Tag Archives: Emmenagogue

Typha angustifolia

Botanical Name : Typha angustifolia
Family: Typhaceae
Genus: Typha
Species: T. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names:Lesser Bulrush , Narrowleaf Cattail , Lesser Reedmace,Small Reed Mace, Cattail

Habitat : Typha angustifolia  grows  throughout the world from the Arctic to latitude 30° S, including Britain but absent from Africa.This is found in  water up to 15cm deep, avoiding acid conditions. Often somewhat brackish or subsaline water or wet soil in America, growing from sea level to elevations of 1900 metres.

Description:
Typha angustifolia is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). The plant’s leaves are flat, very narrow (¼”-½” wide), and 3′-6′ tall when mature; 12-16 leaves arise from each vegetative shoot. At maturity, they have distinctive stalks that are about as tall as the leaves; the stalks are topped with brown, fluffy, sausage-shaped flowering heads. The plants have sturdy, rhizomatous roots that can extend 27″ and are typically ¾”-1½” in diameter.

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It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires wet soil and can grow in water.

Cultivation :
A very easily grown plant, it grows in boggy pond margins or in shallow water up to 15cm deep. It requires a rich soil if it is to do well. Succeeds in sun or part shade. A very invasive plant spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site, it is not suitable for growing in small areas. Unless restrained by some means, such as a large bottomless container, the plant will soon completely take over a site and will grow into the pond, gradually filling it in. This species will often form an almost complete monoculture in boggy soil. The dense growth provides excellent cover for water fowl.

Propagation : 
Seed – surface sow in a pot and stand it in 3cm of water. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible and, as the plants develop, increase the depth of water. Plant out in summer. Division in spring. Very easy, harvest the young shoots when they are about 10 – 30cm tall, making sure there is at least some root attached, and plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses  :    
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Oil;  PollenRoot;  Seed;  Stem.

Roots – raw or cooked. They can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and then boiled to yield a sweet syrup. The roots can also be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereal flours. Rich in protein, this powder is used to make biscuits etc. Young shoots in spring – raw or cooked. An asparagus substitute. Base of mature stem – raw or cooked. It is best to remove the outer part of the stem. Young flowering stem – raw, cooked or made into a soup. It tastes like sweet corn. Seed – cooked. The seed is very small and fiddly to harvest, but it has a pleasant nutty taste when roasted. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. Due to the small size of the seed this is probably not a very worthwhile crop. Pollen – raw or cooked. A protein rich additive to flour used in making bread, porridge etc. It can also be eaten with the young flowers, which makes it considerably easier to utilize. The pollen can be harvested by placing the flowering stem over a wide but shallow container and then gently tapping the stem and brushing the pollen off with a fine brush. This will help to pollinate the plant and thereby ensure that both pollen and seeds can be harvested.

Medicinal Uses:

Anticoagulant;  Diuretic;  Emmenagogue;  Haemostatic;  Lithontripic;  Miscellany.

The pollen is diuretic, emmenagogue and haemostatic. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes haemostatic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal haemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhoea and injuries. An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

In Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external bleeding.  The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The pollen may be mixed with honey and applied to wounds and sores, or taken orally to reduce internal bleeding of almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding, or blood in the urine.  The pollen is now also used in the treatment of angina.  Pu huang does not appear to have been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition.  The dregs remaining after the pollen has been sifted from the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot skillet and then used as an internal or external astringent in dysentery and other forms of bowel hemorrhage.  It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal hemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries.  An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

Other Uses  :
Biomass;  Insulation;  Miscellany;  Oil;  Paper;  Soil stabilization;  Stuffing;  Thatching;  Tinder;  Weaving.

The stems and leaves have many uses, they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc. They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc. The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc. They have good insulating and buoyancy properties. The female flowers make an excellent tinder and can be lit from the spark of a flint. The pollen is highly inflammable and is used in making fireworks. This plants extensive root system makes it very good for stabilizing wet banks of rivers, lakes etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Typha+angustifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Cardiospermum halicacabum

Botanical Name : Cardiospermum halicacabum
Family: Sapindaceae
Subfamily: Sapindoideae
Genus: Cardiospermum
Species: C. halicacabum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Names :   Balloon Vine, Love in a Puff, Heartseed, and Heartseed Vine.

Habitat :Cardiospermum halicacabum is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia.India. N. America.Locally naturalized in S. Europe.Moist thickets and waste ground in Eastern N. America

Description:
Cardiospermum halicacabum is a decidious Climber growing to 3m.with twice 3-parted leaves that will reach 4 inches (10 cm) long. The plants climb with tendrils and need some form of support.with twice 3-parted leaves that will reach 4 inches (10 cm) long. The plants climb with tendrils and need some form of support.They are used as annuals in USDA zones 5-8 and are perennial in zones 9-11. and is frost tender.
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It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) The fruit from which the plant gets its common name is a brown, thin-shelled, inflated angled capsule up to 1 1/8 inch (3 cm) in diameter containing 3 black seeds each, with a white heart-shaped scar.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist soil and a sunny sheltered position, but succeeds in most soils. A frost-tender deciduous climber, it is grown as an annual in Britain.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 3 – 4 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves and young shoots – cooked. Used as a spinach

Medicinal Uses:
Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emetic; Emmenagogue; Laxative; Refrigerant; Rubefacient; Stomachic.

The whole plant is diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, laxative, refrigerant, rubefacient, stomachic and sudorific. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, nervous diseases, stiffness of the limbs and snakebite. The leaves are rubefacient, they are applied as a poultice in the treatment of rheumatism. A tea made from them is used in the treatment of itchy skin. Salted leaves are used as a poultice on swellings.The leaf juice has been used as a treatment for earache. The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative and rubefacient. It is occasionally used in the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and nervous diseases.

In Indian herbal medicine, balloon vine root is used to bring on delayed menstruation and to relieve backache and arthritis.  The leaves stimulate local circulation and are applied to painful joints to help speed the cleaning of toxins.  The seeds are also thought to help in the treatment of arthritis.  The plant as a whole has sedative properties.  It has been prescribed for years by European skin specialists and family doctors. In a study of 833 patients with eczema, better than 4 out of 5 subjects reported improvement or remission of symptoms (inflammation, swelling, scaling, blisters/vesicles, dry skin, itching, burning and pain).  This small and delicate wiry climber can be used to treat piles, rheumatism, nervous disorders and chronic bronchitis. A paste of the leaves is a dressing for sores and wounds. Crushed leaves can also be inhaled to relieve headaches and the seeds used to relieve fever and body aches.  A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of itchy skin. Salted leaves are used as a poultice on swellings.  The leaf juice has been used as a treatment for earache.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiospermum_halicacabum
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cardiospermum+halicacabum
http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week256.shtml
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

 

 

Wall-rue

Botanical Name :Asplenium ruta-muraria
Family: Aspleniaceae
Genus: Asplenium
Species: A. ruta-muraria
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Blechnales

Synonyms:
Asplenium cryptolepis Fernald
Asplenium cryptolepis Fernald var. ohionis Fernald
Asplenium ruta-muraria var. cryptolepis (Fernald) Wherry
Amesium ruta-muraria (L.) Newman

Common Names :wall-rue. In Germany, it is known as Mauerraute or Mauerstreifenfarn

Habitat :Asplenium ruta-muraria grows in Most of Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean, N. and S. Asia to the Himalayas, E. North America.It found on  Old walls and basic rocks in hilly areas.

Description:
Asplenium ruta-muraria is an evergreen Fern growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a slow rate.
It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October.

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Rhizome: erect, occasionally branching, scales clathrate, to 3mm, dark brown.
Frond: 15 cm high by 5 cm wide, evergreen, monomorphic, blade/stipe ratio: 1:2 to 1:1.
Stipe: purple-brown at base, fading to green , dark brown, narrowly deltate scales at base grading into multicellular hairs, vascular bundles: 2 C-shaped, back to back, uniting to 1 upwards to an X-shape.
Blade: 2-pinnate at the base, said to be occasionally more divided, always less upwards, oblong-triangular, leathery, dull, commonly with tiny glandular hairs and a few linear scales.
Pinnae: 2 to 5 pair, opposite to alternate, anadromic, stemmed, variable in shape; margins serrate or creanate; veins free, forking.
Sori: linear, along a vein, w-6 on each segment, indusium: translucent, pale tan, fimbriate, hidden by sporangia at maturity, on one side of the sorus, opening toward the middle of the segment, sporangia: brown, maturity: early summer to mid fall, but dispersal can extend.

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The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils.It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland).It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained position and lots of old mortar rubble in the soil. Requires a humid atmosphere and some shade. A good plant for growing on a shady part of an old dry-stone or brick wall, also succeeding in full sun. A very ornamental fern, it is very tough but slow to establish. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Spores – best sown as soon as they are ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. Germinates in spring. Spring sown spores germinate in 1 – 3 months at 15°c. Pot on small clumps of plantlets into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse. Keep the plants humid until they are well established. Once the plants are 15cm or more tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in the spring. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses;
Astringent;  Deobstruent;  Emmenagogue;  Expectorant;  Ophthalmic.

The fronds are astringent, deobstruent, emmenagogue, expectorant and ophthalmic. A distilled water made from the fronds has proved of benefit in the treatment of many eye complaints. The plant is also considered to be useful in the treatment of coughs and ruptures in children. It was at one time used as a herbal remedy for rickets and its tannin content renders it suitable for stopping bleeding from small wounds. The fronds are harvested in late spring and dried for later use

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asplenium+ruta-muraria
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asplenium_ruta-muraria
http://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=147

Birthwort

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Botanical Name:Aristolochia clematitis
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species: A. clematitis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Synonyms:
Heterotypic
Aristolochia infesta Salisb., Prodr. stirp. Chap. Allerton, 215. 1796, nom. illeg.
Aristolochia longa Georgi, Beschr. russ. Reich vol. 3, 5, 1274. 1800, nom. illeg. (non L.).
Aristolochia rotunda Georgi, Beschr. russ. Reich vol. 3, 5, 1274. 1800, nom. illeg. (non L.).

Common Name:Birthwort

Habitats:  Birthwort  is native to   east  and south east Europe. Naturalized in Britain. It grows in the waste ground, gardens, orchards etc.

Description:   Birthwort is a evergreen and deciduous woody vines and herbaceous perennials plant, growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The smooth stem is erect or somewhat twining. The simple leaves are alternate and cordate, membranous, growing on leaf stalks. There are no stipules.

The flowers grow in the leaf axils. They are inflated and globose at the base, continuing as a long perianth tube, ending in a tongue-shaped, brightly colored lobe. There is no corolla. The calyx is one to three whorled, and three to six toothed. The sepals are united (gamosepalous). There are six to 40 stamens in one whorl. They are united with the style, forming a gynostemium. The ovary is inferior and is four to six locular.

It is in leaf 11-May It is in flower from Jul to September. These flowers have a specialized pollination mechanism. The plants are aromatic and their strong scent attracts insects. The inner part of the perianth tube is covered with hairs, acting as a fly-trap. These hairs then wither to release the fly, covered with pollen.

The fruit is dehiscent capsule with many endospermic seeds.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade[1, 134]. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. The plant has an invasive root system. Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers, often smelling like decaying flesh, that are pollinated by flies. The insects that pollinate this plant become trapped in the hairy throat of the flower. Birthwort was formerly cultivated as a medicinal plant in most of Europe.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter

Medicinal Uses;

AbortifacientAntiinflammatory;  Antispasmodic;  Diaphoretic;  EmmenagogueFebrifuge;  Oxytoxic;  Stimulant.

Birthwort has a very long history of medicinal use, though it has been little researched scientifically and is little used by present-day herbalists. It is an aromatic tonic herb that stimulates the uterus, reduces inflammation, controls bacterial infections and promotes healing. The juice from the stems was used to induce childbirth. The plant contains aristolochic acid which, whilst stimulating white blood cell activity and speeding the healing of wounds, is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. The flowering herb, with or without the root, is abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, oxytocic and stimulant. Another report says that the root is used on its own whilst a third says that either the fresh flowering herb or the dried rootstock can be used. The plant should not be used internally without experienced supervision, externally it is used in the treatment of slow-healing cuts, eczema, infected toe and finger nails etc. Use with caution, internal consumption can cause damage to the kidneys and uterine bleeding. It should not be used by pregnant women

Used to treat: abdominal complaints, cancer, cancer (nose), depurative, leg ulcers, menstrual troubles, polyps (nose), tumor, wounds.  Not used much today, birthwort was formerly used to treat wounds, sores, and snake bite.  It has been taken after childbirth to prevent infection and is also a potent menstruation-inducing herbs and a (very dangerous) abortifacient.  A decoction was taken to encourage healing of ulcers.  Birthwort has also been used for asthma and bronchitis.
Chinese research into aristolochic acid has shown it to be an effective wound healer.  Aristolochia species are used in China, but the medicinal use has been banned in Germany because of the toxicity of aristolochic acid.  Chinese herbalists use the fruit when there is lung heat and inflammation, with or without deficiency, but with the presence of phlegm. For these conditions, it stops coughing and wheezing. It is also used internally to treat bleeding hemorrhoids.

Click to see :Overview of Aristolochia Clematitis (Arist-c) as a homeopathic remedy. :

Known Hazards:
The root and stem are poisonous. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells

Medicinal problems:
It was formerly used as a medicinal plant (though poisonous) and is now occasionally found established outside of its native range as a relic of cultivation. A recent study suggests that it is the cause for thousands of kidney failures in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia where the plant is unintentionally consumed through flour. This has been discovered after a clinic for obesity in Belgium used Aristolochiaceae as a diuretic, after a few months some of the subjects suffered from kidney carcinoma and kidney failure.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_clematitis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia%20clematitis
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_clematitis

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Smearwort(Aristolochia rotunda)

 

Botanical Name:Aristolochia rotunda
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species: A. rotunda
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Common Names : Round-leaved Birthwort, English Mercury, Mercury Goosefoot, Allgood, Tola Bona or (ambiguously) “Fat Hen”

Habitat:Native to Southern Europe.Found amongst shrubs and herbaceous plants along the sides of roads, in fields and in meadows

Description:
Smearwort is a perennial herb .It is a dark-green succulent plant that grows to about 2 feet high, rising from stout, fleshy, branching root-stock. It has large, smooth-edged, stalkless leaves that clasp the stem with enlarged, basal lobes and tubular, yellowish-green flowers with a prominent, dark-brown flap, 1 to 2 inches long, both terminal and arising from the axils of the leaves. The fruit is bladder-like and contains a single seed.

CLICK & SEE..>..(01)..…....(1)..………….

The plant prefers medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil.  . Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers that are pollinated by flies.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter

Ediable uses:
Smearwort leaves can be gathered when young and delicate, then boiled in broth. If grown in rich soil, the shoots may be cut when no bigger than a pencil and five inches high, to be peeled and boiled, then eaten as asparagus.

Medicinal uses:
Abortifacient;  Antitussive;  Diuretic;  Emmenagogue;  Pectoral;  VermifugeVulnerary.

The root is antitussive, diuretic, emmenagogue, pectoral, vermifuge and vulnerary. This herb should only be used internally with expert advice since large doses can provoke abortions as well as poisoning with inflammation of the mucous membranes, resulting in respiratory paralysis. The plant contains aristolochic acid which, whilst stimulating white blood cell activity and speeding the healing of wounds, is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Externally the plant is used to treat a variety of skin complaints including eczema and difficult to heal ulcers. The root is harvested in late spring and dried for later use[

The name Smearwort is derived from its use as ointment. Poultices derived from the leaves were used to heal chronic sores. Roots were often used on sheep to remedy cough.

Other Uses:
The seeds have found employment in the making of shagreen.

Known Hazards:
The plant is poisonous in large quantities. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_rotunda
http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/nature/flowers_provence/aristolochia_rotunda.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia%20rotunda
http://www.rareplants.de/shop/product.asp?P_ID=6096

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