Tag Archives: Elaeagnus

Elaeagnus umbellata

Botanical Name; Elaeagnus umbellata
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. umbellata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names :Japanese silverberry, Umbellate oleaster, Autumn-olive, Autumn elaeagnus, or Spreading oleaster

Habitat :Elaeagnus umbellata is  native to eastern Asia from the Himalayas east to Japan. Because airborne nitrogen can be fixed in its roots, it has the capability to grow in infertile habitats.Grows in thickets and thin woods in the lowland and hills

Description :
These plants are deciduous shrubs or small trees growing 3.5 m tall, with a dense, thorny crown. The leaves are alternate, 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm wide, entire but with a wavy margin. The leaves are silvery when they leaf out early in spring due to numerous tiny scales, but turn greener above as the scales wear off through the summer (unlike the related E. angustifolia, which remains silvery to leaf fall). The flowers are clustered 1-7 together in the leaf axils, fragrant, with a four-lobed pale yellowish-white 1 cm long corolla. The fruit is a round drupe 1/4 to 1/3 inches (0.65 to 0.85 cm) long, silvery-scaled yellow, ripening to red dotted with silver or brown.


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It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.  It is noted for attracting wildlife.It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained, though it dislikes shallow chalk soils. It prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in very poor soils and in dry soils. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position. Established plants are very drought resistant. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -40°c. This species is somewhat similar to E. multiflora, but it flowers a few weeks later. Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. ‘Cardinal’ and ‘Red Wing’ are very good fruiting forms (developed for ornament and not for fruit quality). ‘Jazbo’ has been bred for its edible fruits which are said to be ripe when ‘they drop into your hand’. This makes them valuable in breeding programmes to develop easily harvested fruits. Flowers are rich in nectar and very aromatic, they are much visited by bees. Polymorphic. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Juicy and pleasantly acid, they are tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preserves etc. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 1% ash. The vitamin C content is about 12mg per 100g. Mature bushes in the wild yield about 650g of fruit over 2 – 3 pickings. The harvested fruit stores for about 15 days at room temperature. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous

Medicinal Uses:
Astringent;  Cancer;  Cardiac;  Pectoral;  Stimulant.

The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant.  The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs. The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections.     The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses
Fuel;  Hedge;  Hedge.

Very tolerant of maritime exposure, it makes a good informal hedge, succeeding even in very exposed positions.  The plants make a reasonable wind-protecting screen, they are about as wide as they are tall. They make a good companion hedge, enriching the soil and fertilizing neighbouring plants. The wood is a good fuel.

Known Hazards : Elaeagnus umbellata has the potential of becoming one of the most troublesome adventive shrubs in the central and eastern United States.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_umbellata
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+umbellata

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Elaeagnus commutata

Botanical Name : Elaeagnus commutata
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. commutata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names:American silverberry or Wolf-willow,Silverberry

Habitat : Elaeagnus commutata is  native to western and boreal North America, from southern Alaska through British Columbia east to Quebec, south to Utah, and across the upper Midwestern United States to South Dakota and western Minnesota. It typically grows on dry to moist sandy and gravel soils in steppes, meadows or woodland edges.

Description:
These plants are shrubs or small trees growing to 1–4 m tall. The leaves are broad lanceolate, 2–7 cm long, silvery on both sides with dense small white scales. The fragrant flowers are yellow, with a four-lobed corolla 6–14 mm long. The fruits are ovoid drupes 9–12 mm long, also covered in silvery scales. The fruit pulp is floury in texture, and surrounds the single seed………CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Medicinal Uses:
A strong decoction of the bark, mixed with oil, has been used as a salve for children with frostbite. A decoction of the roots, combined with sumac roots (Rhus spp.), has been used in the treatment of syphilis. This medicine was considered to be very poisonous and, if you survived it, you were likely to become sterile. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_commutata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Elaeagnus angustifolia

Botanical Name : Elaeagnus angustifolia
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name :Russian silverberry, oleaster, or Russian-olive

Habitat : Elaeagnus angustifolia is  native to western and central Asia, from southern Russia and Kazakhstan to Turkey and Iran. It is now also widely established in North America as an introduced species.It grows by  side of  streams and along river banks to 3000 metres in Turkey

Description:

Elaeagnus angustifolia is a deciduous Shrub growing to 7 m (23ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a medium rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.
Elaeagnus angustifolia is a usually thorny shrub or small tree growing to 5–7 m in height. Its stems, buds, and leaves have a dense covering of silvery to rusty scales. The leaves are alternate, lanceolate, 4–9 cm long and 1-2.5 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The highly aromatic flowers, produced in clusters of 1-3, are 1 cm long with a four-lobed creamy yellow corolla; they appear in early summer and are followed by clusters of fruit, a small cherry-like drupe 1-1.7 cm long, orange-red covered in silvery scales. The fruits are edible and sweet, though with a dryish, mealy texture. Its common name comes from its similarity in appearance to the olive (Olea europaea), in a different botanical family, Oleaceae.

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The shrub can fix nitrogen in its roots, enabling it to grow on bare mineral substrates.

Cultivation :
Elaeagnus angustifolia was described as Zizyphus cappadocica by John Gerard, was certainly grown by John Parkinson by 1633,  and was being grown in Germany in 1736. It is now widely grown across southern and central Europe as a drought-resistant ornamental plant for its scented flowers, edible fruit, attractive silver foliage, and black bark.

The species was introduced into North America in the late 19th century, and subsequently escaped cultivation, because its fruits, which seldom ripen in England, are relished by birds which disperse the seeds. Russian-olive is considered to be an invasive species in many places in the United States because it thrives on poor soil, has low seedling mortality rates, matures in a few years, and outcompetes wild native vegetation. It often invades riparian habitats where overstory cottonwoods have died.

Propagation:
Establishment and reproduction of Elaeagnus angustifolia is primarily by seed, although some spread by vegetative propagation also occurs. The fruit is readily eaten and disseminated by many species of birds. The plants begin to flower and fruit from three years old.
Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten raw or cooked as a seasoning in soups. Dry, sweet and mealy. The fruit can also be made into jellies or sherbets. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The oval fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
Some people are reported to use the seed oil, like olive oil, for bronchitis, burns, catarrh, and constipation. Flowers are used for fever, neuralgia, and aching burns, allegedly bringing people back from their deathbeds.  The astringent leaves are used for enteritis and fever.  The oil from the seeds is used with syrup as an electuary in the treatment of catarrh and bronchial affections. The juice of the flowers has been used in the treatment of malignant fevers. It is a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The ripe fruits have been used to treat amoebic dysentery. There is general belief that leaves and fruits of the plant have antipyretic effect. In folk medicine, oleaster fruit or flower preparations are used for treating nausea, vomiting, jaundice, asthma, and flatulence. An infusion of the fruit has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as an analgesic agent for alleviating pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The flower is also traditionally used for treating tetanus.  Juice of flower is used in Spain for malignant fever. Oil from the seed is used in catarrhal and bronchial affections. Locally the fruit is used as blood purifier and for coughs.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. It is fairly fast-growing and very tolerant of pruning, but is rather open in habit and does not form a dense screen. Because the plant fixes atmospheric nitrogen, it makes a hedge that enriches the soil rather than depriving it of nutrients. An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery. A gum from the plant is used in the textile industry in calico printing. Wood – hard, fine-grained. Used for posts, beams, domestic items, it is also much used for carving. The wood is an excellent fuel.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_angustifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm?Voucher2=Connect+to+Internet
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Elaeagnus_angustifolia_20050608_859.jpg
http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/elan1.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+angustifolia

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Elaeagnus multiflora

Botanical Name : Elaeagnus multiflora
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. multiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales

Common Names:Goumi, Gumi, Natsugumi, or Cherry silverberry

Habitat :Elaeagnus multiflora  is native to China and Japan and has been cultivated for centuries as an ornamental and for its tasty fruit.

This species is occasionally grown in Europe and North America as an ornamental plant and for its fruit. It is an established exotic species in parts of the eastern United States.

Descruiption:
Elaeagnus multiflora is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 2-8 m tall, with a trunk up to 30 cm diameter with dark brown bark. The shoots are densely covered in minute red-brown scales. The leaves are ovate to elliptic, 3-10 cm long and 2-5 cm broad, green above, and silvery to orange-brown below with dense small scales.

The flowers are solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, fragrant, with a four-lobed pale yellowish-white corolla 1.5 cm long; flowering is in mid-spring.

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Japanese Elaeagnus multiflora var.hortensis, with cigarette for scale, photo on June 2008The fruit is round to oval drupe 1 cm long, silvery-scaled orange, ripening red dotted with silver or brown, pendulous on a 2-3 cm peduncle. When ripe in mid- to late summer, the fruit is juicy and edible, with an acidic taste.

As with other species in the genus Elaeagnus, E. multiflora plants are actinorhizal, growing in symbiosis with the actinobacterium Frankia in the soil. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it available in usable form for the host plant, and indirectly for other nearby plants. This feature allows the plant to grow in poorer soils than it could otherwise.

Propagation: Difficult to propagate. Seeds may take two or more years to germinate, and the seedlings may not be identical to their parent. Propagation by cuttings takes skill and patience but will produce plants identical to their parents. Gumi is fast growing and, with the help of symbiotic root inhabiting bacteria (like legumes), it obtains its own nitrogen, thus requiring little fertilizer. Gumi is drought tolerant, can live in salty or alkaline soils, and rarely has insect or disease problems.

Edible Uses:
The red ripe fruits of gumi are juicy and sweet, but at the same time, pleasantly astringent. They pucker your mouth, but you keep coming back for more! An absolutely scrumptious jelly can be made from the juice.
Click  &  see the pictures   of  Fruits of elaeagnus multiflora in mid-June

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The leaves are used in the treatment of coughs. The fruit is prescribed in the treatment of watery diarrhea. The root is astringent, a decoction is used to treat itch and foul sores.

Chinese people have traditionally considered Elaeagnus multiflora to be among a group of “nutraceuticals”, or foods that are edible and have medicinal values.They are said to decrease cholesterol and have other benefits, but scientific evidence has yet to confirm this belief

Other Uses:
Unfortunately, gumi is largely unknown to Americans. In the edible landscape, fast growing gumi shrubs can be pruned to form a dense hedge. As individual specimens or in small groups, gumi’s silvery leaves sparkle and flash in the breeze. The succulent fruits are extremely showy and attract many kinds of birds. Gumi could (and should) be cultivated on a commercial scale, like blueberries or mayhaws.

A gumi bush loaded with ripening fruit has been known to foster quarrelsome and prolonged disputes among mockingbirds, kingbirds, cardinals, blue jays and orioles. The only effective arbiter is bird-proof netting.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resouces:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_multiflora
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELMU
http://www.floridata.com/ref/e/elaeag_m.cfm

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gumi1.JPG

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