Habitat :Oenothera biennis is native to eastern and central North America, from Newfoundland west to Alberta, southeast to Florida, and southwest to Texas, and widely naturalized elsewhere in temperate and subtropical regions.
Oenothera biennis has a life span of two years (biennial) growing to 30–150 cm tall. The leaves are lanceolate, 5–20 cm long and 1–2.5 cm broad, produced in a tight rosette the first year, and spirally on a stem the second year.
Blooming lasts from late spring to late summer. The flowers are hermaphrodite, produced on a tall spike and only last until the following noon. They open visibly fast every evening producing an interesting spectacle, hence the name “evening primrose.”
The blooms are yellow, 2.5–5 cm diameter, with four bilobed petals. The flower structure has an invisible to the naked eye bright nectar guide pattern. This pattern is apparent under ultraviolet light and visible to its pollinators, moths, butterflies and bees.
The fruit is a capsule 2–4 cm long and 4–6 mm broad, containing numerous 1–2 mm long seeds, released when the capsule splits into four sections at maturity.
The mature seeds contain approximately 7–10% gamma-linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid.
Its leaves are edible and traditionally were used as a leaf vegetable
Medicinal Uses: Parts Used: oil from seeds
Constituents: fatty acids :gamma linolenic 9.2%,linoleic 74.6%,oleic 6.7%, palmitic 6.2%
It is used in * Cancer Prevention * Eczema * Hypertension * Nerve/Back Pain * PMS * Rheumatoid_arthritis
Evening primrose seeds contain a fragrant oil that plays an important part natural health. The seed oil contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid that the body uses to manufacture a prostaglandin vital to soothing inflammation and supporting the immune system. It also helps keep the blood flowing freely, reduces high blood pressure, plays a role in reducing breast cancers1,and lowers cholesterol.
Evening primrose oil is a prized oil in aromatherapy skin care because of its many health benefits.
Evening primrose grown in the garden provided access to the fresh stems and leaves which are demulcent and soothing both to irritated skin and for an irritable stomach. 3
The O. biennis seed oil is used to reduce the pains of premenstrual stress syndrome and is beneficial to the skin of the face. Also, poultices containing O. biennis were at one time used to ease bruises and speed wound healing.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Some people say Pityriasis rosea (also known as “Pityriasis rosea Gibert“) is a skin rash. It is non-dangerous but may inflict substantial discomfort on some sufferers. Classically, it begins with a single “herald patch” lesion, followed in 1 or 2 weeks by a generalized body rash lasting about 6 weeks
Pityriasis rosea is common type of skin rash seen between the ages of ten and 35. It is a skin rash that often sweeps out from the middle of your body, with a shape that resembles drooping pine-tree branches. Pityriasis (pit-ih-RI-uh-sis) rosea usually begins as one large spot on your chest, abdomen or back and then spreads.
The cause isn’t known, but a viral infection is suspected (though it doesn’t seem to be contagious).The overall prevalence of Pityriasis rosea in the United States has been estimated to be 0.13% in men and 0.14% in women. You may click to see Pictures of Pityriasis rosea Symptoms:
The symptoms of Pityriasis rosea include:
*An upper respiratory tract infection may precede all other symptoms in as many as 69% of patients
*A single, 2- to 10-cm oval red “herald” patch appears, classically on the abdomen. Occasionally, the”herald” patch may occur in a ‘hidden’ position (in the armpit, for example) and not be noticed immediately. The “herald” patch may also appear as a cluster of smaller oval spots, and be mistaken for acne. Rarely, it does not become present at all.
*7-14 days after the herald patch, large patches of pink or red, flaky, oval-shaped rash appear on the torso. In 6% of cases an inverse distribution may occur, with rash mostly on the extremities. The more numerous oval patches generally spread widely across the chest first, following the rib-line in a characteristic “christmas-tree” distribution. Small, circular patches may appear on the back and neck several days later. It is unusual for lesions to form on the face, but they may appear on the cheeks or at the hairline.
*About one-in-four people with PR suffer from mild to severe symptomatic itching. (Moderate itching due to skin over-dryness is much more common, especially if soap is used to cleanse the affected areas.) The itching is often non-specific, and worsens if scratched. This tends to fade as the rash develops and does not usually last through the entire course of the disease.
*The rash may be accompanied by low-grade fever, headache, nausea and fatigue. Over-the-counter medications can help manage these
The cause of pityriasis rosea is not certain, but its clinical presentation and immunologic reactions suggest a viral infection as a cause. Also, HHV-7 is frequently found in healthy individuals, so its etiologic role is controversial.
It is not contagious, though there have been reports of small epidemics in fraternity houses and military bases, schools and gyms.
Complications of pityriasis rosea aren’t likely, but if they do occur, they may include:
*Lasting brown spots after the rash has healed, on dark skin
Identification of pityriasis rosea can be challenging for a number of reasons. The diagnosis is unclear at the onset of symptoms, and there are no noninvasive tests that confirm the condition. In at least one half of patients, the first symptoms of pityriasis rosea are nonspecific and consistent with a viral upper respiratory infection.1,5 A herald patch then appears, typically on the trunk. This large lesion is commonly 2 to 10 cm in diameter, ovoid, erythematous, and slightly raised, with a typical collarette of scale at the margin.....PIC-1 . At this stage, however, the diagnosis usually remains unclear. Microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide preparations shows no fungal elements. The lesion cannot be differentiated from eczema and often is treated as such.
A few days to a few weeks after the appear ance of the herald patch, crops of smaller lesions, 5 to 10 mm in diameter, develop across the trunk and, less commonly, on the extremities. These lesions are salmon colored, ovoid, raised, and have the same collarette of scale as the herald patch.…PIC-2... . At this stage, the diagnosis usually is clear, particularly if the physician can observe or elicit a history of the herald patch.
If the diagnosis is uncertain, especially if the palms and soles are affected and the patient is sexually active, the physician should consider the possibility of secondary syphilis. Appropriate evaluation includes direct fluorescent antibody testing of lesion exudates, a VDRL test, or dark-field microscopy.11 Other conditions in the differential diagnosis include diffuse nummular eczema, tinea corporis, pityriasis lichenoides, guttate psoriasis, viral exanthem, lichen planus, and medication reaction.
The smaller secondary lesions of pityriasis rosea follow Langer’s lines..PIC-3.. When the lesions occur on the back, they align in a typical “Christmas tree” or “fir tree” pattern. Elsewhere on the body, the lesions follow the cleavage lines as follows: transversely across the lower abdomen and back, circumferentially around the shoulders, and in a V-shaped pattern on the upper chest12...PIC-4. Pruritus is variable. Except for mild to severe itching in 25 percent of patients, no systemic symptoms typically are present during the rash phase of pityriasis rosea.
Biopsy usually is not indicated in the evaluation of patients with suspected pityriasis rosea. Histology has shown that in addition to non-specific subacute and chronic inflammation, 55 percent of specimens contain epidermal cells that display dyskeratotic degeneration.14
Worsening of the rash or a second wave of lesions is not uncommon before eventual spontaneous resolution of the eruption. Recurrence of the condition later in life is rare.
Although no causal link has been established, multiple drugs have been associated with an extensive and often prolonged form of pityriasis rosea . A review of the literature shows that single case reports account for most of the drug associations.
No treatment is usually required.
Oral antihistamines or topical steroids may be used to decrease itching. Steroids do provide relief from itching, and improve the appearance of the rash, but they also cause the new skin that forms (after the rash subsides) to take longer to match the surrounding skin color. While no scarring has been found to be associated with the rash, itching and scratching should be avoided. Irritants such as soap should be avoided, too; a soap containing moisturizers (such as goat’s milk) may be used, however, any generic moisturizer can help to manage over-dryness.
Direct sunlight makes the lesions resolve more quickly. According to this principle, medical treatment with ultraviolet light has been used to hasten resolution, though studies disagree whether it decreases itching or not. UV therapy is most beneficial in the first week of the eruption
In most patients, the condition lasts only a matter of weeks; in some cases it can last longer (up to six months). The disease resolves completely without long-term effects. Two percent of patients have recurrence.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
The loss of skin cells from the scalp is a normal part of the life cycle of skin cells.Every day we lose dead skin cells from our scalps. When more are lost than normal, they clump together forming the white or grey flakes called dandruff. However, excessive flaking of the scalp, or dandruff, is a common cosmetic problem experienced by millions of people. Dandruff is not contagious and is normally not a serious problem. Some cases of excessive dandruff accompanied by intense itching and patches of flaky skin on the face or elsewhere are actually a form of eczema referred to as seborrheic eczema.
Dandruff can form when the scalp is too dry or too oily. A fungus called pityrosporum ovale, which lives naturally on the scalp, has been implicated in the development of dandruff. Excess production of sebum, the natural oil secreted from glands in the skin, fuels the growth of this fungus. This helps to explain why dandruff often starts in puberty when hormone changes occur and why people with oily scalps suffer more.
Dandruff is believed to run in families. Diets that are too salty, spicy or sugary and accompanied by too much alcohol make it worse, as can stress and changes in climate.
Nutritional deficiencies, such as a lack of essential fatty acids or vitamin B, may cause dandruff.
Seborrhoeic eczema causes itchy and flaky patches on the scalp. This tends to be more severe than simple dandruff because the skin and glands become inflamed. The flakes are often greasier and more yellow in colour and can also affect the eyebrows, ears, face and upper body.
People with flaky, itchy scalp will notice dead skin cells on the scalp that look like white or gray flakes. Some people may misdiagnosis the flakes as dandruff, but they tend to be larger than regular dandruff flakes.
With flaky, itchy scalp, the scalp can become red and irritated. Pain may or may not be associated with a swollen, red scalp.
As indicated in the name, flaky, itchy scalp is accompanied by an itchy feeling. Avoid scratching, as this can worsen the condition.
The scalp can become tight and tense. You may experience the feeling that all the blood is rushing to your head.
With flaky, itchy scalp, the hair becomes dull and lifeless. This is due to a lack of moisture reaching the scalp.
Anti-dandruff shampoos are the mainstay of treatment for simple dandruff. It’s usually trial and error finding the one that works for you.
For more stubborn dandruff or seborrhoeic eczema, selenium, zinc, coal tar in coconut oil or salicylic acid can be successful. Scalp preparations contain various combinations of these. Be careful when using tar, however, as it can discolour fair hair and bed linen.
Antifungal shampoos containing ketoconazole work well for dandruff and seborrhoeic eczema. They need to be used a few times a week. Be patient: they can take up to six weeks to work.
All these treatments are available from the pharmacist without a prescription.
When to go to Doctor?
If your scalp isn’t getting better with these treatments, or if it’s red, inflamed or painful, a different treatment may be needed.
Steroid lotion or mousse is used for severe seborrhoeic eczema. It’s also used to treat psoriasis, which not only affects the elbows and knees, but also the scalp.
Psoriasis occurs when new skin cells are made too quickly. The build up of these cells creates red areas covered with thick, scaly, silvery-looking patches, which can be very uncomfortable and itchy.
When shampooing, massage your scalp and don’t scratch it. Rinse your hair well, ideally twice with every shampoo. The scalp is very sensitive, so take care with hair products that can dry and irritate it.
Alternate your usual shampoo with a dandruff shampoo. If you find the flakes make an unwelcome return, don’t panic. This often happens, just switch to a new shampoo.
Make sure your diet contains enough vitamins E, B6 and B12, selenium and zinc. Flaxseed oil is also said to help prevent dandruff and can be taken in liquid or capsule form.
It’s a myth that dandruff is:
•Makes you go bald sooner
•Only affects dark-haired people
•Means you don’t wash your hair enough
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Botanical Name :Stellaria media
Species: S. media
Other Names: Addre’s mouth, Chickweed, Indian chickweed, tongue grass, satin flower, star chickweed, starwort, starweed, stitchwort, winterweed, tongue-grass
Parts Used:dried herb
Habitat : Chickweed grows in many areas across the globe, especially in fields, at the side of the road, in waste areas and so on. The scape has the average length of 7 inches and is covered with round-shaped leaves. The plant is characterized by white flowers of compact size.In both Europe andNorth Americathis plant is common in gardens, fields, and disturbed grounds. Control is difficult due to the heavy seed sets. Common Chickweed is very competitive with small grains, and can produce up to 80% yield losses among barley
Chickweed is an annual or biennial weed found in abundance all over the world in gardens, fields, lawns, waste places, and along roadsides. The usually creeping, brittle stems grow from 4 to 12 inches long and bear opposite, entire, ovate leaves. The small white flowers can be found blooming all year long in terminal, leafy cymes or solitary in the leaf axils.Chickweed is a plant with a lifespan of 1-2 years.
The active constituents are largely unknown. Chickweed contains relatively high amounts of vitamins and flavonoids, which may explain some of its effect. Although some older information suggests a possible benefit for chickweed in rheumatic conditions, this has not been validated in clinical practice.
There is some data on the fact that chickweed was used as a food supplement.Chickweed is still used today as a salad herb or may be cooked as a vegetable. It is one of the ingredients of the symbolic dish consumed in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku.
Chickweed is reputed to treat a wide spectrum of conditions in folk medicine, ranging from asthma and indigestion to skin disorders. Traditional Chinese herbalists use chickweed internally as a tea to treat nosebleeds.
Being a widely-used medication in herbal medicine, this herb is known for its ability to have a positive impact on the digestive system, respiratory system and even skin. In China this plant was applied in form of a hot drink to cure nose bleeding. The plant was extensively used to treat stomachaches, digestion problems, coughs, bronchitis, various inflammations and so on. Until recently it has been considered a universal remedy for almost every disease.
It’s applications have traditionally included: bronchitis, pleurisy, coughs, colds, hoarseness, rheumatism, inflammation, or weakness of the bowels and stomach, lungs, bronchial tubes.
Chickweed had been used for externallly for: skin diseases, boils, scalds, burns, inflamed or sore eyes, erysipelas, tumors, piles, cancer, swollen testes, ulcerated throat and mouth, and all kinds of wounds.
External application of chickweed is known to produce healing effect on skin sores of different types, as well as reduce inflammations locally (especially those related to throat diseases). Chickweed was even used to treat cancer.
Chickweed is used for boosting metabolism, healing inflammations, producing an expectorative effect and giving a relief from cough and respiratory diseases.
Severe skin problems like eczema and minor sores like insect bites are also regarded as cases of chickweed application. Stomach and bowel dysfunction, swollen testes, sore-throat, and various types of wounds are effectively treated by applying chickweed.
Chickweed may be useful for: Used externally for:
Cuts, Wounds, itching and skin irritation; Skin diseases, boils, scalds, burns, inflamed or sore eyes.
Other indications include:
*Insect stings and bites
*Traditionally used for all cases of bronchitis, pleurisy, coughs, colds, hoarseness, rheumatism, inflammation, weakness of the bowels and stomach, lungs, bronchial tubes, and any other forms of internal inflammation.
*Crushed, fresh leaves many be used as a poultice for inflammation and indolent ulcers with most beneficial results. A poultice of Chickweed enclosed in muslin is a sure remedy for a carbuncle or an external abscess. The water in which the Chickweed is boiled should also be used to bathe the affected part.
Also said to regulate the thyroid gland.
Although formerly used as a tea, chickweed’s main use today is as a cream applied liberally several times each day to rashes and inflammatory skin conditions (e.g., eczema) to ease itching and inflammation. As a tincture, 1-5 ml per day can be taken.
Known Hazards: S. media contains plant chemicals known as saponins, which can be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Chickweed has been known to cause saponin poisoning in cattle. However, as the animal must consume several kilos of chickweed in order to reach a toxic level, such deaths are rare.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
When you look at the science, it turns out your grandmother wasn’t so far off on some of those home remedies she used to talk about. For example, it’s really true that olives can help stave off motion sickness – but only if you eat them when the first symptoms appear. That’s because olives contain tannin, which works to eliminate the saliva that triggers nausea. Olives for Motion sickness–>
It’s also absolutely true that oatmeal has anti-inflammatory properties, and that a finely ground paste of it can help soothe eczema. The neutralizing powers of yogurt and other probiotics also can help get rid of bad breath.
Gargle salt water for a sore throat, take a spoonful of sugar for hiccups, and chew on a pencil for a headache – they all have a scientific reason why they work.
And, although there are no studies to back up putting Vapor Rub on toenail fungus, enough people have reported success with the remedy to warrant giving it a try.