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Herbs & Plants

Spring Pheasant’s Eye(Adonis vernalis )

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Botanical Name :Adonis   vernalis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Adonis
Species: A. vernalis

Other Names:Pheasant’s eye, Spring pheasant’s eye, Yellow pheasant’s eye and False hellebore.(Green false hellebore, sometimes also called simply “false hellebore,” is Veratrum viride, a member of the lily family.)Sweet Vernal

Habitat : C. and S. Europe .This flowering plant is found in dry meadows and steppes in Eurasia. Isolated populations are found from Spain in the west across central and southern Europe, reaching southern Sweden in the north, with its main area of distribution being the Pannonian Basin and the West Siberian Plain and  Sunny grassy hills on dry calcareous soils. A rare plant in most of its range, it has legal protection from gathering in most countries.

Description:
It is a herbaceous  Perennial plant growing to 0.3m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

The stem is branching, and the leaves many-cleft and sessile. The flowers are large, yellow, and attractive. USE: A toxic principle is present in very small quantities in the plant.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Sweet Vernal is a very beautiful flower. It blooms in early spring and has a rich, golden, buttercup-like glow. Its leaves are like filigree, and very delicate.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :-
Grows well in any ordinary garden soil that is not too heavy. Prefers a moist well-drained soil in sun or semi-shade. Easily grown in a very well-drained rather dry soil in sun or part shade. Plants flower better when growing in a sunny position. This plant is adored by slugs and is therefore very difficult to grow in the open garden where slugs are common. A very ornamental plant, it is rather rare in the wild so only cultivated plants should be harvested. A greedy plant inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.

Propagation :-
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe or else it can be slow and erratic to germinate[200, 238]. Sow the seed in partial shade in rich soil in September or March. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first season. Plant out when dormant in the autumn. Division in early spring or in autumn. The divisions can be difficult to establish[200], so it is probably best to pot them up and keep them in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away well.


Medicinal Actions & Uses
Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Sedative; Vasoconstrictor.

Pheasant’s eye has a long history of medicinal use and is still retained in the Pharmacopoeias of several European countries. The plant contains cardiac glycosides similar to those found in the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea). These substances improve the heart’s efficiency, increasing its output at the same time as slowing its rate. It also has a sedative action and so is generally prescribed for patients whose hearts are beating too fast or irregularly. The herb is not often prescribed, however, due to irregular absorption. The herb is cardiotonic, diuretic, sedative and vasoconstrictor. It has sometimes been used internally as a cardiotonic with success where the better known foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) has failed – especially where there is also kidney disease. The herb is also used in the treatment of low blood pressure and its strong diuretic action can be used to counter water retention. It is included in many proprietary medicines, especially since its effects are not cumulative. The plants are harvested every third year as they come into flower, they are dried for use in tinctures and liquid extracts. The herb does not store well so stocks should be replaced every year. Use with great caution, see the notes above on toxicity. The plant is used in homeopathy as a treatment for angina.

This is a very special plant because it is a potent heart medicine. The plant contains something called glycoside Adonidin, which is used in remedies for chronic heart problems and as a tranquilizer. It works almost exactly like digitalin, which comes from Foxgloves, but is stronger and doesn’t build up in the body. It is used especially in cases where people are also suffering from kidney disease, as well as heart problems. It does produce vomiting and diarrhea, however and is only used when digitalis fails.

You may click to see how Homeopathic mother tincher is made from Adonis vernalis :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein by us is intended for educational purposes only.Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Known Hazards: The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used as a ornamental plant. A toxic principle is present in very small quantities in the plant. It is poorly absorbed so poisoning is unlikely.

Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Adonis+vernalis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adonis_vernalis
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ADVE&photoID=adve_002_ahp.tif
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/sweet_vernal.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Digitalis ambigua(Perennial Foxglove)

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Botanical Name: Digitalis grandiflora
Family:Scrophulariaceae
Synonyms: Digitalis orientalis, Digitalis ambigua
Common Name: Yellow Foxglove
Genus:Digitalis

Habitat:Originating in mountainous woodland and stony habitats from Europe to western Asia, yellow foxglove is tolerant of dry shade but flourishes with moisture.


Description:

A short-lived perennial or biennial. Digitalis ‘Ambigua’ is a lovely shade of buttery yellow that blooms in June and July. Flower throats are speckled with mahogany-brown spots and are born are 24 – 30 inch arching stems. Foliage is very neat and a crisp dark green that looks great even when the plant is not in bloom. Plant this perennial Digitalis in partial shade in a soil that has been amended with plenty of organic matter. Plants will appreciate a deep watering during hot dry spells and benefit from a good layer of mulch. Mix Ambigua with ferns and blue hostas for a natural woodland look.
click to see the pictures……...(.1)..……..(2).…….…(3).……...(4).…….
It is an evergreen perennial growing to 0.9m by 0.3m . . It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Arising in midsummer from neat clumps of fine-toothed foliage, a mass of soft yellow open bells, speckled brown inside, blooms along one side of a 3-foot-tall stem. Usually described as a perennial, it is more accurate to call it a biennial or short-lived perennial. If the flowering stalk is cut down after blooms have faded, it may rebloom in the fall. When a few flower stalks are left, the plant self-seeds.

Because of the shorter height of Yellow Foxglove, it can ramble along the edge of a path or nestle into the rock garden with ease. The pubescent, slightly gray leaves form tight rosettes that bear 2′ spikes with numerous soft, butter-yellow flowers splashed with tawny freckles inside. Plant standing above blue Spiderworts for a delicate and quietly charming combination. Not native.

Bloom color: Yellow
Bloom period: 26
Height: 2′
Spread: 2′
Zones: 3-8

Noteworthy characteristics: These low-maintenance plants bloom with colorful, vertical drama. Yellow foxglove, like all species in this genus, contains poisonous properties and should never be eaten. Deer will avoid it.

Cultivation details
An easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is rich in organic matter[1]. It also succeeds in dry soils and, once established, is drought tolerant. It prefers semi-shade but succeeds in full sun if the soil is moist. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer and rabbits.

Propagation
Seed – surface sow early spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 4 weeks at 20°c[175]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Medicinal Uses
Cardiac; Stimulant; Tonic.
The leaves are cardiac, stimulant and tonic. They are often used in the treatment of certain heart complaints. All species of the genus Digitalis contain cardiac glycosides in their roots, stems, leaves and blossoms. Cardiac glycosides are a group of chemical compounds that taken by mouth slow the rate and regulate the rhythm of the heart beat as well as strengthen the heart muscle. These chemical compounds are very complex. They are difficult and very expensive to synthesize in the laboratory. All sources of the digitalis cardiac glycosides are, therefore, plant materials grown in cultivation specifically for medicinal purposes. Preparations made of the dried ground leaves are no longer prescibed. Extracted compounds are prescribed instead.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gorgetopgardens.com/perennials/digitalis-ambigua.html
http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/digitalis-grandiflora-foxglove.aspx
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.nichegardens.com/catalog/item.php?id=1293
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Digitalis+grandiflora

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Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)

Botanical Name : Convallaria majalis
Family: Asparagaceae
Subfamily: Nolinoideae
Genus: Convallaria
Species: C. majalis
Kingdom: Plantae
clade: Angiosperms
clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : Convallaria bracteata. Convallaria fragrans. Convallaria latifolia. Polygonatum majale.

Common Name :Lily of the Valley

Other names:  May lily, May bells, lily constancy, ladder-to-heaven, male lily, and muguet (French). In Bulgarian and Macedonian it’s called Momuha, meaning “lass’s tear”.

Habitat :Lily of the Valley native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe and in the southern Appalachian Mountains in the United States.Grows in Dry shady woodland, usually on calcareous soils , and especially in ash woodlands

Description:
Lily of the Valley is a herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes. New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer,  these upright dormant stems are often called pips.   These grow in the spring into new leafy shoots that still remain connected to the other shoots under ground, often forming extensive colonies. The stems grow to 15–30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10–25 cm long, flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5–15 flowers on the stem apex. The flowers are white tepals (rarely pink), bell-shaped, 5–10 mm diameter, and sweetly scented; flowering is in late spring, in mild winters in the Northern Hemisphere it is in early March. The fruit is a small orange-red berry 5–7 mm diameter that contains a few large whitish to brownish colored seeds that dry to a clear translucent round bead 1–3 mm wide. Plants are self-sterile, and colonies consisting of a single clone do not set seed

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES. >..…(01)..…  .(1)....(2)…….(.3)……….(4)...(5)..…….

Cultivation:   Succeeds in almost any situation, including the dense dry shade of large trees. Prefers a position in semi-shade in a moderately fertile well-drained moist woodland soil. Grows well in heavy clay, sand or chalky soils. Dislikes pure clay soils and boggy sites. Plants are hardy to -20°c or lower. A polymorphic species. It is a very ornamental plant, though it can become very invasive once it is established. Plants can take a couple of years to become established. There are several named varieties, selected for their ornamental value. The flowers are sweetly scented. Lily of the valley is occasionally cultivated as a medicinal plant for herbalists and allopaths. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A good bee plant.

Propagation :      Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe, otherwise in late winter, in a cold frame. Germination, particularly of stored seed can be very slow, taking 2 – 12 months or more at 15°c. Sow the seed thinly so that the seedlings can be allowed to grow on undisturbed in the pot for their first year. Apply a liquid feed during the growing season to ensure that the seedlings are well fed. Divide the young plants into individual pots when they die down in late summer and grow them on in pots in a shady position in a cold frame for at least another year before planting them out into their permanent positions when they are dormant. Division in September. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Medicinal Uses:
Antispasmodic;  Cardiotonic;  Diuretic;  Emetic;  Febrifuge;  Laxative;  Poultice;  Sedative.

Lily of the valley has a long and proven reputation in herbal medicine in the treatment of heart complaints. It contains the glycosides convallarin and convallamarin which are powerful cardiac tonics and diuretics and are also used in allopathic medicine. However, because of the plants potential toxic properties it should never be used without expert advice. All parts of the plant are antispasmodic, cardiotonic, strongly diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, laxative and sedative. The plant is usually harvested when in flower and can be dried for later use, though it is stronger acting when fresh. The inflorescence is said to be the most active medicinally and is often harvested separately. An infusion of the flowers and roots is a digitalis substitute (obtained from Digitalis species), though less powerful, that is especially useful in the treatment of valvula heart diseases, cardiac debility, dropsy and chronic lung problems such as emphysema. Lily of the valley encourages the heart to beat more slowly, regularly and efficiently, at the same time it is strongly diuretic, reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure. Its effect is less cumulative than digitalis which makes it safer for elderly patients. It is often prescribed combined with the fruits of Crataegus spp. An ointment made from the roots is used in the treatment of burns and to prevent scar tissue. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Convallaria majalis : Lily Of The Valley for arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, nervous heart complaints  for critics of commission

Lily of the Valley is perhaps the most valuable heart remedy used today.  It is used for nervous sensitivity, neurasthenia, apoplexy, epilepsy, dropsy, valvular heart diseases, heart pains and heart diseases in general.  It has an action equivalent to Foxglove without its potential toxic effects.  Lily of the Valley may be used in the treatment of heart failure and water retention where this is associated with the heart.  It will aid the body where there is difficulty with breathing due to congestive conditions of the heart.  Also used for arteriosclerosis with angina and arterial hypotension.  Lily of the Valley encourages the heart to beat more slowly regularly and efficiently.  It is also strongly diuretic, reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure.  It is better tolerated than foxglove, since it does not accumulate within the body to the same degree.  Relatively low doses are required to support heart rate and rhythm, and to increase urine production.  An ointment made from the roots is used in the treatment of burns and to prevent scar tissue.

Other Uses:
Its scientific name, majalis or maialis, means “of or belonging to May”, and old astrological books place the plant under the dominion of Mercury, since Maia, the daughter of Atlas, was the mother of Mercury or Hermes.

In the “language of flowers”, the lily of the valley signifies the return of happiness. Legend tells of the affection of a lily of the valley for a nightingale that did not come back to the woods until the flower bloomed in May.

Use in weddings
Duchess of Cambridge with bridal bouquet featuring Lily of the Valley   is a popular flower for weddings,although it can be very expensive. Lily of the Valley was featured in the bridal bouquet at the Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleto….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE

An essential oil is obtained from the flowers. It is used in perfumery and for snuff. A green dye is obtained from the leaves in spring. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves in autumn. Plants can be grown as a ground cover in woodland shade or in a shrubber.

Known Hazards:  All parts of the plant are poisonous. However, the toxic principle is very poorly absorbed when taken orally so poisoning is unlikely to occur. The leaves can be a mild skin irritant. Overdose may lead to nausea, vomiting, stupor, colour perception disorders, and cardiac arrhythmias. Internal use preparations no longer considered safe.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lily_of_the_Valley
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Convallaria+majalis

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