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Ailmemts & Remedies

Pneumothorax

Definition:
A pneumothorax is a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. In most cases, only a portion of the lung collapses..

It is the collection of air or gas in the space inside the chest around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse.

Normally, the pressure in the lungs is greater than the pressure in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. However, if air enters the pleural space, the pressure in the pleura then becomes greater than the pressure in the lungs, causing the lung to collapse partially or completely. Pneumothorax can be either spontaneous or due to trauma.

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If a pneumothorax occurs suddenly or for no known reason, it is called a spontaneous pneumothorax. This condition most often strikes tall, thin men between the ages of 20 to 40. In addition, people with lung disorders, such as emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and tuberculosis, are at higher risk for spontaneous pneumothorax. Traumatic pneumothorax is the result of accident or injury due to medical procedures performed to the chest cavity, such as thoracentesis or mechanical ventilation. Tension pneumothorax is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that may be caused by traumatic injury, chronic lung disease, or as a complication of a medical procedure. In this type of pneumothorax, air enters the chest cavity, but cannot escape. This greatly increased pressure in the pleural space causes the lung to collapse completely, compresses the heart, and pushes the heart and associated blood vessels toward the unaffected side.
Symptoms:
The symptoms of pneumothrax depend on how much air enters the chest, how much the lung collapses, and the extent of lung disease.

The main symptoms of a pneumothorax are sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. But these symptoms can be caused by a variety of health problems, and some can be life-threatening. If your chest pain is severe or breathing becomes increasingly difficult, get immediate emergency care.
Symptoms include the following, according to the cause of the pneumothorax:

*Spontaneous pneumothorax. Simple spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by a rupture of a small air sac or fluid-filled sac in the lung. It may be related to activity in otherwise healthy people or may occur during scuba diving or flying at high altitudes. Complicated spontaneous pneumothorax, also generally caused by rupture of a small sac in the lung, occurs in people with lung diseases. The symptoms of complicated spontaneous pneumothorax tend to be worse than those of simple pneumothorax, due to the underlying lung disease. Spontaneous pneumothorax is characterized by dull, sharp, or stabbing chest pain that begins suddenly and becomes worse with deep breathing or coughing. Other symptoms are shortness of breath, rapid breathing, abnormal breathing movement (that is, little chest wall movement when breathing), and cough.

*Tension pneumothorax. Following trauma, air may enter the chest cavity. A penetrating chest wound allows outside air to enter the chest, causing the lung to collapse. Certain medical procedures performed in the chest cavity, such as thoracentesis, also may cause a lung to collapse. Tension pneumothorax may be the immediate result of an injury; the delayed complication of a hidden injury, such as a fractured rib, that punctures the lung; or the result of lung damage from asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Symptoms of tension pneumothorax tend to be severe with sudden onset. There is marked anxiety, distended neck veins, weak pulse, decreased breath sounds on the affected side, and a shift of the mediastinum to the opposite side.

Risk factors:

Risk factors for a pneumothorax include the following:

In general, men are far more likely to have a pneumothorax than are women.

1)Smoking. The risk increases with the length of time and the number of cigarettes smoked, even without emphysema.

2)Age. The type of pneumothorax caused by ruptured air blisters is most likely to occur in people between 20 and 40 years old, especially if the person is a very tall and underweight.

3)Genetics. Certain types of pneumothorax appear to run in families.

4)Lung disease. Having an underlying lung disease — especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) — makes a collapsed lung more likely.

5)Mechanical ventilation. People who need mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing are at higher risk of pneumothorax.
Previous pneumothorax. Anyone who has had one pneumothorax is at increased risk of another, usually within one to two years of the first.

Complications:
Many people who have had one pneumothorax can have another, usually within one to two years of the first. Air may sometimes continue to leak if the opening in the lung won’t close. Surgery may eventually be needed to close the air leak.

Diagnosis:
To diagnose pneumothorax, it is necessary for the health care provider to listen to the chest (auscultation) during a physical examination. By using a stethoscope, the physician may note that one part of the chest does not transmit the normal sounds of breathing. A chest x ray will show the air pocket and the collapsed lung. An electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed to record the electrical impulses that control the heart’s activity. Blood samples may be taken to check for the level of arterial blood gases.

Treatment:
A small pneumothorax may resolve on its own, but most require medical treatment. The object of treatment is to remove air from the chest and allow the lung to re-expand. This is done by inserting a needle and syringe (if the pneumothorax is small) or chest tube through the chest wall. This allows the air to escape without allowing any air back in. The lung will then re-expand itself within a few days. Surgery may be needed for repeat occurrences.

Regular doing Yoga with meditation  under the guideline of some expert will  cure  pneumothorax totally.

CLICK & SEE THE ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR PNEUMOTHORAX:

1)  Alternative Treatments of Pneumothorax 

2)  Top 10 Doctor insights on: Alternative Treatments For Pneumothorax 

3) Alternative Treatments of Pneumothorax 
4) Pnuemothorax Exercises : 

5)  5 Top Home Remedies For Pneumothorax

Prognosis:
Most people recover fully from spontaneous pneumothorax. Up to half of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax experience recurrence. Recovery from a collapsed lung generally takes one to two weeks. Tension pneumothorax can cause death rapidly due to inadequate heart output or insufficient blood oxygen (hypoxemia), and must be treated as a medical emergency.

Prevention:
Preventive measures for a non-injury related pneumothorax include stopping smoking and seeking medical attention for respiratory problems. If the pneumothorax occurs in both lungs or more than once in the same lung, surgery may be needed to prevent it from occurring again.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumothorax/symptoms-causes/dxc-20179900
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Pneumothorax
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumothorax/home/ovc-20179880

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Categories
Healthy Tips

Tips for a Disease-Free Summer

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Even as the Capital sweltered under severe heat conditions, city doctors cautioned about the downside of quick weather changes. Sudden change in temperature and humidity, doctors say, can be dangerous as the weather is conducive for mosquito breeding and other vector-borne diseases (diseases that spread through breeding of mosquitoes or other insects) to spread. Incidents of cholera, typhoid, jaundice and gastric problems also shoot up during this time of the year.

“This is the time when mosquito breeding starts, so dengue, malaria and other vector-borne diseases make a comeback. Precautions must be taken to stop active breeding,” says Dr Bir Singh, professor community medicine, AIIMS.

The Municipal Corporation of Delhi so far has reported two cases of malaria, but the number is likely to increase with rise in temperature. “We are taking all precautions to control mosquito breeding. Anti-larval medicines are being sprayed in vulnerable spots. We will intensify the drive from April end,” said Dr N K Yadav, medical health officer, MCD.

According to Dr Sanjeev Bagai, head of the department of paediatrics and director, Rockland Hospital, “One should see a doctor if there is headache, vomiting and high-grade fever which persists for more than 24 hours. Extra precaution should be taken in case of children. The bacteria’s incubation period is very short, sometimes just a few hours.”

Meningococcal disease, also referred to as cerebro-spinal meningitis, is a contagious bacterial disease caused by the meningococcus bacteria (Neisseria Meningitidis). It is spread by person-to-person contact through respiratory droplets of infected people. The bacteria attack the meninges (outer cover) of the brain, and infected persons should be treated at hospitals or under medical supervision.

Doctors also advise drinking a lot of water in order to prevent dehydration. However, water from the roadside and any drink that has commercial ice is to be strictly avoided. “We don’t know the source of water that is used in commercial ice. It could lead to diseases like cholera and jaundice. Food and water-borne infections are very common during summers,” informs Dr Bir Singh.

Freshly cooked food is also to be preferred over uncooked options, since gastro-intestinal problems become rampant. “We see a lot of cases of food poisoning, dysentery and other gastric problems during the beginning of summers. The food doesn’t remain sterile for long if not refrigerated in time,” says Dr Bagai. Dairy products should be consumed within days of buying.

Fruit chats, juices and shakes from roadside vendors are also to be avoided. “Maximum cases of gastroenteritis are cause by roadside food. Cut fruits, raw vegetables and chats should not be eaten, as one doesn’t know the method of preparation or how long the fruits and vegetables have been exposed in the heat,” said Dr G C Vaishnava, head of the department internal medicine, Fortis Healthc

Overall, doctors advise taking timely precautions. Children should be vaccinated for typhoid, meningitis, chicken pox and Hepatitis A. One should also drink a lot of water and other fluids. “Dehydration is common and people often faint because of it. Maintaining the body’s water level is essential. During winter our water intake goes down, but one has to make a conscious effort to drink a lot of water,” said Dr Vaishnava.

Sources: toireporter@timesgroup.com

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Cervical Incompetence

Definition:
In medicine, cervical incompetence is a condition in which a pregnant woman‘s cervix begins to dilate (widen) and efface (thin) before her pregnancy has reached term. Cervical incompetence is a cause of miscarriage and preterm birth in the second and third trimesters.

In a woman with cervical incompetence, dilation and effacement of the cervix occur without pain or uterine contractions. Instead of happening in response to uterine contractions, as in normal pregnancy, these events occur because of weakness of the cervix, which opens under the growing pressure of the uterus as pregnancy progresses. If the changes are not halted, rupture of the membranes and birth of a premature baby can result.

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Sometimes premature effacement (shortening of the vaginal portion of the cervix and thinning of the walls) and dilation of the cervix is not caused by labor, but rather by structural weakness in the cervix itself. This is called cervical incompetence.

The weakness can result from a number of conditions, most due to prior injury to the cervix or resulting from an inherited physical condition of the cervix.

Description of Cervical Incompetence:
When the cervix is damaged, it cannot hold the weight of the pregnancy. The cervix dilates without contractions or pain, sometimes opening completely. The dilation results in the amniotic membranes bulging through the opening and eventually rupturing, often before the baby can survive outside of the uterus. This irritates the uterus and brings on pre-term labor. In many cases, labor is detected when it is too far advanced to stop the process.

Click for Pictures of ultrasonographic findings: at 19th week of pregnancy

The cervix normally stays closed until labor begins. however, if the cervix has been weakened, a condition known as cervical incompetence, the weight of the growing fetus and its surrounding amniotic fluid may cause the cervix to open early, resulting in a miscarriage. cervical incompetence is the cause of about 1 in 4 miscarriages after the 14th week of pregnancy.

Causes:

The cervix may be weakened by previous surgery, such as a cone biopsy, or by any procedure that involves artificial opening of the cervix. for example, a woman who ahs had more than three terminations of pregnancy at an early stage is more likely to develop cervical incompetence.

Symptoms :

Often there are no symptoms of cervical incompetence before miscarriage occurs. at this stage, the mother may feel pressure in the lower abdomen or a “lump” in the vagina.

Women with incompetent cervix typically present with “silent” cervical dilation (i.e., with minimal uterine contractions) between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. They present with significant cervical dilation (2 cm or more) and minimal symptoms. When the cervix reaches 4 cm or more, active uterine contractions or rupture of membranes may occur.

Diagnosis:
Diagnosis is made by medical history, physical exam, and ultrasound study. A pregnancy test will also be performed.

What might be done?
If you have had a previous miscarriage after the 14th week of pregnancy, your doctor will probably suggest that you have ultrasound scanning to look for evidence of cervical incompetence. The scan is performed through the vagina to measure the thickness of the cervix and may be carried out at an early stage in your next pregnancy or, if possible, when you are planning a pregnancy. If you are at high risk of cervical incompetence, possibly because of previous surgery on the cervix, you may also be investigated for cervical incompetence before or early in pregnancy.

Treatment :

Once the problem of incompetence is diagnosed, the condition may be treatable through a surgical procedure called cerclage (stitching the cervix closed). One or more stitches are placed around or through the cervix to keep it tightly closed.

This is usually performed after the twelfth week of pregnancy, the time after which a woman is least likely to miscarry for other reasons – but it is not done if there is rupture of the membranes or infection.

After surgery, the mother is carefully monitored to check for infection and contractions, which are sometimes brought on by the procedure. After hospital discharge, the patient may remain on bedrest in order to remove any pressure on the cervix and increase the chance of retaining the pregnancy until the baby is viable. The cerclage is usually removed just before childbirth so that the patient can give birth vaginally. In some cases, the cerclage may be left in place, and the baby is then delivered by cesarean section.

Risk Factors:

Risk factors for an incompetent cervix are: a history of incompetent cervix with a previous pregnancy, surgery, cervical injury, DES (diethylstilbestrol) exposure, and anatomic abnormalities of the cervix. A prior D&C can, for example, damage the cervix.

Other causes of cervical weakness include cervical cautery (to remove growths or stop bleeding) and cone biopsy (removal of a cone-shaped section of tissue for study to detect possible precancerous growth). Prior to pregnancy or during the first trimester, there is usually no method to determine whether the cervix will eventually be incompetent.

If the cervix is weak, a stitch can be inserted in it to hold it closed. the procedure is usually done under general or epidural anesthesia between week 12 and week 16 of pregnancy. the stitch will be removed at 37 weeks, before the beginning of the labor. If labor starts while the stitch is still in place, it will be removed immediately to prevent the cervix from
becoming torn. If the stitch fails to prevent a miscarriage, another pregnancy may be successful if a stitch is inserted higher in the cervix.

Cervical incompetence is likely to be a problem in subsequent pregnancies. The cervix may need to be stitches each time to prevent miscarriage.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/361/main.html
http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=285
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_incompetence
http://pennhealth.com/health_info/pregnancy/000194.htm

Categories
Healthy Tips News on Health & Science

Get The Right Curve

Being in shape is no child’s play.

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Lipolysis is a treatment used to remove localised fat and shape the body. Fat is stored in the body in cells called adipocytes. In liposuction these fat cells are sucked out.

Though this helps in fat reduction, it also causes skin laxity, as the skin never contracts in liposuction. According to Dr Vivekanand Bhat, cosmetic surgeon, Noble Clinic, it’s possible to get rid of excess fat with good skin contraction through lipolysis.

Laser lipolysis works by destroying the fat cells using a Nd yag laser. Once the fat cells are destroyed, they do not store fat any more and this results in permanent fat reduction.

What are the advantages of lipolysis over other fat reduction treatments? “It’s US FDA approved and unlike other treatments, lipolysis requires only one sitting and is not expensive.

It’s performed under local anaesthesia and needs no hospitilisation. There’s no need to wear compression bandages, has minimal downtime and patients can get back to normal activities in a day’s time,” says Dr Vivekanand.

Lipolysis has been successful in removing fat from male breast enlargement and other parts like chin, arms, abdomen, love handles, buttocks and thighs.

Is there any alternate to lipolysis? “The other option for fat reduction is medical lipolysis which uses a drug called lipostabil to destroy the fat cells.

This drug is injected into the fat area and destroys fat locally, thus shaping up the body. In our clinic most of our patients are extremely happy with medical lipolysis as results are seen from the first sitting itself,” he adds.

Lipolysis is not a solution for losing weight but it helps lose the fat which is resistant to dieting and exercising. Other treatments offered in the clinic include laser hair removal, hair transplantation , botox, fillers and radio frequency for skin tightening on the face. The clinic also has laser treatment for acne and scars.

Source: The Times Of India

Categories
News on Health & Science

Crushing pills could be fatal

NEW DELHI: Crushing tablets can make them easier to swallow but it can have a serious, even potentially fatal, effect on your health.

According to experts, over 80% of people have a habit of crushing tablets to help patients, especially children and the elderly, take their medicines. However, doctors say the trend is alarming and dangerous. Not only does crushing pills alter the effect of the drug, it can also affect the way the drug is released or absorbed, possibly causing serious side effects.

Several pills have special protective coating that ensures the drug does not touch the inner walls of the stomach but directly passes into the intestine after being swallowed. Crushing these pills heightens chances of gastric injury leading to bleeding from the intestine.

Experts also warn that some medicines, including the anti-diabetic drug Metformin, are meant for sustained release, spread over 24 hours. Crushing them would result in limiting their long-lasting action, putting the patient at risk.

Drug expert Dr C M Gulati said, “A tablet isn’t just made of the drug. It contains both binding agents and other chemicals. The drug is also not uniformly spread across the tablet. Therefore a patient would rarely know whether both halves have equal amount of the drug.”

Dr Gulati said most patients who crush the tablet mix it with juice or milk. This could result in interaction between the drug and liquid. Drugs that aren’t scored (lined from the centre), should not be crushed under any circumstance, he said, and added, “It’s a misconception that breaking a tablet into two lowers its strength.”

It is estimated that 60% of older people have trouble swallowing pills. As a result, some of them, or their care-givers, crush the pills. That’s why an estimated 75 million prescriptions a year are associated with adverse drug reactions.

Source:The Times Of India