Tag Archives: Dioscorea

Dioscorea villosa

Botanical Name :Dioscorea villosa
Family: Dioscoreaceae
Genus: Dioscorea
Species: D. villosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dioscoreales

Common Names: Wild Yam Root , Colic root, rheumatism root

Habitat : Dioscorea villosa  is native to  Eastern N. America – New England to Minnesota and Ontario, south to Virginia and Texas. It grows in  borders of bogs, swamps, marshes, river and lake margins, creek bottoms, sandy or rocky soils, moist or dry woods, hammocks, thickets, limestone or talus slopes, roadsides, sea level to 1500 m.

Description:
Dioscorea villosa is a perennial climber growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is a species of a twining tuberous vine.

Click to see the pictures..>...(01)...(1)...….(2)..…...(3)..…...(4)..
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

Cultivation:   
An easily grown plant, succeeding in a fertile well-drained soil in a sunny position or light shade[200]. Prefers a rich light soil . Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. Plants produce tubercles (small tubers that are formed in the leaf axils of the stems), and can be propagated by this means. A climbing plant that supports itself by twining around the branches of other plants. . This is a highly polymorphic species, some botanists dividing it up into several species.  Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation :   
Seed – sow March to April in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse and only just cover. It germinates in 1 – 3 weeks at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first year. Plant out in late spring as the plant comes into new growth. Basal stem cuttings in the summer. Division in the dormant season, never when in growth. The plant will often produce a number of shoots, the top 5 – 10 cm of the root below each shoot can be potted up to form a new plant whilst the lower part of the root can possibly be eaten. Tubercles (baby tubers) are formed in the leaf axils. These are harvested in late summer and early autumn when about the size of a pea and coming away easily from the plant. They should be potted up immediately in individual pots in a greenhouse or cold frame. Plant out in early summer when in active growth.

Edible Uses  : Tuber is cooked and eaten. Some caution should be exercised with this plant.

Constituents:  steroidal saponins (including dioscin and trillin which yield diosgenin), phytosterols, alkaloids including dioscorine, tannins, starch

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is also known as colic root and rheumatism root in North America, indicating its use by European settlers for these conditions. Diosgenin, a breakdown product of dioscin, was first identified by Japanese scientists in 1936. This discovery paved the way for the synthesis of progesterone and of corticosteroid hormones such as cortisone. For this reason it is sometimes expensive, because pharmaceutical firms buy up large crops on the global market. This use of the root, coupled with its traditional use as an antispasmodic and antirheumatic gave rise to the saying that wild yam is a natural steroid. Indeed, it contains compounds that are similar in chemical structure to steroids, but these compounds must be digested, absorbed and processed by one’s body before becoming steroids or hormones. Eating foods such as wild yam thus provides the building blocks for many complex glandular manufacturing processes. The herb’s combination of anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic actions makes it extremely useful in treatments for arthritis and rheumatism. It reduces inflammation and pain, and relaxes stiff muscles in the affected area. It stimulated the removal of accumulated wastes in the system. Wild yam helps to relieve cramps, muscle tension, and colic. It can be an effective treatment for digestive problems, including gallbladder inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulitis. In large doses it is regarded as a diuretic and acts as an expectorant.

In North and Central America, wild yam is a traditional relaxing remedy for painful menstruation, ovarian pain, and labor. It is classically given for uterine pain, such as severe menstrual pain, or shooting pain beyond cramps. It’s also used for ovarian spasm and inflammation such as occurs with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To relieve the nauseous symptoms of pregnancy, Dioscorein is the very best and is prompt in action given in small, frequent doses. It is useful as part of a natural approach to any endocrine imbalance. For extremely heavy periods wild yam root tincture, 20-30 drops taken daily for the two weeks preceding the expected onset of menses, can supply enough progesterone precursors to remedy flooding. Ointment made from wild yam roots may be the able to restore youthful moistness and elasticity to post-menopausal vaginal tissues. However, this is where a lot of misinformation and controversy occurs.

Today most USP progesterone is, in fact, extracted from soy. Neither USP nor human progesterone is present in either of the major plant sources (soybean or wild yam). Yams contain the sterol diosgenin, whereas soybeans contain the sterol stigmasterol  both of which have progesterone-like effects. The substances sold as USP progesterone is produced in the lab by hydrolyzing extracts of soy or yam and converting saponins into sapogenins, two of which, sarsasapogenin (soy) and diosgenin (yam) provide the majority of derivation of natural progesterone produced for medical purposes. While diosgenin may have some progestogenic or even phytoestrogenic action, the effect varies from one person to another. Some doctors say that the human body cannot convert wild yam or diosgenin to hormones and that conversion to progesterone must take place in a laboratory. It is possible, however, that some women’s bodies are better able to utilize plant-derived compounds than others. It is also important to remember that while the mechanism of phytogenic activity may not be clearly understood at this time, botanical supplementation continues to gain support among everywhere because it works for them. There has been a great deal of confusion pertaining to the progesterone content of various manufacturers transdermal creams. The bioavailability of the progesterone in such products is of paramount importance. The quality of a formulation and its delivery system determines the absorption and effectiveness. It’s essential that you know your product and your supplier and above all observe your body’s response to the product of your choice. Wild yam, given in combination with black cohosh, is not only common in menopause formulas but is also an effective pain-relieving remedy for rheumatoid arthritis, especially in the inflamed stages of flare-up. Solvent in water. As a primary liver tonic herb, wild yam activates and stimulates liver activity. High concentrations of steroidal saponins provide the building blocks required by the liver to synthesize sex hormones. Whenever both the liver and reproductive system are implicated as the cause of hormone imbalance, wild yam is the herb of choice to use in the formula.

Wild yam also contains beta carotene, the antioxidant that is so important to maintaining a healthy cholesterol level. Other colorful folk names include Devil’s bones, Yuma, Colic root and Rheumatism root, referring to Native Americans use of the boiled root to treat morning sickness and in childbirth, also arthritis and digestive problems.

Its fame is based on its steroid-like saponins which can be chemically converted to progesterone contraceptives; and cortisone.

Known Hazards:
Edible species of Dioscorea have opposite leaves whilst poisonous species have alternate leaves. Use of the fresh plant can cause vomiting and other side effects. Known to cause headaches, menstrual irregularities & acne. May cause hair loss & oily skin. Avoid during pregnancy. Avoid in patients with cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate & uterus.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dioscorea+villosa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioscorea_villosa
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail119.php

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements

Dioscorea hispida

Botanical Name :Dioscorea hispida
Family : Dioscoreaceae – Yam family
Genus :  Dioscorea L. – yam
Species : Dioscorea hispida Dennst. – intoxicating yam
Kingdom ; Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom :Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:  Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass : Liliidae
Order : Liliales

Synonyms:  Dioscorea triphylla L., Dioscorea hirsuta Dennst.,Dinoscorea daemona Roxb

Common Names:
Malaysia:Ubi arak,gandongan,gandong mabok
English :Asiatic bitter yam, intoxicating yam
Indonesia: Gadung, Sikapa,ondo
Philippines:Nami,gayos,karot
Myanmar:Kywe
Thiland:Kloi,kloi-nok, kloi-hanieo

Habitat :Dioscorea hispida is native to India, South east Asia, China and Nuw Guinea.Growing wild, chiefly in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.

Description:
Dioscorea hispida is a twining vine, arising from tuberous roots, and reaching a length of several meters. Stems covered with few or many short, sharp spines. Leaves are 3-foliolate, the leaflets 12 to 20 cm long, somewhat hairy, the lateral ones oblique, oblong-ovate, the terminal one equilateral, oblong to oblong-obovate. Panicle is axillary, slender, hairy, 12 to 20 cm long. Flowers are small; unisexual male flowers with 6 stamens; female flowers similar to males, 3-winged, 3-celled, ovules 2 in each cell. Fruit is a capsule, oblong and about 5 cm long. Flesh and sap of tubers are yellowish. click to see

Click to see the pictures…..

Edible Uses:
– Despite known toxicity, in Thailand, where it is referred to as Kloi, tubers are used to make a dessert called Kao Nuew Kloi.
– In Kerala, India, tuberous herb cooked with salt, chili, tamarind and tumeric powder and used as curry.

Constituents:
– Contains a poisonous alkaloid, dioscoreine, acting like picrotoxin.
– Study of mineral content reports the tubers are a good source of phosphorus, calcium and iron.

Medicinal Uses:
Tuber, relieves abdominal spasms and colic; fry in vegetable oil, topically apply to remove pus from wounds, clears melasma. Toxic substances such as dioscorine were found in tubers which cause palpitations, nausea, vomiting, throat irrita­tion, sweating, blurred vision and unconscious­ness.

Folkloric
Tuber, raw or cooked used as anodyne and maturative for tumors and buboes.
Also used arthrtic and rheumatic pains. sprains and contusions.
Use poultice of freshly pounded material or decoction as external wash.
In Johore, decoction of tuber used as alterative and diuretic in chronic rheumatism.

Other Uses:
• Bleaching: Yellow juice from the flesh and sap of tubers is used for bleaching clothes and abaca fibers.
Poison: Juice of tubers used in criminal poisoning. Also, used as an ingredient together with Antiaris toxicaria in the preparation of arrow poisons.
• Livestock: Tubers used as cure for myiasis of the scrotum in carabaos.

Studies:
• Phytochemicals / Phenolic Content: Study showed phenolic acids were present in only small amounts in Kloi tuber, compared to relatively high phenolic content for other yam Dioscorea species. The anomaly was attributed to the sample preparation, hydrolysis time and/or pH. Preliminary findings and documented nutritive value suggest the tuber as a potential source of phytochemicals for cosmetic, pharmaceutical or dietary antioxidant use.

Caution !
– Tubers contain the poisonous alkaloid dioscoreine, resembling picrotoxin.
– It is a nervous system paralyzant, not a protoplasmic poison.
– It has been reportedly used in criminal poisoning.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Nami.html
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79533:dioscorea-hispida-dennst&catid=368:d
http://herbstohealth.blogspot.com/2009/04/dioscorea-hispida-dennstkloi.html
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DIHI7
http://herbstohealth.blogspot.com/2009/04/dioscorea-hispida-dennstkloi.html

Enhanced by Zemanta

Dioscorea japonica

Botanical Name : Dioscorea japonica
Family: Dioscoreaceae
Genus: Dioscorea
Species: D. japonica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dioscoreales

Common Names :Yamaimo, Japanese mountain yam,Glutinous Yam

Habitat : Native to E. Asia – China, C. and S. Japan.Grows in wooded foothills. Mixed forests and margins, scrub forests, herb communities, mountain slopes, valleys, along rivers and streams, roadsides; 100 – 1200 metres

Description:
Dioscorea japonica is a perennial climber. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the mildest areas of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a fertile well-drained soil in a sunny position or light shade. Prefers a rich light soil. Plants produce tubercles (small tubers that are formed in the leaf axils of the stems), and can be propagated by this means. A climbing plant that supports itself by twining around the branches of other plants. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – sow March to April in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse and only just cover. It germinates in 1 – 3 weeks at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first year. Plant out in late spring as the plant comes into new growth. Basal stem cuttings in the summer. Division in the dormant season, never when in growth. The plant will often produce a number of shoots, the top 5 – 10 cm of the root below each shoot can be potted up to form a new plant whilst the lower part of the root can be eaten. Tubercles (baby tubers) are formed in the leaf axils. These are harvested in late summer and early autumn when about the size of a pea and coming away easily from the plant. They should be potted up immediately in individual pots in a greenhouse or cold frame. Plant out in early summer when in active growth

CLICK & SEE

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root.

Tuber – cooked. A very pleasant mild flavour with a floury texture, the roots can be eaten as a potato substitute[2]. The starch can be used as a binding agent for other foods. Roots contain about 1.9% protein, 20% carbohydrate, 0.1% fat and 1% ash. Leaf tips – cooked. Tubercles – cooked

Medicinal Uses:
Contraceptive;  Miscellany;  Tonic.

The tubers are prescribed in the treatment of diarrhoea,dysentery, enteritis, enuresis and spermatorrhoea. They are also dried and cut into shavings then used as a tonic. The roots of most, if not all, members of this genus, contains diosgenin. This is widely used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. These are used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioscorea_japonica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dioscorea+japonica
http://www.perennialveg.org.uk/djaponica.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Dioscorea oppositifolia

Botanical Name :Dioscorea oppositifolia
Family: Dioscoreaceae – Yam family
Genus : Dioscorea L. – yam
Species : Dioscorea oppositifolia L. – Chinese yam
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass : Liliidae
Order : Liliales

Synonyms: Dioscorea batatas£¬Dioscorea opposita (Thunb.), Dioscorea polystachya (Turcz.), Dioscorea divaricata
Common name: Chinese yam, air potato, Shan yao, Shan yam

Habitat :Dioscorea oppositifolia is native to China and was introduced into North America as an ornamental vine. In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. By 1986 however, Mohlenbrock (1970, 1986) reports that it had become naturalized and was observed in areas outside of cultivation (Beyerl 2001).

In North America, D. oppositifolia is currently present in: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia (USDA, NRCS 1999). Beyerl (2001) reports that it has now also been documented from Florida.

Dioscorea oppositifolia can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental conditions, but is most commonly found at the edges of rich, mesic bottomland forests, along streambanks and drainageways, and near fencerows (Yayskievych 1999). Initial infestations of D. oppositifolia are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, such as near old homesites and along roadways. From these areas, D. oppositifolia can easily spread into nearby riparian swaths and undisturbed habitats.

Description;
Herbaceous, high climbing vines to 65 feet (20 m) long, infestations covering shrubs and trees. Twining and sprawling stems with long-petioled heart-shaped leaves. Spreading by dangling potato-like tubers (bulbils) at leaf axils and underground tubers. Monocots.

 CLICK & SEE FOR DIFFERENT PICTURES

Edible uses:  Both the tuber and bulbils of D. oppositifolia are edible, although the bulbils are generally not collected and used as food. The edible tuber, which can measure up to 1 m (3 ft) long and weigh up to 2 kg (4.5 lbs) or more if grown in deep loam soils, is flavorful and nutritious. The flavor, according to Plants for a Future (1997), is between a sweet potato and a regular potato. The tuber contains about 20% starch, 75% water, 0.1% vitamin B1, and 10 to 15 mg Vitamin C. It also contains mucilage, amylase, amino acids, and glutamine.

The tuber is sometimes used as an herbal tonic. It stimulates the stomach and spleen and has an effect on the lungs and kidneys. The tuber has been eaten for the treatment of poor appetite, chronic diarrhea, asthma, dry coughs, frequent or uncontrollable urination, diabetes, and emotional instability. Externally, the tuber has also been applied to ulcers, boils and abscesses. It contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds up the healing process (Plants for a Future 1997).

Leaf juice from D. oppositifolia can be used to treat snakebites and scorpion stings. Its roots contain diosgenin, which is a compound often used in the manufacture of progesterone and other steroid drugs. Dioscorea oppositifolia has also been used traditionally as a contraceptive and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary (genital?) organs as well as for asthma and arthritis (Plants for a Future 1997).

Dioscorea oppositifolia has been, and is still frequently planted for its ornamental value. The flowers smell like cinnamon and the twining vine is attractive for arbors, trellises, and along porches (Illinois DNR).

Medicinal Uses;
The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. The tuber contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds the healing process. The root is an ingredient of “The herb of eight ingredients”, traditionally prescribed in Chinese herbalism to treat hyperthyroidism, nephritis and diabetes.

A gentle tonic, shan yao is prescribed for tiredness, weight loss, and lack of appetite.  The root strengthens a weak digestion, improves appetite, and may help bind watery stools.  It counters excessive sweating, frequent urination, and chronic thirst, and it is also given for chronic coughs and wheezing.  The traditional use of shan yao, indicates a hormonal effect.  It is also taken to treat vaginal discharge and spermatorrhea. The Chinese use the yam to brighten the eyes and as an elixir and an important tonic for the spleen and stomach.  The drug also lowers blood sugar and is used in diabetes.

This is one of several herbs under intensive medical research in China as a tonic restorative for immune deficiency.  The herb helps restore impaired immune functions, stimulates secretions of vital immune factors, and enhances overall immune response throughout the system.

The roots of most, if not all, members of this genus, contains diosgenin. This is widely used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. These are used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genital organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DIOP
http://www.texasinvasives.org/plant_database/detail.php?symbol=DIOP
http://wiki.bugwood.org/Dioscorea_oppositifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Tugi(Lesser Yam)

Botanical Name : Dioscorea esculenta Lour
Family : Dioscoreaceae – Yam family
Genus : Dioscorea L. – yam
Species: Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill – lesser yam
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom :     Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass: Liliidae

Other Scientific Names: Oneus esculentus Lour.  ,Discorea papillaris Blanco  ,Discorea tugui Blanco  ,Discorea sativa Blanco  ,Discorea fasciculata Roxb.  ,Discorea tiliaefolia Kunth  ,Discorea aculeata Naves

Common Names :Aneg (Ibn.),Boga (Ilk.),Dukai (Iv.),    Tuñgo (Tag.),Asiatic yam (Engl.) ,a Lesser yam (Engl.),Kamiging (Bik.),Luttu (Ibn.),Toñgo (Tag.),Tugi (Tag., Ilk.)

Habitat : Native of SE Indochina, and widespread in the East, recently introduced to W Africa and found under cultivation around the coast, particularly from Ivory Coast to Nigeria.The plant requires a somewhat seasonal climate. In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes.Cultivated, but not as extensively as ubi.


Description:

Slender, slightly hairy vine, reaching a height of several meters. The tubers are 15-20 cm long. Leaves are simple, suborbicular to reniform, 6-12 cms. apiculate, the base 11- to 15-nervbed, prominently heart-shaped, with rounded lobes. Spikes are slender, axillary, pubescent, up to 50 cm long. Flowers are green, about 4 mm long.

click to..see the pictures.>…..(001)...(01)......(1)...(2)....(.3).....(4).….………………
A spiny climber to 12 m high twining left-handed, with numerous shallow-rooted tubers, It is a 6–10 months crop with short dormancy period. The tubers are small and are found in clusters of some 5 to 20 slightly below the soil surface. Unselected forms produce spiny roots lying above the tubers as a protection. Selection has eliminated some or all of the spininess in certain cultivars. Yield is high and the tubers are palatable and nutritious. Tubers grown in Ivory Coast have been recorded producing 83% starch and 12% protein. Many races in Asia are slightly sweet. The tubers do not store well. They are quick to sprout if left in the ground and are easily damaged in harvesting. Six months storage is said to be possible of sound roots in a dry well-ventilated store. They are not suitable for transport to distant markets, nor for turning into fufu. There appears to be scope for growing the plant under mechanical cultivation.

Constituents and properties:
*Contains 83% starch, 12% protein.
*Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, diosgenin, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, cardiac glycosides, fat and starch.
*Genins are used in the semi-synthesis of sex hormones, progesterone and testosterone, while diogenin has been used for the partial synthesis of cortisone.

Edible Uses:Cooked like potatoes. Rich in carbohydrates, a good source of vitamin B, with a nutritional value similar to ubi.

Medicinal Uses:
Of limited use medicinally.
*The raw tubers are applied to swellings.
*A decoction of the tubers used for rheumatism and as diuretic.
*In China, used for beriberi.

Studies:
• Anti-inflammatory / Phytochemicals: Methanol extract study of D esculenta exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and supports its folkloric use in inflammation. Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, disgenin, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, cardiac glycosides, fat and starch.
• Antioxidant: Study screening the phenolic content of different varieties of root crops in the Philippines, including D esculenta, found the roots crops a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity.
• Storage Effect: Study of 1 to 7 weeks of storage revealed the moisture content, dray weight and starch levels decreased gradually with a concomitant increase in sugar content under different stages of dormancy.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Tugi.html
Ubi Itik
http://plants.jstor.org/upwta/1_1380
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DIES2
http://uk.ask.com/wiki/Dioscorea_esculenta

Enhanced by Zemanta