Tag Archives: DVD

Pilates roll down

STRENGTHENING YOUR CORE WHILE  STRETCHING YOUR SPINE  :

Use this Pilates roll-down exercise to stretch and strengthen your core muscles. Leaning against a flat wall to perform the move helps you hold and maintain a C-curve shape to your spine.

Grasp a light dumbbell in each hand and stand with your back against the wall. Your shoulders and hips should touch the wall. Walk your feet forward, bend your knees slightly and firmly press your back into the wall. Let your arms hang below your shoulders.

Tuck your chin in toward your throat and begin to roll down until just your lower back and the back of your pelvis remain in contact with the wall. Pause at this point and focus on pressing your navel toward your spine as you move your arms in small circles six times. Pause and reverse the circles, keeping your arms loose. Roll up slowly, one vertebra at a time, and return to the start position.

Source :Los Angeles Times

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Watching TV May Harm Kids’ Cognitive Development

:Parents buying some time to do the chores by sticking infants in front of the television may be harming their cognitive development,  a study has suggested.
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Researchers at University of Washington in Seattle have carried out the study and found infants vocalise less and hear fewer words from nearby adults when the TV is on, which in turn affects their cognitive development.

“There’s no question that human voice and human words are what babies need. The data aren’t yet conclusive about the fact that television is harmful, but they continue to mount,” lead researcher Dimitri Christakis told the ‘New Scientist‘.

For the study, researchers equipped 329 infants, aged between 2 and 48 months, with lightweight recorders that captured every noise they heard in a 24-hour period. Then, a computer programme determined whether each sound came from the infant, an adult or the television.

The analysis showed that for every hour of television an infant is exposed to — they don’t understand television programmes, Christakis says — he or she hears 770 fewer words from adults, on average, a 7 per cent reduction.

Infants watching TV also utter fewer “googoos” and “gagas” and interact less with adults than kids whose parents use the off switch more enthusiastically, the study, published in the ‘Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine’, found.

Given that a staggering 30 per cent of US households keep a television on at all times, this can have a substantial effect on an infant’s development, according to Christakis.

“The newborn brain is very much a work in progress. All that cognitive stimulation is critical to the underlying architecture that’s developing. Every word that babies hear, and every time they hear it, is extremely important.

“Many of these DVDs that target infants claim that they promote parent-child interaction — which they don’t. The take-home message for parents is to minimise exposure to TV during the first two years,” he said.

In fact, this finding is backed up by observations made by a team at the University of Massachusetts, which found that infants exposed to television hear 20 percent fewer words from their parents during each hour of programming they watch.

“Parents are less engaged with the children if the television is on. Children over two learn a lot of vocabulary from television,” Daniel Anderson, who led the back-up study, said

Source: The times Of India

 

Hysteroscopy

Definition:
Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy. It allows for the diagnosis of intrauterine pathology and serves as a method for surgical intervention (operative hysteroscopy).
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The hysteroscope is a long tube, about the size of a straw, which has a built-in viewing device. Hysteroscopy is useful for diagnosing and treating some problems that cause infertility, miscarriages, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. Sometimes other procedures, such as laparoscopy, are done at the same time as hysteroscopy.

Method:-
The hysteroscope is an optical instrument connected to a video unit with a fiber optic light source, and to the channels for delivery and removal of a distention medium. The uterine cavity is a potential cavity and needs to be distended to allow for inspection. Thus during hysteroscopy either fluids or CO2 gas is introduced to expand the cavity. The choice is dependent on the procedure and the patient’s condition. Fluids can be used for both diagnostic and operative procedures. However, CO2 gas does not allow the clearing of blood and endometrial debris during the procedure, which could make the imaging visualization difficult. Gas embolism may also arise as a complication. Since the success of the procedure is totally depending on the quality of the high-resolution video images in front of surgeon’s eyes, CO2 gas is not commonly used as the distention medium. Electrolytic solutions include normal saline and lactated Ringer’s. Current recommendation is to use the electrolytic fluids in diagnostic cases, and in operative cases in which mechanical, laser, or bipolar energy is used. Since they are conducting electricity, these fluids should not be used with monopolar electrosurgical devices. Non-electrolytic fluids eliminate problems with electrical conductivity, but can increase the risk of hyponatremia. These solutions include glucose, glycine, dextran (Hyskon), mannitol, sorbitol and a mannitol/sorbital mixture (Purisol). Water was once used routinely, however, problems with water intoxication and hemolysis discontinued its use by 1990. Each of these distention fluids is associated with unique physiological changes that should be considered when selecting a distention fluid. Glucose is contraindicated in patients with glucose intolerance. Sorbitol metabolizes to fructose in the liver and is contraindicated if patients has fructose intolerance. High-viscous Dextran also has potential complications which can be physiological and mechanical. It may crystallize on instruments and obstruct the valves and channels. Coagulation abnormalities and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been reported. Glycine metabolizes into ammonia and can cross the blood brain barrier, causing agitation, vomiting and coma. Mannitol 5% should be used instead of glycine or sorbitol when using monopolar electrosurgical devices. Mannitol 5% has a diuretic effect and can also cause hypotension and circulatory collapse. The mannitol/sorbitol mixture (Purisol) should be avoided in fructose intolerant patients.

A hysteroscope is in fact a modification of the traditional resectoscope, which is used for transurethral resection of the prostate. It has a double-channeled sheath allowing for continuous flow of fluid or gas media into the uterus through the larger channel, while allowing for less outflow through the smaller channel. This results in the distention of the uterine cavity. With modern optical technologies, hysteroscopes are getting smaller in diameter yet able to provide larger and brighter images for surgeons’ convenience.

After cervical dilation, the hysteroscope is guided into the uterine cavity and an inspection is performed. If abnormalities are found, an operative hysteroscope with a channel to allow specialized instruments to enter the cavity is used to perform the surgery. Typical procedures include endometrial ablation, submucosal fibroid resection, and endometrial polypectomy. Typically hysteroscopic intervention is done under general endotracheal anesthesia or Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC), but a short diagnostic procedure can be performed in a gynecologist‘s office with just a paracervical block using the Lidocaine injection in the upper part of the cervix.

Why it is Done:
Hysteroscopy is useful in a number of uterine conditions:

Asherman’s syndrome (ie. intrauterine adhesions). Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is the technique of lysing adhesions in the
*uterus using either microscissors (recommended) or thermal energy modalities. Hysteroscopy can be used in conjunction with laparascopy or other methods to reduce the risk of perforation during the procedure.
*Endometrial polyp. Polypectomy.
*Gynecologic bleeding
*Uterine fibroids. Myomectomy.
*Congenital Uterine malformations (also known as Mullerian malformations). Eg.septum,
*Evacuation of retained products of conception in selected cases.

Hysteroscopy has the benefit of allowing direct visualization of the uterus, thereby avoiding or reducing iatrogenic trauma to delicate reproductive tissue which may result in Asherman’s syndrome.
How do you prepare for the test
The time that you schedule this test can be important. Your gynecologist is able to get the best view of the uterine lining during the week that follows your period. If you have regular cycles, it is helpful for you to anticipate the timing of your next period and plan to have the hysteroscopy done in the following week.

Tell your doctor ahead of time if you have ever had an allergic reaction to lidocaine or the numbing medicine used at the dentist’s office. Discuss different options for anesthesia with your doctor in advance.

If your doctor plans on giving you any anti-anxiety medicines before the procedure, or if you are going to have other tests done at the same time as hysteroscopy, you might be told not to eat or drink for eighthours or more before the test. Just before the test, you should empty your bladder.

Risk Factors:

After the procedure, you may have slight vaginal bleeding and cramps for one or two days. Sometimes a small amount of the gas used to expand the uterus can float up to the top of the abdomen and remain there for a day or two before it dissolves away. This can cause some shoulder pain. Some patients experience nausea from medicines used for anesthesia or anxiety.

Some of the procedures that are done along with hysteroscopy have risks of their own. You should ask your doctor about special risks that might come along with additional procedures planned for you.

A common problem is the uterine perforation when the instrument breaches the wall of the uterus. This can lead to bleeding and damage to other organs. A life-threatening condition is the bowel perforation by the instruments after the uterine perforation, resulting in acute peritonitis which can be fatal. Furthermore, cervical laceration, intrauterine infection (especially in prolonged procedures), electrical and laser injuries, and complications caused by the distention media described above are also not uncommon. The overall complication rate for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy is 2% with serious complications occurring in less then 1% of cases.

How long is it before the result of the test is known
Your doctor can tell you what was seen through the hysteroscope right away. If a biopsy sample is removed, the analysis might take several days.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/hysteroscopy.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hysteroscopy

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Health Moves ‘Halve Early Deaths’

Women could halve their risk of premature death by adopting a healthier lifestyle, research suggests…..
Smoking accounted for nearly a third of the deaths

By avoiding cigarettes, exercising regularly, eating healthily and keeping weight in check, 55% of early deaths from chronic diseases could be avoided.

Following all four lifestyle tips could cut 44% of cancer deaths and 72% of cardiovascular deaths, the study of nearly 80,000 nurses suggests.

The work is published on the British Medical Journal website.

In the 24-year study, 28% of the 8,882 deaths could be attributed to smoking and 55% to the combination of smoking, being overweight, not doing enough exercise and a poor diet.

Drinking too much alcohol also contributed, but women with “light-to-moderate” alcohol consumption of up to one drink a day were less likely to die from cardiovascular diseases than teetotallers.

Report author Dr Rob van Dam, from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, said the study’s positive findings on moderate consumption of alcohol should not encourage people to “go overboard”.

“It seems to be that drinking a little alcohol can lower the risk of heart disease, but you have to look at the overall picture too. We also saw in our study that people who drink a lot of alcohol have a higher risk of dying from cancer.”

He said it could be easy for people to adopt the basic lifestyle recommendations.

Simple advice

“In busy, modern life it’s more difficult to adapt to these factors, but people don’t have to spend hours lifting heavy weights.

“It’s simple dietary changes like eating more whole-grains and less red meat, walking to work and to the grocery shop, these really add up. And of course the thing to state is not to smoke.”

According to Dr van Dam, the recommendations in his study could apply to men as well as women.

The 77,782 women aged 34 to 59 who took part in the study completed detailed follow-up questionnaires every two years about their diet, frequency of physical activity, alcohol intake, weight, how much they smoked, and disease history.

Over the follow-up period the authors documented 8,882 deaths including 1,790 from heart disease and 4,527 from cancer.

A spokeswoman from the British Nutrition Foundation said: “This study reaffirms the importance of prevention.

“It is worth making lifestyle changes now, so that our later years are spent free from diseases such as cancer and heart disease.”

“It is worth making lifestyle changes now, so that our later years are spent free from diseases”.as per British Nutrition Foundation spokeswoman

Risk reduction

Meanwhile, a study by the British Heart Foundation has found women at high risk of diabetes can reduce their body’s insulin resistance – the most important biological risk factor for diabetes – by exercising.

After seven weeks of an exercise programme of three 30 minute exercise sessions in the first week, working up to five 60 minute sessions in weeks six and seven, insulin resistance had reduced by 22% in women whose family history put them at a high risk of type 2 diabetes.

Professor Peter Weissberg, medical director at the BHF, said: “I hope the findings will encourage people to get active for their health.”

Sources: BBC NEWS:Sept. 16. ’08

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Work Stress ‘Changes Your Body’

A stressful job has a direct biological impact on the body, raising the risk of heart disease, research has indicated.The study reported in the European Heart Journal focused on more than 10,000 British civil servants.

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……………………………..Stress seems to produce biochemical changes

Those under 50 who said their work was stressful were nearly 70% more likely to develop heart disease than the stress-free.

The stressed had less time to exercise and eat well – but they also showed signs of important biochemical changes.

The studies of Whitehall employees – from mandarins to messengers – started in the 1960s, but this particular cohort has been followed since 1985.

As well as documenting how workers felt about their job, researchers monitored heart rate variability, blood pressure, and the amount of the stress hormone cortisol in the blood.

They also took notes about diet, exercise, smoking and drinking.

Then they found out how many people had developed coronary heart disease (CHD) or suffered a heart attack and how many had died of it.

Lead researcher Dr Tarani Chandola, of University College London, said: “During 12 years of follow up, we found that chronic work stress was associated with CHD and this association was stronger both among men and women aged under 50.

“Among people of retirement age – and therefore less likely to be exposed to work stress – the effect on CHD was less strong.”

Biological factors

On the one hand, those who reported stressful jobs appeared less likely to eat sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, and were less likely to exercise – although problem drinking did not emerge as a significant problem in this study.

Lifestyle, the researchers concluded, was nonetheless a key factor in the development of the disease.

But the team also say they are now confident they understand the biological mechanisms that link stress and disease, a connection widely held to exist but which has been difficult to prove.

These mechanisms held true regardless of lifestyle.

Stress appeared to upset the part of the nervous system which controls the heart, telling it how to work and controlling the variability of the heart rate.

Those who reported stress were also recorded as having poor “vagal tone” – the impulses which regulate heartbeat.

A major part of the neuroendocrine system – which releases hormones – also seemed to be disturbed by stress, evidenced by the fact that anxious workers had higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the morning.

Worker status

While the younger worker seemed to be more at risk, the findings were the same regardless of the status of the worker.

Previous studies had suggested those of lower employment grades may be more at risk.

“We did not find strong evidence that the effect of work stress on heart disease is worse for those in lower grades – the effect of stress was pretty much the same across different grades,” said Dr Chandola.

“However, later on in the study, some parts of the civil service underwent considerable change in their working environments, including privatisation.

“We are currently exploring whether the effects of these changed work stress levels, partly brought about by privatisation, are particularly deleterious for those in the low grades of the civil service.”

The British Heart Foundation said the research added to our understanding of how stress at work may alter the body’s chemistry.

“The study also reinforces what has been identified by previous research, that stress at work is often associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, lack of exercise and a poor diet – all which can impact on heart health,” said June Davison.

“There are many ways that we can help ourselves by learning how to cope with stressful situations.

“Keeping fit and active also helps to relieve stress and therefore reduce the risk of heart disease.”

Sources: BBC NEWS.23 Jan’08