beyond the diaper area, or causes enough discomfort to interfere with sleep, call the child’s physician for additional advice and help.

While diaper rashes are very common, parents still get upset and when their child’s bottom becomes red and irritated. Neighbors and relatives occasionally make parents feel guilty by reporting that their children never had a diaper rash! Parents should not blame themselves or their baby sitter when their infant develops a diaper rash. It is definitely not a reflection of poor hygiene or lack of care. True, diaper rashes are unsightly and worry parents, but given an infant’s tender skin,they are almost unavoidable!

Click to see also :->Diaper Rash Myths

Sources:KidsGrowth.Com

Categories
Healthy Tips News on Health & Science

How to Get Better Sleep

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Do headaches keep you up at night? Well, here’s how to banish that ache

Sleeping poorly may only trigger more headaches

A good night’s sleep gives you energy to face the day ahead. But when you have headaches, sleep may be elusive. Headaches may keep you from falling asleep or awaken you at night. And sleeping poorly may only trigger more headaches.

Why is sleep so important?

Sleep helps you fight fatigue and stress. When a headache strikes, sleep may help relieve the pain by changing the levels of serotonin and other chemicals in your brain.

If you don’t sleep well, you may feel irritable and cranky. You may lose your patience quickly and find it difficult to concentrate. You may struggle with headaches and other physical signs and symptoms. Perhaps ironically, sleeping too much can have the same effect. If you’re vulnerable to headaches, sleeping longer than usual may only aggravate head pain.

Promoting good sleep
Most adults need seven to nine hours of sleep a night. Easier said than done? These strategies can help.

Establish regular sleep hours. Wake up and go to bed at the same time every day — even on weekends and holidays. Getting about the same amount of sleep every night can help keep your headaches at bay.

Nap wisely
A nap can be refreshing, but it’s not a substitute for a full night’s sleep. If you nap during the day, keep it short  15 to 30 minutes. Longer naps may interfere with nighttime sleep.

Exercise regularly
Physical activity  especially aerobic exercise as well as regular sex  can help you fall asleep faster and make your sleep more restful. The key is to exercise often. Timing is important, too. Exercising too close to bedtime can make it more difficult to fall asleep.

Do Yoga  daily  under the guidance of an expart

Unwind at the end of the day
Anything that helps you relax can promote better sleep. Listen to soothing music, soak in a warm bath or read a favourite book.

Watch what you eat and drink before bedtime

A light snack may help you relax before sleeping, but a heavy meal may cause heartburn. Alcohol can aggravate headaches and make it harder to stay asleep. Caffeine and nicotine can interfere with sleep as well.

Minimise distractions

Save your bedroom for sleep and intimacy. Don’t watch television or take work materials to bed. Close your bedroom door, and use a fan to muffle distracting noises. Drink less before bed to avoid nighttime trips to the toilet.

Keep the temperature comfortable

It may be difficult to sleep in a room that’s too warm or too cold.

Don’t try to sleep
The harder you try to sleep, the more awake you’ll feel. If you can’t fall asleep within 15 minutes, get up. Read or do another quiet activity until you become drowsy.

Source: The Times Of India