Categories
Herbs & Plants

Pushkaramul (lnula racemosa)

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Botanical Name :lnula racemosa
Family:    Asteraceae
Genus:    Inula
Species:I. racemosa
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Asterales
Family Name: Asteraceae
Hindi Name: – puskarmul
Sanskrit Names:
Padma patra– As its leaves are like lotus petals
Kashmira– As it generally grows in Kashmira area
Kushthabheda– As its characteristics and actions are like Kushtha(Saussurea lappa)

Part Used : Stem, Root

Click to see the picture.
Habitat : It grows in the hilly regions in the northwestern himalayas.
Description:
Inula are members of the daisy family, seldom seen in gardens. This selection forms an imposing clump of coarse green leaves, best sited towards the back of a sunny border. Large, shaggy yellow daisies are produced in mid to late summer. Excellent for cutting. Nice at the waterside or in the meadow garden where it can act as a specimen plant. Combines especially well with late summer blooming ornamental grasses. Seed heads may be useful for dried arrangements.

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plant low growing groundcovers in front to allow the entire plant to be seen. The basal leaves are 1 m (40″) long by 20-25 cm (8-10″) wide. The flowers are 2 m (6’6″) tall.
All Panicums will complement this plant as well as Calamagrostis ‘Karl Foerster’

Flowers: 200-250 cm (6-7′); bright yellow daisy-like flowers that are clustered along the stalk; blooms July through September; dries to a shiny bronze colour in early winter

Medicinal uses:
Antianginal, digestant, appetizer, vasodilator, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. In ayurvedic practice, it is mainly used as an expectorant and bronchodilator. It has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis and topically in the treatment of skin diseases.

The rhizome is sweet, bitter and acrid in taste with a neutral potency and act as antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and mild diuretic. It is used in the treatment of contagious fevers, anginapectoris, heart disease and ischemic heart disease. It is also used in cough, hiccup, bronchial asthma, indigestion, flatulence, inanorexia and in fever. Externally, the paste of its roots is used effectively, in dressing the wounds and ulcers as the herb possesses antiseptic property. Also used to boost the appetite.

Home remedies:
1.Its paste should be applied on the chest to reduse chest pain.
2.In dyspnoea with cough, 1 gm root powder of Pushkarmula should be taken with honey.
3.Daily intake of pushkarmula provides you a healthy heart

Inula racemosa root powder was investigated in patients with proven ischaemic heart disease. The powder prevented ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion as observed in the post-exercise electrocardiogram. This indicates that one of the constituents of Inula racemosa may have adrenergic beta-blocking activity.
Inula racemosa exhibites antiperoxidative, hypoglycaemic and cortisol lowering activities, it is suggested that its extracts may potentially regulate diabetes mellitus.
Inula racemosa possesses potent antiallergic properties.
The herb Inula racemosa was shown to help lower the stress hormone, cortisol, which in turn leads lower blood sugar levels.

Useful part: Roots

Doses:
2-4gm

Some Useful combinations of Pushkara moola:
Pushkaradi choorna; Pushkar guggulu

Effect on Tridosha (Three bio humors):
Pushkara mool pacifies Vata and Kapha bio homors i.e. it is useful in management of diseases with Kapha/ Vata origin or both.

Actions according to Ayurveda:
Kasa-shwashara- Pushkarmool is useful in cough and respiratory discomfort
Hikka nigrahana- Pushkarmool alleviates hicough
Parshwa shoola hara- Pushkarmool helps in pain in thorax region
Shophaghna- Pushkarmool is useful in all edematous conditions
Pandunashanam- Pushkarmool is useful in Anemia and its complications
Ardit vinashanam- Pushkarmool is useful in conditions involving nervous system specially the facial paralysis
Hrich chhulaghna- Pushkarmool alleviates pain in heart region

Parts used: roots

Properties and uses:

The roots are bitter, acrid, thennogenic, aromatic, stimulant, antiseptic, deodorant, anodyne, antiinflammatory, digestive, canninative, stomachic, cardiotonic, expectorant, bronchodilator, diuretic, uterine stimulant, aphrodisiac, sudorific, emmenagogue, resolvent, febrifuge and tonic.

They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, foul ulcers and wounds, hemicrania, cardiodynia, hepatalgia, splenalgia, arthralgia, inflammations, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, cardiac debility, hiccough, cough, cardiac and bronchial asthma, bronchitis, strangury, nephropathy, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, skin diseases, cerebropathy, pneumonosis, emaciation, anaemia, fever and general debility.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.chakrapaniayurveda.com/pushkarmool.html
http://www.ayurvedicdietsolutions.com/Pushkarmool.php

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#pashanabheda

http://www.perennials.com/seeplant.html?item=1.293.150
http://www.esveld.nl/htmldiaen/i/inrson.htm
http://www.motherherbs.com/inula-racemosa.html

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Diagnonistic Test

Holter Monitor

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Alternative Names : Ambulatory electrocardiography; Electrocardiography – ambulatory

Definition
A Holter monitor is a machine that continuously records the heart’s rhythms. The monitor is usually worn for 24 – 48 hours during normal activity.It is a portable EKG device that records your heart rhythm over time, outside the hospital or doctor’s office.Whereas a regular EKG examines your heart’s electrical activity for a few minutes, the Holter monitor examines changes over a sustained period of time-usually a 24- to 48-hour period-while you go about your daily activities and even while you sleep. Doctors use it to evaluate symptoms that come and go and that might be related to heart-rhythm changes.

CLICK  & SEE

How the Test is Performed ?
Electrodes (small conducting patches) are stuck onto your chest and attached to a small recording monitor. You carry the Holter monitor in a pocket or small pouch worn around your neck or waist. The monitor is battery operated.

While you wear the monitor, it records your heart’s electrical activity. You should keep a diary of what activities you do while wearing the monitor. After 24 – 48 hours, you return the monitor to your doctor’s office. The doctor will look at the records and see if there have been any irregular heart rhythms.

It is very important that you accurately record your symptoms and activities so that the doctor can match them with your Holter monitor findings.
Why the Test is Performed ?
Holter monitoring is used to determine how the heart responds to normal activity. The monitor may also be used:

*After a heart attack
*To diagnose heart rhythm problems
*When starting a new heart medicine

It may be used to diagnose:
*Atrial fibrillation/flutter
*Multifocal atrial tachycardia
*Palpitations
*Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
*Reasons for fainting
*Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
*Ventricular tachycardia

What happens when the test is performed?
A technician in your doctor’s office or a diagnostic lab fits you with a Holter monitor and explains how to use it. Five stickers are attached to your chest.Wires snap onto each of these stickers and connect them to the monitor. The wires detect your heart’s electrical pattern throughout the day, while the monitor records and stores the data for doctors to interpret later. You can fit the monitor into a purse or jacket pocket or wear it over your shoulder by its strap.

You can go about your normal activities with two exceptions. First, you can’t take a shower or bath during the period that you’re wearing the monitor. Second, you are given a small diary in which to note any worrisome symptoms you feel and record the time when they occur. The doctor will later review both your diary and the data about your heart’s activity from the monitor, to see if any symptoms you experienced were caused by some underlying heart problem. There are no side effects from the testing.
How to Prepare for the Test ?
There is no special preparation for the test. Your doctor will start the monitor. You’ll be told how to replace the electrodes should they fall off or become loose.

Tell your doctor if you are allergic to any tape or other adhesives. Make sure you shower or bathe before you start the test. You will not be able to do so while you are wearing a Holter monitor

Men with a lot of hair on their chest will probably have to shave it.

How the Test Will Feel?
This is a painless test. However, some people may need to have their chest shaved so the electrodes can stick.

You must keep the monitor close to your body. This may make sleeping difficult for some people.

You should continue your normal activities while wearing the monitor.

Risk Factors:
There are no risks.However, you should be sure not to let the monitor get wet.

Must  you do anything special after the test is over?
You need only return the Holter monitor.

Normal Results:-
Normal variations in heart rate occur with activities. A normal result is no significant changes in heart rhythms or pattern.

What Abnormal Results Mean?
Abnormal results may include various arrhythmias. Changes may mean that the heart is not getting enough oxygen.

The monitor may also detect conduction block, a condition in which the atrial electrical activity is either delayed or does not continue into the ventricles of the heart.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
It usually takes a few days for your recording to be printed out and examined.

Considerations :-
Electrodes must be firmly attached to the chest so the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart’s activity.

While wearing the device, avoid:
*Electric blankets
*High-voltage areas
*Magnets
*Metal detectors

It is very important for you to keep a diary of symptoms. The diary should include the date, time of day, type, and duration of symptoms.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/holter-monitor.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/imagepages/8810.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/003877.htm

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Diagnonistic Test

Exercise Stress Test Or Treadmill Test(TMT)

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The exercise stress test, also known as the treadmill test or exercise tolerance test, indicates whether your heart gets enough blood flow and oxygen when it’s working its hardest, such as during exercise. Often, stress tests are given to people with chest pain or other symptoms who appear to have coronary artery disease, based on a medical exam and EKG. In addition, these tests are sometimes used for other purposes, from assessing the effectiveness of heart disease treatment to gauging the safety of a proposed exercise program.
……….click to see the picture
Stress tests are among the best tools for diagnosing heart disease, and some research suggests that they may also be useful in estimating disease risk in people who don’t have symptoms but have risk factors such as high cholesterol. If you are over age 40 and are at risk for coronary artery disease because you smoke or have high blood pressure or other risk factors, ask your doctor if you should have this test.

Preparing for the Regular Stress Test:
The following recommendations are “generic” for all types of cardiac stress tests:

*Do not eat or drink for three hours prior to the procedure. This reduces the likelihood of nausea that may accompany strenuous exercise after a heavy meal. Diabetics, particularly those who use insulin, will need special instructions from the physician’s office.

*Specific heart medicines may need to be stopped one or two days prior to the test. Such instructions are generally provided when the test is scheduled.

*Wear comfortable clothing and shoes that are suitable for exercise.

*An explanation of the test is provided and the patient is asked to sign a consent form.

*Wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing and athletic shoes. Let the doctor performing the test know if you think that you won’t be able to walk on a treadmill for any health reason, such as arthritis. Also let the doctor know if you have diabetes; since exercise can lower blood sugar, he or she may want to check your blood sugar level before the test begins, to be sure it is not too low (see “Diabetes alert,” below). It’s also important to tell the doctor or other health professional in the testing room if you’ve had any chest pain or pressure on the day of the test. Try to avoid eating a large meal right before the test, which could make exercising uncomfortable.

Total timing is  approximately one hour for the entire test, including the preparation.

What happens when the test is performed?
First you have an EKG both while lying down and standing up. Your blood pressure is taken. Several plasticcoated wires, or leads, are taped to your arms and one leg so that your heart’s electrical pattern can be detected while you exercise.Your blood pressure and heart rate also are monitored during the test. You are asked to walk on a treadmill for about 10 minutes. The speed and steepness of the treadmill will increase several times while you exercise. Let the person who is monitoring you know immediately if you feel chest pain or heaviness, shortness of breath, leg pain or weakness, or other unusual symptoms, or if you think you can’t continue exercising.After the exercise period is completed, your blood pressure will be checked again.

A variation of this test uses a radionuclide to visualize parts of the heart that are not getting enough blood. This test is called either an exercise-thallium test or exercise-MIBI test (depending on the radionuclides used). If you have this test, you will probably need to repeat it on a day when you have not been exercising hard, for the sake of comparison.

An exercise stress test strongly suggests coronary artery disease if walking on the treadmill produces symptoms such as chest discomfort, shortness of breath, or dizziness, and these symptoms are accompanied by EKG changes that indicate inadequate blood flow to parts of the heart. A test is considered normal if you can perform a normal amount of exercise without symptoms or EKG changes. Many people have chest discomfort but no EKG changes, or vice versa. In these cases, the exercise test is of less help, and the result will be interpreted as consistent with coronary artery disease, but not conclusive. Further testing may then be required.

Must you do anything special after the test is over?
If your blood pressure becomes unusually high, or if it suddenly drops during exercise, a nurse will recheck your blood pressure a few minutes after the test and may continue to monitor your EKG. If you develop chest pain, you might be given some nitroglycerin tablets to relieve the pain and lower the demand on your heart by dilating your blood vessels.

What is the reliability of a Regular Stress Test?

If a patient is able to achieve the target heart rate, a regular treadmill stress test is capable of diagnosing important disease in approximately 67% or 2/3 rd of patients with coronary artery disease. The accuracy is lower (about 50%) when patients have narrowing in a single coronary artery or higher (greater than 80%) when all three major arteries are involved. Approximately 10% of patients may have a “false-positive” test (when the result is falsely abnormal in a patient without coronary artery disease).

How quickly will you may get the results and what will it mean?

The physician conducting the test will be able to give you the preliminary results before you leave the exercise laboratory. However, the official result may take a few days to complete. The results of the test may help confirm or rule out a diagnosis of heart disease. In patients with known coronary artery disease (prior heart attack, known coronary blockages, previous treatment with angioplasty, stents or bypass surgery, etc.), the study will help confirm that the patient is in a stable state, or that a new blockage is developing. The results may influence your physician’s decision to change your treatment or recommend additional testing such as cardiac catheterization, Echo Stress test, or a nuclear stress test.

Risk Factors:
The risk of the stress portion of the test is very small and similar to what you would expect from any strenuous form of exercise (jogging in your neighborhood, running up a flight of stairs, etc.). As noted earlier, experienced medical staff is in attendance to manage the rare complications like sustained irregular heart beats, unrelieved chest pain or even a heart attack.

If you have cardiac disease, you might develop chest pain during the test. Because this is a sign that your heart isn’t getting enough oxygen and could be in danger of damage, it’s important that you alert the medical staff immediately so that the test can be stopped. While many people worry that an exercise stress test could be dangerous to someone with heart disease, it is extremely safe if doctors examine patients beforehand to make sure that they are healthy enough for it.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
It usually takes several days for the doctor to completely evaluate the printout of your heart’s electrical pattern.

Resources:
http://www.heartsite.com/html/regular_stress.html
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/exercise-stress-test.shtml

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Diagnonistic Test

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

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Definition:
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart. An EKG translates the heart’s electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The spikes and dips in the line tracings are called waves. See a picture of the EKG components and intervals.

The heart is a muscular pump made up of four chambers. The two upper chambers are called atria, and the two lower chambers are called ventricles. A natural electrical system causes the heart muscle to contract and pump blood through the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body. See a picture of the heart and its electrical system.

The coordinated pumping of your heart is controlled by natural electrical currents within the heart. An EKG (sometimes referred to as ECG) measures those currents. An EKG is especially useful for diagnosing heart attacks and rhythm abnormalities, but it can also provide many clues about other conditions.You should have an EKG every one to three years after age 40 if you have heart disease; if you are at risk for developing it because you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes; or if you are about to start a vigorous exercise program.

Why It Is Done
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is done to:

*Check the heart’s electrical activity.

*Find the cause of unexplained chest pain, which could be caused by a heart attack, inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), or angina.

*Find the cause of symptoms of heart disease, such as shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, or rapid, irregular heartbeats (palpitations).

*Find out if the walls of the heart chambers are too thick (hypertrophied).

*Check how well medicines are working and whether they are causing side effects that affect the heart.

*Check how well mechanical devices that are implanted in the heart, such as pacemakers, are working to control a normal heartbeat.

*Check the health of the heart when other diseases or conditions are present, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, or a family history of early heart disease.

Click to see the pictures

How To Prepare
Many medicines may change the results of this test. Be sure to tell your doctor about all the nonprescription and prescription medicines you take. If you take heart medicines, your doctor will tell you how to take your medicines before you have this test.

Remove all jewelry from your neck, arms, and wrists. Men are usually bare-chested during the test. Women may often wear a bra, T-shirt, or gown. If you are wearing stockings, you should take them off. You will be given a cloth or paper covering to use during the test.

Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results will indicate. To help you understand the importance of this test, fill out the medical test information form (What is a PDF document?) .

If you have a hairy chest, a nurse might have to shave several patches so that the stickers or suction cups used in the test can hold to your skin.

…….…Click to see the picture

The electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) is used extensively in the diagnosis of heart disease, from congenital heart disease in infants to heart attack (myocardial infarction) and myocarditis (heart inflammation) in adults.
.How It Is Done
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is usually done by a health professional, and the resulting EKG is interpreted by a doctor, such as an internist, family medicine doctor, electrophysiologist, cardiologist, anesthesiologist, or surgeon.

You may receive an EKG as part of a physical examination at your health professional’s office or during a series of tests at a hospital or clinic. EKG equipment is often portable, so the test can be done almost anywhere. If you are in the hospital, your heart may be continuously monitored by an EKG system; this process is called telemetry.

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How do you feel During an EKG:
*You will lie on a bed or table. Areas on your arms, legs, and chest where small metal discs (electrodes) will be placed are cleaned and may be shaved to provide a clean, smooth surface to attach the electrode discs. A special EKG paste or small pads soaked in alcohol may be placed between the electrodes and your skin to improve conduction of the electrical impulses, but in many cases disposable electrodes are used that do not require paste or alcohol.

*Several electrodes are attached to the skin on each arm and leg and on your chest. These are hooked to a machine that traces your heart activity onto a paper. If an older machine is used, the electrodes may be moved at different times during the test to measure your heart’s electrical activity from different locations on your chest. After the procedure, the electrode paste is wiped off.

*You will be asked to lie very still and breathe normally during the test. Sometimes you may be asked to hold your breath. You should not talk during the test.

*The electrodes may feel cool when they are put on your chest.

Risk Factors:
There is no chance of problems while having an electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). An EKG is a completely safe test.The machine is measuring natural electrical activity in your body; it is not sending electricity into you. In most cases, there is no reason why you should not be able to get an EKG.

The electrodes are used to transfer an image of the electrical activity of your heart to tracing on paper. No electricity passes through your body from the machine, and there is no danger of getting an electrical shock.
Must you do anything special after the test is over?
Nothing.

Results:
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart. An EKG translates the heart’s electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The spikes and dips in the line tracings are called waves.

The test usually takes 5 to 10 minutes to complete.

Your doctor will look at the pattern of spikes and dips on your electrocardiogram to check the electrical activity in different parts of your heart. The spikes and dips are grouped into different sections that show how your heart is working. See a picture that explains the EKG components and intervals.
How long is it before the result of the test is known?
The EKG must be reviewed by a trained professional. Your doctor can interpret an EKG right away.However, if a technician is taking the EKG and your doctor is not present, it may be one to three days before there is an official interpretation by a cardiologist.
Normal: The heart beats in a regular rhythm, usually between 60 and 100 beats per minute.

The tracing looks normal.

Abnormal: The heart beats too slow (less than 60 beats per minute).

The heart beats too fast (more than 100 beats per minute).

The heart rhythm is not regular.

The tracing does not look normal.

What Affects the Test:
Reasons you may not be able to have the test or why the results may not be helpful include:

*Not having the electrodes securely attached to your skin.

*Moving or talking during the test.

*Exercising before the test.

*Being anxious or breathing very deeply or rapidly.

What To Think About:-
*Sometimes your EKG may look normal even when you have heart disease. For this reason, the EKG should always be interpreted along with your symptoms, history, physical examination, and, if necessary, other test results.

*An electrocardiogram cannot predict whether you will have a heart attack.

*At first, an EKG done during a heart attack may look normal or unchanged from a previous EKG. Therefore, the EKG may be repeated over several hours and days (called serial EKGs) to look for changes.

*There are several other types of electrocardiograms, including telemetry, ambulatory monitoring (using a Holter monitor or event monitor), and exercise EKG testing. For more information, see the medical tests Ambulatory Electrocardiogram and
*Exercise Electrocardiogram.

*Sometimes EKG abnormalities can be seen only during exercise or while symptoms are present. To check for these changes in the heartbeat, an ambulatory EKG or stress EKG may be done.

*An ambulatory EKG is a type of portable, continuous EKG monitor. For more information, see the medical test Ambulatory Electrocardiogram.

*A stress EKG is a type of EKG done during exercise. A resting EKG is always done before an exercise EKG test, and results of the resting EKG are compared to the results of the exercise EKG. A resting EKG may also show a heart problem that would make an exercise EKG unsafe. For more information, see the medical test Exercise Electrocardiogram.

*Some doctors think that people older than age 35 need a baseline EKG before problems develop. This baseline EKG may be compared to later EKGs to see if changes have occurred. But a baseline EKG is expensive and may not be covered by insurance.
*Baseline EKGs may be most useful in people who have other conditions or diseases that increase their chances of having heart disease.

You may click to learn more in detail about electrocardiogram
Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/electrocardiogram.shtml
http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/electrocardiogram
http://adam.about.com/reports/ECG.htm

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Heart Block

A diagram of a heart with an ECG indicator; di...Image via Wikipedia

Definition:
A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. This is opposed to coronary artery disease, which is disease of the blood vessels of the heart. While coronary artery disease can cause angina (chest pain) or myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart block can cause lightheadedness, syncope (fainting), and palpitations.

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The heart has four chambeacemaker is called the sinoatrial (SA) node or sinus node. It’s a small mass of specialized crs. The top two are called the atria. The bottom two are called the ventricles.
The heart’s “natural” pells in the heart’s right atrium. It produces electrical impulses that make your heart beat. For your heart to beat properly, the signal must travel from the SA node down a specific path to reach the ventricles. As the signal goes from the atria to the ventricles, it passes through specialized conducting tissue called the atrioventricular (A’tre-o-ven-TRIK’u-ler) (AV) node.

On an electrocardiogram (e-lek”tro-KAR’de-o-gram) (ECG), a portion of the graph called the P wave shows the impulse passing through the atria. Another portion of the graph, the QRS wave, shows the impulse passing through the ventricles. As long as the impulse is transmitted normally, the heart pumps and beats at a regular pace.

Sometimes the signal from the heart’s upper to lower chambers is impaired or doesn’t transmit. This is “heart block” or “AV block.” This does not mean that the blood flow or blood vessels are blocked.

Heart block is classified according to the level of impairment — first-degree heart block, second-degree heart block or third-degree (complete) heart block.

Types of heart block
A heart block can be a blockage at any level of the electrical conduction system of the heart.

1.Blocks that occur within the sinoatrial node (SA node) are described as SA nodal blocks.
2.Blocks that occur within the atrioventricular node (AV node) are described as AV nodal blocks.
3.Blocks that occur below the AV node are known as infra-Hisian blocks (named after the bundle of His).
4.Blocks that occur within the left or right bundle branches are known as bundle branch blocks.
5.Blocks that occur within the fascicles of the left bundle branch are known as hemiblocks.

Clinically speaking, most of the important heart blocks are AV nodal blocks and infra-Hisian blocks.

Types of SA nodal blocks
The SA nodal blocks rarely give symptoms. This is because if an individual had complete block at this level of the conduction system (which is uncommon), the secondary pacemaker of the heart would be at the AV node, which would fire at 40 to 60 beats a minute, which is enough to retain consciousness in the resting state.

Types of SA nodal blocks include:

SA node Wenckebach (Mobitz I)
SA node Mobitz II
SA node exit block
In addition to the above blocks, the SA node can be suppressed by any other arrhythmia that reaches it. This includes retrograde conduction from the ventricles, ectopic atrial beats, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter.

The difference between SA node block and SA node suppression is that in SA node block an electrical impulse is generated by the SA node that doesn’t make the atria contract. In SA node suppression, on the other hand, the SA node doesn’t generate an electrical impulse because it is reset by the electrical impulse that enters the SA node.

Types of AV nodal blocks
There are four basic types of AV nodal block:

First degree AV block
Second degree AV block
Type 1 second degree AV block (Mobitz I) (also known as Wenckebach phenomenon)
Third degree AV block (Complete heart block)

Types of infra-Hisian block
Infrahisian block describes block of the distal conduction system. Types of infrahisian block include:

Type 2 second degree heart block (Mobitz II)
Left bundle branch block
Left anterior fascicular block
Left posterior fascicular block
Right bundle branch block
Of these types of infrahisian block, Mobitz II heart block is considered most important because of the possible progression to complete heart block.

Symptoms:
The symptoms and severity of heart block depend on which type you have. First-degree heart block rarely causes severe symptoms.

Second-degree heart block may result in the heart skipping a beat or beats. This type of heart block also can make you feel dizzy or faint.

Third-degree heart block limits the heart’s ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type of heart block may cause fatigue (tiredness), dizziness, and fainting. Third-degree heart block requires prompt treatment, because it can be fatal.

A medical device called a pacemaker is used to treat third-degree heart block and some cases of second-degree heart block.

This device uses electrical pulses to make the heart beat at a normal rate.

Sometimes, however, there are no symptoms at all.

It is important to note that during a period of heart block, persons may not know how to describe what they are feeling. They may have trouble keeping up with other persons, realize they are having “spells” and want to sit down and rest.

Causes:
Heart block has a variety of causes. It can sometimes be a result of a congenital defect. It can also occur after a heart attack or as a result of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), cardiomyopathy (a disorder of the heart muscle) and other types of heart disease. Although these conditions are more common in older people, young people can also be affected.

Heart block may also occur after heart surgery and in this case may be either temporary or permanent. Wenckebach block may occur as a result of taking too much digoxin, or can occur after a heart attack. Heart block may be caused by coronary artery disease, inflammation of the heart muscle, rheumatic fever, or overdose of certain heart drugs. Treatment depends on the degree of heart block experienced. Some cases need no treatment while others require medication or an artificial pacemakers.

Diagnosis

Heart block may occur spontaneously with unpredictable timing. Therefore, in some cases, the condition may require specialized tests to acquire an accurate diagnosis. If your doctor suspects that a person has heart block, he or she will order one or more of the following diagnostic tests to determine the cause of person’s symptoms.

Electrocardiogram –– An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) records the heart’s electrical activity. Small patches called electrodes are placed on person’s chest, arms and legs, and are connected by wires to the ECG machine. The electrical impulses of your child’s heart are translated into a graph or chart, enabling doctors to determine the pattern of electrical current flow in the heart and to diagnose arrhythmias.

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Holter Monitor — A Holter monitor is a small, portable machine that the person wears for 24 hours. It is about the size of a portable tape player and provides a continuous 24-hour recording of your child’s heartbeat onto a tape. You will be asked to keep a diary of your activities and symptoms. This monitor may detect arrhythmias that might not show up on a resting electrocardiogram, which only records a heartbeat for a few seconds at rest.

Event Monitor — This is a small monitor about the size of a pager that the person can have for up to a month. Since the arrhythmia may occur at unpredictable times, this will help to record the abnormal rhythm when he or she is experiencing symptoms. He or she can just push a button on the pager and record the heartbeat. The recording can than be transmitted by phone to the doctor.

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Exercise Stress Test –– An exercise stress or treadmill test, records the electrical activity of the person’s heart during exercise, which differs from the heart’s electrical activity at rest.

Electrophysiology Study –– In an electrophysiology (EP) study, doctors insert special electrode catheters — long, flexible wires — into veins and guide them into the heart. These catheters sense electrical impulses and also may be used to stimulate different areas of the heart. Doctors can then locate the sites that are causing arrhythmias. The EP study allows doctors to examine an arrhythmia under controlled conditions and acquire more accurate, detailed information than with any other diagnostic test.

Treatment
Heart block is a rhythm disturbance that can be treated with the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. The pacemaker helps your heart beat consistently. A pacemaker is a medical device that regulates the heart beat. It consists of two parts — the generator and the lead. The generator is a small metal container with a battery and tiny computer. The lead is an insulated wire that carries electrical impulses to the heart to ensure a stable heartbeat.

The computer in the pacemaker is constantly monitoring your heartbeat. This is called sensing. When the pacemaker senses your heartbeat, it continues to “watch” or monitor your heart and does not send a signal to stimulate the heart to beat. If no electrical impulse is sensed by the pacemaker, it sends out a signal to stimulate your childs heart to beat.

Proper Yoga exercise specially Deep Breathing and Pranayama are very helpful for all types of heart block.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4611
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_block
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hb/hb_whatis.html
http://www.ucsfhealth.org/childrens/medical_services/heart_center/arrhythmia/conditions/block/diagnosis.html
http://heart-disease.health-cares.net/heart-block-causes.php

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