Tag Archives: Digitalis purpurea

Digitalis lutea

Botanical Name : Digitalis lutea
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Digitalis
Species: D. lutea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonym: Digitalis aurea, Digitalis guellii, Digitalis intermedia, Digitalis nutans

Common Names: Digitalis lutea, Straw foxglove or (small) Yellow foxglove

Habitat: Digitalis lutea is native to Europe. It grows in woodlands, hedgerows and uncultivated fields on siliceous soils.

Description:
Digitalis lutea is a short-lived perennial plant. It grows 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). The leaves are oblong to inversely lance-shaped, veined, glossy, dark green and, in early to midsummer, upright stems bearing slender racemes of narrow, tubular, pale yellow flowers, hairy inside.The flowers are yellow, with brown dots on the inside of the corolla. Flowers are borne beginning in late spring, then sporadically throughout the summer and fall. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

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Like many foxgloves, this plant is often grown in gardens, where it readily self-sows and can become weedy.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is rich in organic matter. It also succeeds in dry soils and, once established, is drought tolerant. It prefers semi-shade but succeeds in full sun if the soil is moist. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. The yellow foxglove is a good companion plant, stimulating the growth of nearby plants. Root crops grown near to this plant will store better.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow early spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 4 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
Cardiac; Diuretic; Stimulant; Tonic.

Yellow foxglove is little used in herbal medicine but is in fact a less toxic alternative to the purple and woolly foxgloves (D. purpurea and D. lanata) which are widely used in the treatment of heart complaints. The yellow foxglove has similar medical actions, but its alkaloids are more readily metabolized and flushed out of the body. The leaves are cardiac, strongly diuretic, stimulant and tonic. They are used in the treatment of a weakened or failing heart, increasing the strength of contraction, slowing and steadying the heart rate and lowering blood pressure by strongly stimulating the flow of urine – which reduces overall blood volume. The leaves of plants in their second year of growth are harvested in the summer and dried for later use. This remedy should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can prove fatal. See also the notes above on toxicity.

Other Uses: Preservative……..An infusion of the plant added to the water in the vase will prolong the life of cut flowers. When grown near root crops the roots will store better.
Known Hazards :All parts of the plant are poisonous. The plant is less dangerous that the common foxglove (D. purpurea) since its effects are not cumulative.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitalis_lutea
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/747/
http://www.shootgardening.co.uk/plant/digitalis-lutea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Digitalis+lutea

Taxus baccata

Botanical Name : Taxus baccata
Family: Taxaceae
Genus: Taxus
Species: T. baccata
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms : Cephalotaxus adpressa Beissn. Cephalotaxus brevifolia Beissn.. Verataxus adpressa (Carrière) Carrièr

Common Names: It is the tree originally known as yew, though with other related trees becoming known, it may now be known as English yew, or European yew

Habitat : Taxus baccata is native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. It grows in woods and scrub, usually on limestone. It sometimes forms pure stands in sheltered sites on chalk in the south-east and on limestone in the north-west.

Description:
Taxus baccata is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) (exceptionally up to 28 metres (92 ft)) tall, with a trunk up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) (exceptionally 4 metres (13 ft)) diameter. The bark is thin, scaly brown, coming off in small flakes aligned with the stem. The leaves are flat, dark green, 1–4 centimetres (0.39–1.57 in) long and 2–3 millimetres (0.079–0.118 in) broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem, except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious. The leaves are poisonous.

It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

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The seed cones are modified, each cone containing a single seed, which is 4–7 millimetres (0.16–0.28 in) long, and partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril. The aril is 8–15 millimetres (0.31–0.59 in) long and wide and open at the end. The arils mature 6 to 9 months after pollination, and with the seed contained, are eaten by thrushes, waxwings and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings. Maturation of the arils is spread over 2 to 3 months, increasing the chances of successful seed dispersal. The seeds themselves are poisonous and bitter, but are opened and eaten by some bird species including hawfinches, greenfinches and great tits. The aril is not poisonous, but is gelatinous and very sweet tasting. The male cones are globose, 3–6 millimetres (0.12–0.24 in) diameter, and shed their pollen in early spring. The yew is mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, or change sex with time. Taxus baccata can reach 400 to 600 years of age. Some specimens live longer but the age of yews is often overestimated.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Espalier, Firewood, Hedge, Screen, Standard, Superior hedge, Specimen. A very easy plant to grow, it is extremely tolerant of cold and heat, sunny and shady positions, wet and dry soils, exposure and any pH. Thrives in almost any soil, acid or alkaline, as long as it is well-drained. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Sensitive to soil compaction by roads etc. Very shade tolerant. Tolerates urban pollution. In general they are very tolerant of exposure, though plants are damaged by severe maritime exposure. A very cold hardy plant when dormant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c. The fresh young shoots in spring, however, can be damaged by frosts. Plants are dioecious, though they sometimes change sex and monoecious trees are sometimes found. Male and female trees must be grown if fruit and seed is required. The fruit is produced mainly on the undersides of one-year old branches. A very long lived tree, one report suggests that a tree in Perthshire is 1500 years old, making it the oldest plant in Britain. Another report says that trees can be up to 4000 years old. It is, however, slow growing and usually takes about 20 years to reach a height of 4.5 metres. Young plants occasionally grow 30cm in a year but this soon tails off and virtually no height increase is made after 100 years. A very ornamental tree, there are many named varieties. Very resistant to honey fungus, but susceptible to phytopthera root rot. The bark is very soft and branches or even the whole tree can be killed if the bark is removed by constant friction such as by children climbing the tree. Plants produce very little fibrous root and should be planted in their final positions when still small. The fruit is greatly relished by thrushes. Special Features: Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – can be very slow to germinate, often taking 2 or more years. It is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn when it should germinate 18 months later. Stored seed may take 2 years or more to germinate. 4 months warm followed by 4 months cold stratification may help reduce the germination time. Harvesting the seed ‘green’ (when fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and then sowing it immediately has not been found to reduce the germination time because the inhibiting factors develop too early. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and grow them on in pots in a cold frame. The seedlings are very slow-growing and will probably require at least 2 years of pot cultivation before being large enough to plant out. Any planting out is best done in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, July/August in a shaded frame. Should root by late September but leave them in the frame over winter and plant out in late spring. High percentage. Cuttings of ripe terminal shoots, taken in winter after a hard frost, in a shaded frame.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Fruit – raw. Very sweet and gelatinous, most people find it delicious though some find it sickly. A number of people who like the flavour do not like the texture which is often described as being ‘snotty’. All other parts of this plant, including the seed, are highly poisonous. When eating the fruit you should spit out the large seed found in the fruit’s centre. Should you swallow the whole seed it will just pass straight through you without harm (UPDATE: this is probably not true: unfortunately, the digestive system of most mammals, including humans, is robust enough to break down the seeds. This will release the toxic taxanes. Birds are able to eat the whole “berry” because they cannot digest the seeds). If it is bitten into, however, one will notice a very bitter flavour and the seed should immediately be spat out or it could cause some problems. The fruit is a fleshy berry about 10mm in diameter and containing a single seed. Some reports suggest using the bark as a tea substitute, this would probably be very unwise.

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Medicinal Uses:

Anticonvulsant; Antispasmodic; Cancer; Cardiotonic; Diaphoretic; Emmenagogue; Expectorant; Homeopathy; Narcotic; Purgative.

The yew tree is a highly toxic plant that has occasionally been used medicinally, mainly in the treatment of chest complaints. Modern research has shown that the plants contain the substance ‘taxol’ in their shoots. Taxol has shown exciting potential as an anti-cancer drug, particularly in the treatment of ovarian cancers. Unfortunately, the concentrations of taxol in this species are too low to be of much value commercially, though it is being used for research purposes. This remedy should be used with great caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. See also the notes  below on toxicity. All parts of the plant, except the fleshy fruit, are antispasmodic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, narcotic and purgative. The leaves have been used internally in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hiccup, indigestion, rheumatism and epilepsy. Externally, the leaves have been used in a steam bath as a treatment for rheumatism. A homeopathic remedy is made from the young shoots and the berries. It is used in the treatment of many diseases including cystitis, eruptions, headaches, heart and kidney problems, rheumatism etc. Ingestion of 50-100g of needles can cause death.

Other Uses:
Fuel; Hedge; Hedge; Incense; Insecticide; Wood.

Very tolerant of trimming, this plant makes an excellent hedge. The plants are often used in topiary and even when fairly old, the trees can be cut back into old wood and will resprout. One report says that trees up to 1000 years old respond well to trimming. A decoction of the leaves is used as an insecticide. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre or more apart each way. ‘Repandens’ has been recommended. Wood – heavy, hard, durable, elastic, takes a good polish but requires long seasoning. Highly esteemed by cabinet makers, it is also used for bows, tool handles etc. It makes a good firewood. The wood is burnt as an incense.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant, except the flesh of the fruit, are highly poisonous, having a paralyzing affect on the heart. Poisoning symptoms are dry mouth, vomiting, vertigo, abdominal pain, dyspnoea, arrhythmias, hypotension & unconsciousness.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxus_baccata
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/y/yew—08.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taxus+baccata

Spring Pheasant’s Eye(Adonis vernalis )

Botanical Name :Adonis   vernalis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Adonis
Species: A. vernalis

Other Names:Pheasant’s eye, Spring pheasant’s eye, Yellow pheasant’s eye and False hellebore.(Green false hellebore, sometimes also called simply “false hellebore,” is Veratrum viride, a member of the lily family.)Sweet Vernal

Habitat : C. and S. Europe .This flowering plant is found in dry meadows and steppes in Eurasia. Isolated populations are found from Spain in the west across central and southern Europe, reaching southern Sweden in the north, with its main area of distribution being the Pannonian Basin and the West Siberian Plain and  Sunny grassy hills on dry calcareous soils. A rare plant in most of its range, it has legal protection from gathering in most countries.

Description:
It is a herbaceous  Perennial plant growing to 0.3m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

The stem is branching, and the leaves many-cleft and sessile. The flowers are large, yellow, and attractive. USE: A toxic principle is present in very small quantities in the plant.

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Sweet Vernal is a very beautiful flower. It blooms in early spring and has a rich, golden, buttercup-like glow. Its leaves are like filigree, and very delicate.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :-
Grows well in any ordinary garden soil that is not too heavy. Prefers a moist well-drained soil in sun or semi-shade. Easily grown in a very well-drained rather dry soil in sun or part shade. Plants flower better when growing in a sunny position. This plant is adored by slugs and is therefore very difficult to grow in the open garden where slugs are common. A very ornamental plant, it is rather rare in the wild so only cultivated plants should be harvested. A greedy plant inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.

Propagation :-
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe or else it can be slow and erratic to germinate[200, 238]. Sow the seed in partial shade in rich soil in September or March. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first season. Plant out when dormant in the autumn. Division in early spring or in autumn. The divisions can be difficult to establish[200], so it is probably best to pot them up and keep them in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away well.


Medicinal Actions & Uses
Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Sedative; Vasoconstrictor.

Pheasant’s eye has a long history of medicinal use and is still retained in the Pharmacopoeias of several European countries. The plant contains cardiac glycosides similar to those found in the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea). These substances improve the heart’s efficiency, increasing its output at the same time as slowing its rate. It also has a sedative action and so is generally prescribed for patients whose hearts are beating too fast or irregularly. The herb is not often prescribed, however, due to irregular absorption. The herb is cardiotonic, diuretic, sedative and vasoconstrictor. It has sometimes been used internally as a cardiotonic with success where the better known foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) has failed – especially where there is also kidney disease. The herb is also used in the treatment of low blood pressure and its strong diuretic action can be used to counter water retention. It is included in many proprietary medicines, especially since its effects are not cumulative. The plants are harvested every third year as they come into flower, they are dried for use in tinctures and liquid extracts. The herb does not store well so stocks should be replaced every year. Use with great caution, see the notes above on toxicity. The plant is used in homeopathy as a treatment for angina.

This is a very special plant because it is a potent heart medicine. The plant contains something called glycoside Adonidin, which is used in remedies for chronic heart problems and as a tranquilizer. It works almost exactly like digitalin, which comes from Foxgloves, but is stronger and doesn’t build up in the body. It is used especially in cases where people are also suffering from kidney disease, as well as heart problems. It does produce vomiting and diarrhea, however and is only used when digitalis fails.

You may click to see how Homeopathic mother tincher is made from Adonis vernalis :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein by us is intended for educational purposes only.Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Known Hazards: The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used as a ornamental plant. A toxic principle is present in very small quantities in the plant. It is poorly absorbed so poisoning is unlikely.

Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Adonis+vernalis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adonis_vernalis
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADVE&photoID=adve_002_ahp.tif
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/sweet_vernal.htm

Digitalis Lanata

Botanical Name:Grecian Foxglove
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Digitalis
Species: D. lanata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Kingdom: Plantae

Synonym:Digitalis lamarckii auct. balcan.
Common Name:Woolly Foxglove, Grecian Foxglove
Other Common Names:Ari Quwani [E], Degitalis [E], Grecian Foxglove [H,P,B], Ke-Zigitarisu [E], Sahr Al Kishteban [E],

Habitat:Woodland, Dappled Shade, Shady Edge. Native to Eastern Europe.One of the biggest populations can be found near Bácsalmás in Hungary.
It grows on woods and scrub

Description:
An evergreen biennial/Perennial growing to 0.6m by 0.3m or about 13 to 26 inches. . It is in leaf all year, in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Digitalus lanata, like some other foxglove species, is highly toxic in all parts of the plant.

Grecian Foxglove produces spikes of white flowers each of which has purple veins. The flower spikes give the plant its height. Flowering occurs in early  summer. Volunteer plants will grow if the plant is allowed to form seed.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is rich in organic matter. It prefers a neutral to acid soil and also succeeds in dry soils and, once established, is drought tolerant. It prefers semi-shade but succeeds in full sun if the soil is moist.

The Grecian foxglove is cultivated for the medicinally active glycosides that are contained in the leaves. This species is preferred over D. purpurea as a source of glycosides for the pharmaceutical industry.

Plants are either biennial or short-lived perennials.

Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.

This species can develop crown rot and root rot when growing in damp conditions.

Propagation: Grow new plants from seed.

Medicinal Uses:
The Grecian foxglove is a widely used herbal medicine with a recognised stimulatory effect upon the heart. It is also used in allopathic medicine as the main source of the cardiac glycosides that are used in the treatment of heart complaints. It has a profound tonic effect upon a diseased heart, enabling the heart to beat more slowly, powerfully and regularly without requiring more oxygen. At the same time it stimulates the flow of urine which lowers the volume of the blood and lessens the load on the heart. The plant contains cardiac glycosides (including digoxin, digitoxin and lanatosides). Digitoxin rapidly strengthens the heartbeat but is excreted very slowly. Digoxin is therefore preferred as a long-term medication.

The leaves are cardiac, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. The leaves should only be harvested from plants in their second year of growth, picked when the flowering spike has grown and about two thirds of the flowers have opened. Harvested at other times, there is less of the medically active alkaloid present. The seed has also been used in the past. The leaves also have a very beneficial effect on the kidneys, they are strongly diuretic and are used with benefit in the treatment of dropsy. Great care should be exercised in the use of this plant, the therapeutic dose is very close to the lethal dose. Their use should always be supervised by a qualified practitioner since in excess they cause nausea, vomiting, slow pulse, visual disturbance, anorexia and fainting.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves[9]. It is used in the treatment of cardiac disorders

In 1775 Dr. William Withering, an English physician, discovered the efficacy of Digitalis purpurea in the treatment of severe congestive heart failure. He attributed its efficacy to a diuretic effect and published his findings based on clinical observations in 1785. The pharmacological properties of regulating the heart rate and rhythm and strengthening of the heart muscle were discovered later.
The German ophthalmologist and botanist Ernst Fuchs is responsible for giving foxglove its Latin name in the Linneal binomial system of the naming of plants. To him and others before him, each blossom resembled a thimble, so he arrived at digitalis from the Latin digitus, finger and alis, suffix meaning pertaining to the qualities or characteristics of a finger.
The thimble resemblance of the blossoms is also responsible for the English common name foxglove: “gloves for little folks”, and the common German name der Fingerhut which translates as the finger hat (a thimble).
Digitalis lamarckii auct. balcan. is a, it is still used by some for plants available in horticulture.

Commercial uses:
Digoxin, a drug which is used to treat some heart conditions, is extracted from the leaves of Digitalis lanata.

Known Hazards : All parts of the plant are poisonous.  Unsafe for self-medication. Monitoring by a physician to determine correct dose recommended. For overdose give activated charcoal. Can be fatal especially to children.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitalis_lanata
http://web1.msue.msu.edu/imp/modzz/00002107.html
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Digitalis+lanata

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Digitalis ambigua(Perennial Foxglove)

Botanical Name: Digitalis grandiflora
Family:Scrophulariaceae
Synonyms: Digitalis orientalis, Digitalis ambigua
Common Name: Yellow Foxglove
Genus:Digitalis

Habitat:Originating in mountainous woodland and stony habitats from Europe to western Asia, yellow foxglove is tolerant of dry shade but flourishes with moisture.


Description:

A short-lived perennial or biennial. Digitalis ‘Ambigua’ is a lovely shade of buttery yellow that blooms in June and July. Flower throats are speckled with mahogany-brown spots and are born are 24 – 30 inch arching stems. Foliage is very neat and a crisp dark green that looks great even when the plant is not in bloom. Plant this perennial Digitalis in partial shade in a soil that has been amended with plenty of organic matter. Plants will appreciate a deep watering during hot dry spells and benefit from a good layer of mulch. Mix Ambigua with ferns and blue hostas for a natural woodland look.
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It is an evergreen perennial growing to 0.9m by 0.3m . . It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Arising in midsummer from neat clumps of fine-toothed foliage, a mass of soft yellow open bells, speckled brown inside, blooms along one side of a 3-foot-tall stem. Usually described as a perennial, it is more accurate to call it a biennial or short-lived perennial. If the flowering stalk is cut down after blooms have faded, it may rebloom in the fall. When a few flower stalks are left, the plant self-seeds.

Because of the shorter height of Yellow Foxglove, it can ramble along the edge of a path or nestle into the rock garden with ease. The pubescent, slightly gray leaves form tight rosettes that bear 2′ spikes with numerous soft, butter-yellow flowers splashed with tawny freckles inside. Plant standing above blue Spiderworts for a delicate and quietly charming combination. Not native.

Bloom color: Yellow
Bloom period: 26
Height: 2′
Spread: 2′
Zones: 3-8

Noteworthy characteristics: These low-maintenance plants bloom with colorful, vertical drama. Yellow foxglove, like all species in this genus, contains poisonous properties and should never be eaten. Deer will avoid it.

Cultivation details
An easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is rich in organic matter[1]. It also succeeds in dry soils and, once established, is drought tolerant. It prefers semi-shade but succeeds in full sun if the soil is moist. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer and rabbits.

Propagation
Seed – surface sow early spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 4 weeks at 20°c[175]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Medicinal Uses
Cardiac; Stimulant; Tonic.
The leaves are cardiac, stimulant and tonic. They are often used in the treatment of certain heart complaints. All species of the genus Digitalis contain cardiac glycosides in their roots, stems, leaves and blossoms. Cardiac glycosides are a group of chemical compounds that taken by mouth slow the rate and regulate the rhythm of the heart beat as well as strengthen the heart muscle. These chemical compounds are very complex. They are difficult and very expensive to synthesize in the laboratory. All sources of the digitalis cardiac glycosides are, therefore, plant materials grown in cultivation specifically for medicinal purposes. Preparations made of the dried ground leaves are no longer prescibed. Extracted compounds are prescribed instead.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gorgetopgardens.com/perennials/digitalis-ambigua.html
http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/digitalis-grandiflora-foxglove.aspx
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.nichegardens.com/catalog/item.php?id=1293
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Digitalis+grandiflora

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