Herbs & Plants

Caesalpinia sappan

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Botanical name : Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
Family : Caesalpiniaceae
Sanskrit Synonyms :Kuchandana, Lohita, Patanga, Ranjana, Patranga

Common Names :Patanga, Raktamukta, Basiletta, Sappan wood, Sappanga

Local names: Hapang (Sbl.); sapang (Ilk., Bis., Tag.); sappan (Ilk., Tag.); sibukau (Tag., Sul., Bis.); sappan wood, bukum wood (Engl.).

Name in Other Languages :
English : Japan wood, Sappan wood, Brazil wood
Hindi : Patamg, Bakam
Malayalam : Chappgnga, Sappanga, Patumukam

Habitat :Sapang is found locally abundant throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes in dry thickets, parang, etc. It is perhaps an introduced plant in the Archipelago, and if so, is of prehistoric introduction. It occurs also in India to Malaya. In dry deciduous forests in India, also cultivated.

It is a small tree, 3 to 5 and sometimes 10 meters high, with scattered prickles. The leaves are compound, and up 50 centimeters long. The pinnae are about 20, opposite, and 10 to 20 centimeters long. The leaflets are 20 to 30, obliquely oblong to oblong-rhomboid. The flowers are yellow, on terminal panicles, and 2. To 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Fruits small woody pods, with 2-3 seeds. The pod is oblong to oblong-ovate, about 7 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 4 centimeters wide, hard, shinning, with a hard, recurved beak at the upper angle.Stem covered with woody thons.

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Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used :   Heartwood.
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, skin diseases, diarrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, diabetes, and stomatitis.

A decoction or infusion of the wood is reputed to be powerful emmenagogue and a strong astringent, and is medicinally recommended as a substitute for logwood. It also used in atomic diarrhea, dysentery, etc. The decoction is also administered in cases of haemorrhage, especially from the lungs. It is commonly given to women after confinement, chiefly as a tonic. The decoction is considered useful in some forms of skin diseases. It is also used as a diuretic. The roots, stems, and seeds are used as sedatives and vulnerary.

Ayurvedic properities

Rasa    : Tikta
Guna   : Guru, Rooksha
Virya   : Seeta
Vipaka : Madhura

Other Uses:
Sapang is chiefly used as a dyewood, being very popular in the Filipinos for coloring the native fabrics.

According to Dymock the coloring matter of sappan wood appears from Bolleys investigation to be identical with chevreul’s brazilin obtained from brazilwood. Dey states that it contains a principle resembling haematein. He quotes Dr. Warden, who states that the resinous extract of the sappan tree contains a crystalline principle which, fused with potash, yields resorcin. Nadkarni includes as the additional constituents, besides brazilin, Gallic and tannic acids. Studies made by Bacon confirmed the discovery that the coloring matter of sappan wood is brazilin. Burkill declares hat the leaves (19 percent), bark, and fruit walls (44 percent) contain tannin. Volatile oil, suggesting pepper, is present in the leaves. Wehmer records the following constituents of the volatile oil (0.16 to 0.25 percent) of the leaves: d-c-phellandrene, terpene, and methyl alcohol.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access sapang.pdf

Herbs & Plants

Borreria hispida

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Botanical Name :Borreria hispida
Family : Rubiaceae
Synonyms: Spermacoce hispida Linn.
Spermacoce muriculata Blanco
Spermacoce mutilata Blanco
Spermacoce scaberrima F.-Vill.
Local names: Landrina (Tag.); ligad-ligad (Sul.); shaggy button weed (Engl.).
Common Name : Thaarthaaval

Habitat : The plant  is found from the Batan Islands to Batangas and Laguna in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Panay, and Basilan, in open, dry places at low and medium altitudes. It occurs also in India to China and Malaya.

Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed  is a procumbent, branched, hairy or rough herb 10 to 14 centimeters in length. The branches are greenish or purplish, ascending, stout, 4-angled. The leaves are ovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 1 to 3.5 centimeters long, 0.8 to 1.7 centimeters wide, and pointed or rounded at the tip. The flowers are 4 to 6, and occur in a whorl in the axils of the leaves. The calyx-teeth are linear-lanceolate. The corolla is pale blue or white, and is 5 to 10 millimeters in length. The fruit is a hairy capsule about 5 millimeters in length. The seeds are oblong, granulate, opaque, usually variable, and 3 millimeters or less in length.

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Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines Guerrero reports that the leaves brewed in decoction are used as an astringent in haemorrhoids.
Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that in the Konkan the plant is eaten with other herbs as a vegetable. It is used as a tonic and stimulant in Martinique. The plant is also prescribed to cure haemorrhoids.
According to Drury and Dymock the roots possess properties similar to those of sarsaparilla. They are prescribed in decoction as an alternative.
Ridley reports that the leaves are applied to the head in cases of headache. They appear to merely cool off the head and so allay the pain somewhat.
Nadkarni says that the seeds, as a confection, are cooling and demulcent, and are given in diarrhea and dysentery. The seeds have been recommended as a substitute for coffee. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that the seeds are thought to be aphrodisiac.

Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed of Rubiaceae family, is being used from time immemorial as an alternative therapy for diabetes. To evaluate the scientific background of using BHE as therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk, a group of rats were given BHE for a period of 30 days, whereas control animals were given the vehicle only. The animals were sacrificed, the hearts were isolated, and perfused with buffer. All the hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, BHE-treated rat hearts showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and exhibited reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activation was also reduced. BHE elevated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 and stimulated the phosphorylation of survival protein Akt simultaneously decreasing the apoptotic proteins Bax and Src. In addition, BHE enhanced the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta, and Glut-4, probably revealing the antiobese and antidiabetic potential of BHE. These results indicate that treatment with BHE improves cardiac function and ameliorates various risk factors associated with cardiac disease, suggesting that BHE can be considered as a potential plant-based nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for the management of cardiovascular diseases.

Click to see :

*Activity of various extracts of Borreria hispida

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access landrina.pdf

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