Tag Archives: Edema

Ononis spinosa

Botanical Name : Ononis spinosa
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Ononis
Species: O. spinosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Name :Spiny restharrow or just Restharrow

Other Names; Finweed, Ground Furze, Harrow Rest, Horse’s Breath, Lady-whin, Wild Liquorice,  Rassels,  Whin, Cat Whin.

Habitat :Ononis spinosa is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.It is found throughout much of Europe but seldom as far north as Scotland. It can usually be found on rough and scrubby pastures, on hillsides and sandy shores.

Description:
Ononis spinosa is a perennial subshrub (usually lower than 1 meter). It has spiny, prostrate stems and tough roots. Leaves are lance-shaped, coarsely toothed. Flowers appear in June, July and August. Solitary or paired flowers are borne in axils. They are either stalkless or on small, short stalks.  Flowers are pink, purple or white in color, being similar to Lotus flower.

You may click to see the pictures of Ononis spinosa

Chemical Constituents: Onocerin, sitosterol, isoflavones, ononin, essential oil

Medicinal use: The plant is considered to be antitussive, diuretic, laxative and lithontripic. Traditionally Rest Harrow had been used in treatment of skin ulcers. A decoction made from the leaves and stem is used in treatment of various skin conditions, and also as a revitalizing skin toner. An infusion made from the root is used in treatment of dropsy, kidney and bladder inflammations. Rest Harrow root is beneficial in treatment of urinary tract infections, gout, joint and muscle pain.
Safety: Rest Harrow shouldn’t be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and in cases of fluid retention and edema. Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore it is advisable to contact your doctor/herbalist before consumption of any herb.

For excess fluid retention, Ononis spinosa is best taken as a short-term treatment, in the form of an infusion.  The root contains a fixed oil that is anti-diuretic and an essential oil that is diuretic. If the diuretic action is required then the root should be infused and not decocted or the essential oil will be evaporated. It is also of value in treating gout and cystitis.  An infusion is used in the treatment of dropsy, inflammation of the bladder and kidneys, rheumatism and chronic skin disorders.  A cough mixture is made from

Safety Features:: Ononis spinosa shouldn’t be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and in cases of fluid retention and edema. Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore it is advisable to contact your doctor/herbalist before consumption of any herb

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ononis_spinosa
http://health-from-nature.net/Rest_Harrow.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Overcoming Oedema

 

Swollen feet — medically called  oedema — can make life miserable. Shoes and slippers don’t fit — they are tight and uncomfortable and sometimes impossible to put on. The feet feel like dead weights, and walking becomes a Herculean task. It is much easier to simply sit. But inactivity makes the swelling worse, and the sufferer is caught in a vicious cycle of swelling-inactivity-more swelling.

CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

The fluid that accumulates and causes oedema leaks from tiny blood vessels called capillaries. This can occur as a result of increased pressure, damage to the vessels or a fall in the protein concentration of the blood. As soon as the body senses that the capillaries are leaking, compensatory mechanisms come into play and fluid is retained in the body by the kidney. The amount of fluid circulating in the body therefore increases. This, in turn, causes the capillaries to leak more. This fluid from the capillaries leaks into the surrounding tissue, causing the swelling. At least five litres of fluid need to be retained before actual swelling appears.

Feet swell before any other part of the body. This is because the hydrostatic pressure on the blood vessels of the lower limbs are, by virtue of gravity, one metre more than the pressure on the face. Also, when we sit and stand, our feet are at a lower level than the heart and this aggravates the problem.

To demonstrate oedema, press firmly with your forefinger and maintain the pressure for 10 seconds. A persistent dimple like depression indicates the presence of oedema.

However, swollen feet do not always indicate disease. Overweight individuals may develop some amount of swelling at the end of a stationery day. (Fat is fluid at body temperature). This can be normal. The swelling can extend up to the knees.

Salt also causes fluid retention. If you consume a lot of salty snacks and pickles, the kidney is not able to handle the sodium overload and fluid is retained.

Women are more prone to develop oedema than men. The female hormones oestrogen and progesterone cause fluid retention. Women tend to “swell up” during the pre-menstrual period, pregnancy and if they are on hormones, either as oral contraceptive pills or as part of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This can extend to the hands, making finger rings tight. The face may also appear puffy. This type of oedema disappears spontaneously in a few days once menstruation occurs, the baby is born or the hormones discontinued.

Oedema can be a side effect of prescribed medication like nifedepine, amlodepin and other anti-hypertensives. Medicines for pain belonging to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) group can also cause fluid retention. Some like diclofenac may damage the kidneys. If you develop swelling while on medication, consult your doctor.

At times, oedema can be the first sign of a serious underlying medical condition. If the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently, blood can accumulate in the capillaries of the legs, ankles and feet, causing oedema.

The liver regulates the protein content of the blood. It is also responsible for adjusting the hormones and chemicals that regulate the fluid content of the body. The organ can become damaged as a result of alcoholism, hepatitis B infection or other diseases. This injury results in scar formation and is called cirrhosis. Fluid can then accumulate in the legs and abdomen. But two of the causal factors can be prevented — don’t drink excessively and take your hepatitis B immunisations.

Damaged kidneys cannot excrete excess fluid. The oedema then occurs typically around the legs and eyes. Kidney damage can occur for a variety of reasons. Preventable causes are uncontrolled, neglected diabetes and hypertension.

The veins in the leg may be damaged or weak. Sometimes the valves in these veins — which prevent back flow of blood — may be inefficient. Chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins can result in swelling.

Excess fluid from tissues is cleared by the lymphatic system. These drain into lymph nodes and eventually into the large veins. Infections like filaria can damage the lymphatic system. The nodes can be infiltrated by cancerous deposits. The nodes may have been removed or damaged during surgery. All this can result in swelling. Usually this is present in any one limb and not symmetrically on both sides of the body.

Always keep in mind:-
• Oedema can be treated if the causal factor is removed

• Reduce weight if the BMI (body mass index or weight divided by height in metre squared ) is more than 23

• Walk, jog or swim for 40 minutes a day

• Try to move the legs every half hour during the day

• Do not add extra salt to food and avoid salty snacks

• Keep the feet elevated

• Use elastocrepe bandages or compression stockings on affected limbs

• Do not consume NSAIDs unnecessarily

• Seek medical advice immediately for filaria

• Use diurectics to get rid of fluid only if prescribed by a doctor

• Control diabetes and hypertension.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Healthy Knee is Friendly Indeed

Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Later...

Image via Wikipedia

Whether you are a ballerina, mountaineer, a weekend gladiator or just an office warrior, learn to protect your knees because the knee is a critical link in the kinetic chain that allows you to walk on two feet.
….....CLICK & SEE

Anit Ghosh, a former national footballer, suffered a career-threatening injury to his knee ligament five years ago. Regular and diligent post-injury rehabilitation work under the author’s guidance helped him gradually return to competitive football. Today, he turns out for Mohammedan Sporting and has learned to manage a problematic knee.

In  therapy practice, over half the ladies and about one in 10 men complain of knee pain. After back pain, knee pain is the most common cause of disability and time lost from work or training.

The knee is the largest joint in the human body and is formed by the articulation of three bones, the lower end of the thighbone (femur), the upper end of the shinbone (tibia) and the kneecap (patella). It may appear like a simple hinge, but besides the routine functions of bending and straightening, the knee joint performs a host of complex functions — it slides, glides, pivots, rolls and rotates — sometimes sequentially and at other times simultaneously. All these movements make the knee joint very vulnerable to shearing forces and dependant on good functional stability from the surrounding soft tissue network of ligaments, tendons and the two menisci, tough crescent-shaped cushions within the joint. In addition to the above, the knee joint also includes small, fluid-filled membranous sacs lying between the ligaments or skin, and the bones to provide smooth and frictionless gliding, like ball bearings in a machine. Furthermore, the entire articular surfaces, i.e. those that rub against one another, are covered with a tough, rubbery slippery tissue called cartilage.

Of these parts mentioned above can be a source of joint pain. Sometimes, knee pain can be caused by poor body mechanics and tight muscles elsewhere in the body and can easily be corrected by a slight alteration in gait and mechanics. For example, poor flexibility around the ankle and hip can transfer a lot of shearing forces onto the knee even though pathologically the knee is normal. The knee then is merely the “site” of the pain. The villain or “source” of pain may lie elsewhere.

The most common causes of knee pain  are described below..>..CLICK & SEE

*One of the most crippling forms of knee ailment is arthritis caused by the degeneration of the cartilage coating. The cartilage has very poor blood supply and consequently nutrient supply and therefore once traumatised, has hardly any chance of healing itself. The inherent nature of the cartilage is a huge limiting factor for arthritis rehabilitation.

*Chondromalacia is the softening or the wearing away of the articular cartilage under the kneecap. The articular cartilage on the inside aspect of the kneecap comes in constant contact with the articular surfaces of the femur during normal knee motion. The knee motion can sometimes become abnormal or faulty due to muscle imbalance or biomechanical misalignment and cause the patella to rub against the femoral surfaces. Repetitive ‘rubbing’ of the surfaces causes chronic inflammation sometimes popularly known as “jumpers knee”.

*One of the most common causes of pain inside the joint is a torn meniscus. The crescent-shaped spongy tissues act as shock absorbers within the joint and when torn, either by injury or degeneration, tends to get caught in the joint, causing pain and instability.

*When the articular cartilage begins fragmenting and eroding due to extreme softening, the underlying bone gets exposed. This is a condition called osteoarthritis.

*Often traumatic injuries or contact sports mishaps cause the ligaments within the knee joint to snap. This is a very painful condition and more often than not, needs surgical correction where the surgeon has to reconstruct the ligament necessitating a long healing period.

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO MANAGE, EVEN PREVENT KNEE PAIN?

*Stretch regularly. Regular stretching of the hip flexors, hip extensors and the iliotibial band (a sheath of muscle lying on the outside of your thigh extending from the hip to the lateral aspect of the knee) will ensure good gait and running mechanics and spare the knee of shearing forces.

*Train with weights. Loading the knee and hips early in life with weights will build density in the bones and prevent erosion in later life.

*Work the hamstrings. The average person has stronger quadriceps compared to the hamstrings. Increase hamstring strength for better muscle balance and correct alignment of the kneecap. This will avoid compression forces within the knee.

*Strengthen the vastus medialis muscle — the muscles lying in the inside aspect of your front thigh. This will help to realign and track the kneecap to its normal pathway.

*Exercise discretion while performing repetitive knee motions like running, skipping, jumping etc. If you must run, learn proper running technique. Let’s face it — nine out of 10 people who visit lifestyle and recreation gyms do not have good technique. Running on the treadmill for these people is sheer disaster!

*If you are an active sort of a person, check with your doctor whether you should supplement with Glucosamine sulphate and Chondroitin. They are known to have shown results in preventing degeneration of the knee joint.

*Avoid knee extensions. The leg extension exercise is treated as a panacea for all sorts of knee ailments by trainers and therapists alike. In reality, open-chain movements like the knee extension exercise is potentially more dangerous than closed-chain movements like the lunge and squat.

*The leg extension movement causes compression between the kneecap and the thighbone and I would recommend even healthy knee-owners to stay far away from it. Choose multi-joint exercises that make the quadriceps and hamstrings work together in unison.

The best exercises for the knee are:

*One-legged squats
*Glute ham raises
*Lunges
*Split squats

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Boerhavia diffusa

Botanical Name : Boerhavia diffusa
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Genus: Boerhavia
Species: B. diffusa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms : B. coccinea. B. repens. L.
English Name / Common Name: Spreading Hogweed / Boerhavia
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Punarna
Other Common Names:Punarnava , Boerhavia Diffusa, Hirsuta , Erva Tostao , Red Hogweed , Hog Weed , Pig Weed, Tar Vine, Red spiderling
Part Used :Root, Seed,whole plant
Properties :Anti- Inflammatory, Panduhar(Checks Anemia), Cardiac-tonic,Analgesic
Habitat:This weed grows throughout India, Bangla Desh, Burma,Sri Lanka and in many tropical countries  of the world like Australia – New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria.   It grows in a pioneer of bare areas, usually found on dry sandy soils.

Description:Boerhavia diffusa is a perennial creaping  plant. It grows  to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It has a large root system and produces yellow and white flowers. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). CLICK & SEE

You may click to see the pictures of Red Hogweed

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
It is hardy to at least -7°c in Australian gardens but this cannot be translated directly to the British climate because our summers are cooler and our winters longer, colder and wetter. If the plant is capable of surviving our winters it is likely to need a sheltered very sunny position in a well-drained soil. Most if not all members of this genus have the same edible uses.

Propagation:
Seed -..sowing the seed in a greenhouse in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings

Medicinal Uses:Bitter, stomachic, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, rejuvenative, diaphoretic, emetic Root-purgative, anthelmintic, febrifuge; White-laxative, diaphoretic;

The extract of Punarnava has diuretic properties. It helps to maintain effective kidney function. Punarnava helps maintain efficient kidney function, with its diuretic, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory action. It is a very useful herb in treating edema.

Punarnava Root Powder (Boerhaavia Diffusa) is known in Ayurveda for its diuretic action. This herb is also used to cleanse the liver, and for a variety of heart conditions.

PUNARNWA (Boerhavia diffusa) the active principle punarnavine is responsible for its laxative and diuretic properties. Presence of large amount of potassium salts reinforces its action.

The roots of this herb contain rotenoids AI, BI, C2 , D, E ,and F, dihydroisofurenoxanthin, borhavine and an antifibrinolytic agent, punarnavoside. Punarnava is a powerful Rasayana (longevity enhancer). It has diuretic and Ca2++ channel blocking activity. By clearing the excess of avalambhaka and kledhaka kapha from the chest and stomach, Punarnava opens the channels – especially for rasa and rakta, the circulatory fluids, to flow unimpeded.

» In Oedema – Paste of punamava, sunthi and Mustak should be taken in a dose of 1Ogm with milk.
» Used in Acute hapatic disorders & Ascites due to chronic peritonitis.
» In Jaundice – Punarnava is very effective.
» In Heart diseases – It should be taken with kutki, Chirayata & Sunthi.
» In Conjuctivitis – Freshroot powder of punarnava mixed with honey should be used as eye application.
» As Rasayana – One who takes pastes of fresh punamava 20mg with milk.

Remedies For: Punarnava in India where it has a long history of use by indigenous and tribal people, and in Aruyvedic or natural/herbal medicine in India. There, the roots are employed for many purposes including liver, gallbladder, kidney, renal and urinary disorders.

Red-vermifuge. Abdomen, Abdominal Pain, Anemia, Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Ascites, Asthma, Blood Purifier, Calculi, Cancer(abdominal), Cataract, Childbirth, Cholera, Cough, Debility, Diuretic, Dropsy, Dyspepsia, Edema, Emetic, Expectorant, Eye, Fever, Food, Gonorrhea, Guinea Worms, Heart Disease, Heart Ailments, Hemorrhages(childbirth) Hemorrhages(thoracic) Hemorrhoids, Hepatoprotective, Inflammation(internal), Jaundice, Lactagogue, Liver, Menstrual, Ophthalmic, Renal, Rheumatism, Spleen(enlarged), Weakness.

Ayurvedic Applications:

White-edema, anemia, heart disease, cough, intestinal colic, kidney disorders; same uses as red.

Red-nervous system, heart disease, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, kidney stones, edema, rat and snake bites; chronic alcoholism, wasting diseases, insomnia, rheumatism, eye diseases, asthma (moderate doses), induces vomiting in large doses, jaundice, ascites due to early liver and peritoneal concerns; urethritis.

Leaf juice with honey, dropped into the eyes for chronic ophthalmia.

No side effects have been noted so far.

According to Ayurveda, herbs are taken in combination with other herbs to neutralize the toxicity of one herb with the opposing effect of the other or to enhance the particular effect of one herb with the help of other.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/products/punarnava.htm
http://www.herbalremedies.com/punarnava.html
http://www.hindpharma.com/herbalproducts.htm
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sethayurvedics.com/images/punarnava-herbs.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sethayurvedics.com/ayurveda-
http://www.acarya.ch/Repetitorium/Sanskrit/Punarnava-Boerhavia-diffusa/Purnanava-Boerhavia-diffusa.htm
http://www.vedaliving.com/punarnava-herb-info.html
http://www.cardiofy.com/howitworks.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Boerhavia+diffusa

Oedema

Oedema or Å“dema (British English), Edema (American English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of interstitial fluid in any organ. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is in the balance of homeostasis. Increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium or impaired removal of this fluid may cause edema.

Generation of interstitial fluid is regulated by the Starling equation of tissue fluid which states that it depends on the balance of osmotic pressure and of hydrostatic pressure which act in opposite directions across the semipermeable capillary walls. Consequently, anything that increases oncotic pressure outside blood vessels (for example inflammation), or reduces oncotic pressure in the blood (states of low plasma osmolality, for example cirrhosis) will cause edema. Increased hydrostatic pressure inside the blood vessel (for example in heart failure) will have the same effect. If the permeability of the capillary walls increases, more fluid will tend to escape out of the capillary, as can happen when there is inflammation.

Abnormal removal of interstitial fluid is caused by obstruction of the lymphatic system, for example due to pressure from a cancer or enlarged lymph nodes, destruction of lymph vessels by radiotherapy, or infiltration of the lymphatics by infection such as elephantiasis.

Oedema (oidema, swelling) is the abnormal accumulation of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces (Mosby, 1997). Oedema may have a multitude of causes, and it is important for the clinician to determine this cause. The simplest way to do this is ask yourself “is the oedema bilateral?” and “on palpation, is it soft (pitted) or indurated (non-pitted)?” (Nelson, 1992).

If the condition is bilateral, then it is most likely of a systemic origin, which is causing venous hypertension. The most common cause of this is congestive heart failure, usually simply due to ageing. Other systemic causes include renal and thyroid conditions. Bilateral oedema is usually pitted and involves the entire lower leg and foot to the level of the digits.

If the condition is unilateral, oedema is most likely due a localised abnormality. The most common cause is DVT, but may include lymphangiactasis, lymphatic obstruction, varicose vein, previous trauma with venous obstruction, or failure of the muscle pump due to AFO’s or neuromuscular conditions that cause apropulsive gait (Nelson, 1992).

Most unilateral oedema is also pitted, however lymphatic-originated oedema will be seen as indurated.

Oedema basically prevents “ideal” tissue perfusion. Depending on the cause, in the early stages this may have no impact on the patient’s life, as there is adequate perfusion for tissue sustainance. However, long-term oedema can manifest into a number of conditions, due to the pressure being directly exerted onto blood vessels and surrounding tissues. These include: haemosiderin, telangiactasia, cellulitis, varicosities, and venous ulceration (LTU PM331 manual).

As mentioned above, the calf “muscle-pump” that is activated during normal gait helps greatly assists in return blood to the heart against gravity, so it is worth being aware that patient’s with an apropulsive gait or wheel chair bound patients may develop oedema and require calf exercises.
So the podiatrist must be aware of oedema as it can be a good indicator of venous insufficiency and lymphatic problems; and may also elicit other manifestations.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES


Peripheral edema

Edema without a modifier usually refers to peripheral or dependent edema, the accumulation of fluid in the parts of the body that are most affected by gravity. In ambulatory people these are the legs, although in those who are bedbound the first manifestation may be sacral edema. If severe enough, peripheral edema may progress to involve the abdominal or even thoracic wall (this may be referred to as generalized edema or anasarca). In particular edema states (e.g. nephrotic syndrome, see below), periorbital edema (around the eyes) may be present.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Some phenomena may distinguish different causes of peripheral edema. Most peripheral edema is pitting edema – pressing down will lead to a shift in the interstitial fluid and the formation of a small pit that resolves over seconds. Non-pitting edema may reflect lymphedema, a form of edema that develops when the lymph vessels are obstructed, or myxedema, which occurs in Grave’s disease.

Causes of peripheral edema are:

high hydrostatic pressure of the veins, leading to poor reabsorption of fluid
venous obstruction, e.g. deep vein thrombosis (typically one-sided)
congestive heart failure
varicose veins
asymmetric compression of thigh and leg (e.g., knee pads, tight jeans)
low oncotic pressure
cirrhosis
malnutrition
nephrotic syndrome (renal protein loss)
epidemic dropsy
obstruction of lymph drainage
infection
cancer
fibrosis after surgery
filariasis
inflammation (active secretion of fluid into the interstitial space due to increased membrane permeability by inflammatory mediators):
allergic conditions (e.g. angioedema)
any other form of inflammation (tumor – or swelling – is one of the main characteristics of inflammation)

Organ-specific Oedema
Edema of specific organs (cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, macular edema) may also occur, each with different specific causes to peripheral edema, but all based on the same principles. Ascites is effectively edema within the peritoneal cavity, as pleural effusions are effectively edema in the pleural cavity. Causes of edema which are generalized to the whole body can cause edema in multiple organs and peripherally. For example, severe heart failure can cause peripheral edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusions and ascites.

Common and usually harmless appearances of cutaneous edema are observed with mosquito bites and skin contact with certain plants (urticaria).

Edema may be found in the eyes after corrective surgery.

Symptoms:
People with oedema may notice that a ring on their finger feels tighter than in the past, or they might have difficulty in putting on shoes, especially toward the end of the day. They may also notice a puffiness of the face around the eyes, or in the feet, ankles, and legs. When oedema is present, pressure on the skin, such as from the elastic band on socks, may leave an indentation that is slow to disappear. Oedema of the abdomen, called ascites, may be a sign of serious underlying disease and must be immediately evaluated by a doctor.

Modern Medical treatments:
Over the counter diuretics containing ammonia chloride and caffeine (Aqua-Ban) may be used to relieve symptoms related to oedema or water retention when taken five to six days before menses. More severe edematous conditions require medical attention.

Treatment of oedema with prescription medications is limited to the use of diuretics,
commonly referred to as “water pills.” Agents often used include the thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), indapamide (Lozol), and metolazone (Zaroxolyn®); loop diuretics including furosemide (Lasix, bumetanide (Bumex), and torsemide (Demadex); and potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene (Dyazide, Maxzide), and amiloride (Midamor).

Commonly, treatment consists of managing the underlying condition, which may include inadequate nutrition; liver, heart, and kidney disease; or obstruction of blood or lymph flow. In some cases, a salt-restricted diet may be recommended.


Dietary changes that may be helpful:

High salt intake should be avoided, as it tends to lead to water retention and may worsen oedema in some people. A controlled trial found that a low-salt diet (less than 2,100 mg sodium per day) resulted in reduced water retention after two months in a group of women with unexplained oedema.Strictly avoid fried & fatty food, salt and curd.Go for vegetables like drumstick, green banana,gourd, patola, bitter gourd, ripe papaya.

Lifestyle changes that may be helpful:
If the oedema is affecting one limb, the limb should be kept elevated whenever possible. This allows fluid to drain more effectively from the congested area. To decrease fluid build-up in the legs, people should avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time without moving.Do not indulge in daytime nap ,Move about and avoid sedentary habits .

Nutritional supplements that may be helpful:

Several double-blind trials2 have found that 400 mg per day of coumarin, a flavonoid found in a variety of herbs, can improve many types of oedema, including lymphedema after surgery. However, a large double-blind trial detected no benefit using 200 mg coumarin twice daily for six months in women who had arm oedema after mastectomy (surgical breast removal).6 (Coumarin should not be confused with the anticlotting drug Coumadin,)

A group of semi-synthetic flavonoids, known as hydroxyethylrutosides are also beneficial for some types of oedema. One double-blind trial found that 2 grams per day of hydroxyethylrutosides reduced ankle and foot oedema in people with venous disorders after four weeks.

Another double-blind trial found that 3 grams per day of hydroxyethylrutosides significantly reduced lymphedema of the arm or leg and lessened the associated uncomfortable symptoms.

A combination of the flavonoids diosmin (900 mg per day) and hesperidin (100 mg per day) has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of venous circulation disorders.

However, in a double-blind trial, this combination was not effective for lymphedema caused by breast cancer treatments.

In a preliminary study, individuals with lymphedema of the arm or head-and-neck region were treated with approximately 230 mcg of selenium per day, in the form of sodium selenite, for four to six weeks. A quality-of-life assessment showed an improvement of 59%, and the circumference of the edematous arm was reduced in 10 of 12 cases.

Because coumarin, hydroxyethylrutosides, and diosmin are not widely available in the United States, other flavonoids, such as quercetin, rutin, or anthocyanosides (from bilberry), have been substituted by doctors in an attempt to obtain similar benefits. The effect of these other flavonoids against oedema has not been well studied. Also, optimal amounts are not known. However, in one study, quercetin in amounts of 30–50 mg per day corrected abnormal capillary permeability (leakiness),13 an effect that might improve oedema. A similar effect has been reported with rutin at 20 mg three times per day.14 Doctors often recommend 80–160 mg of a standardized extract of bilberry, three times per day.

Whereas vitamin B6 is sometimes recommended for reducing oedema, no research has investigated its effectiveness.


Herbs that may be helpful

A double-blind trial found that a formula containing butcher’s broom extract, the flavonoid hesperidin, and vitamin C, which is used in Europe to treat venous and lymphatic system disorders, was superior to placebo for reducing lymphedema. The amount of butcher’s broom extract typically used is 150 mg two or three times per day.

Herbs that stimulate the kidneys were traditionally used to reduce oedema. Herbal diuretics do not work the same way that drugs do, thus it is unclear whether such herbs would be effective for this purpose. Goldenrod (Solidago cnadensis) is considered one of the strongest herbal diuretics.16 Animal studies show, at very high amounts (2 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight), that dandelion leaves possess diuretic effects that may be comparable to the prescription diuretic furosemide (Lasix. Human clinical trials have not been completed to confirm these results. Corn silk (Zea mays) has also long been used as a diuretic, though a human study did not find that it increased urine output. Thus, diuretic herbs are not yet well supported for use in reducing oedema.

Aescin, isolated from horse chestnut seed, has been shown to effectively reduce post-surgical oedema in preliminary trials. A form of aescin that is injected into the bloodstream is often used but only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Horsetail has a diuretic (urine flow increasing) action that accounts for its traditional use in reducing mild oedema. Although there is no clinical research that yet supports its use for people with oedema, the German government has approved horsetail for this use. The volatile oils in juniper cause an increase in urine volume and in this way can theoretically lessen oedema; however, there is no clinical research that yet supports its use for people with oedema.

Cleavers is one of numerous plants considered in ancient times to act as a diuretic. It was therefore used to relieve oedema and to promote urine formation during bladder infections.

Herbs :Punarnava (Borhaavia diffusa) and Hasti sundi

Ayurvedic Supplement: 1.Sothari Madhur, 2.Sothari Lauh. 3. Punarnavaristha (BUY)

Yoga Option:Pranayam and Meditation

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Resources:

http://www.allayurveda.com/ail_oedema.htm

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/podiatry/vascular/oedema.html

en.wikipedia.org