Herbs & Plants

Lysimachia vulgaris

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Botanical Name :Lysimachia vulgaris
Family: Myrsinaceae
Genus:     Lysimachia
Species: L. vulgaris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Ericales

Synonyms: Yellow Willow Herb. Herb Willow. Willow-wort. Wood Pimpernel.

Common Names : Garden Loosestrife, Yellow Loosestrife or Garden Yellow Loosestrife

Habitat :Lysimachia vulgaris is  native to wetlands, damp meadows and forests of Eurasia.It prefers  moist soil, and  invades fens, wet woods, lake shores, rocky river shores and riparian zones.

Lysimachia vulgaris is an herbaceous perennial with erect stems up to 3.3 ft. (1 m) in height and long, stolon-like rhizomes that can run 33 ft. (10 m) long.
The leaves of this plant are opposite or whorled. They have small glands that are black or orange in color and soft hairs beneath. They are lanceolate to laceolate-ovate in shape, 2.75-4.75 in. (7-12 cm) in length and 0.6-1.5 in. (1.5-4 cm) in width. The middle and upper leaves have short petioles and are acuminate.The inflorescence is a terminal, leafy panicle that appears June-September. The flowers are have five yellow petals and are 0.5-0.75 in. (1.2-2 cm) across. The lobes of the calyx are red-margined and 0.15-0.2 in. (3.5-5 mm) long. The fruits are dry capsules. The seeds of this plant are most likely water-dispersed. However, the main method of dispersal for this plant is via rhizomes.


Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: The whole herb, collected from wild plants in July and dried. (The taste of the dried herb is astringent and slightly acid, but it has no odour.)

Astringent, expectorant. Loosestrife proves useful inchecking bleeding of the mouth, nose and wounds, restraining profuse haemorrhage of any kind.

It has demulcent and astringent virtues which render it useful in obstinate diarrhoea, and as a gargle it finds use in relaxed throat and quinsy.

For the cure of sore eyes, this herb has been considered equal, if not superior to Eyebright. Culpepper states:
‘This herb has some peculiar virtue of its own, as the distilled water is a remedy for hurts and blows on the eyes, and for blindness, so as the crystalline humours be not perished or hurt. It cleareth the eyes of dust or any other particle and preserveth the sight.’

For wounds, an ointment was used in his days, made of the distilled water of the herb, boiled with butter and sugar. The distilled water was also recommended for cleansing ulcers and reducing their inflammation, and also, applied warm, for removing ‘spots, marks and scabs in the skin.’

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants


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Botanical Name : Euphrasia officinalis
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Euphrasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Euphrasia.
(French) Casse-lunette.
(German) Augentröst.

Common Name :Eyebright

Alternative names, mainly in herbalism, are Augentrostkraut, Euphrasiae herba, Herba Euphrasiae and Herbe d’Euphraise.

Habitat :The Eyebright is the only British species of a genus containing twenty species distributed over Europe, Northern and Western Asia and North America.

It is an elegant little plant, 2 to 8 inches high, an annual, common on heaths and other dry pastures, especially on a chalky soil, and flowering from July to September, with deeply-cut leaves and numerous, small, white or purplish flowers variegated with yellow.

It varies much in size and in the colour of the corolla, which changes to quite white and yellow. On the mountains and near the sea, or in poor soil, it is often a tiny plant, only an inch or so high, with the stem scarcely branched, but in rich soil it assumes the habit of a minute shrub and forms a spreading tuft, 8 or 9 inches high. The leaves, also, are sometimes almost round, and at other times pointed and narrow, their margins, however, always deeply cut into teeth. The variability of the Eyebright has led to much discussion as to how many species of it are known: continental botanists define numerous species, but our botanists follow Bentham and Hooker, who considered that there is only one very variable species, with three principal varieties: officinalis proper, in which the corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base; gracilis, more slender, the corolla lip shorter than the tube, and the flower-spike bracts narrowed at the base, and maritima, found on the shores of the Shetland Islands in which the capsule is much longer than the calyx.
click to see cthe pictures:

The stem is erect and wiry, either unbranched in small specimens, or with many opposite branches. The leaves are 1/6 to 1/2 inch long and about 1/4 inch broad, opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem, alternate above, more often lance-shaped, though sometimes, as already stated, much broader, and with four to five teeth on each side.

The flowers, white, or lilac and purpleveined, are in terminal spikes, with leafy bracts interspersed. The structure of the flower places the plant in the family of the Foxglove and the Speedwell – Scrophulariaceae. The corolla is two-lipped, its lower, tube-like portion being enclosed in a green calyx, tipped with four teeth. The upper lip is two-lobed and arches over the stamens, forming a shelter from the rain. The lower lip is spreading and three-lobed, each lobe being notched. A yellow patch emphasizes the central lobe and purple ‘honey guides’ on both upper and lower lips – marked streaks of colour – point the way down the throat. Four stamens, with brown, downy anthers lie under the upper lip, in pairs, one behind the other; on the underside of each anther is a stiff spur, the two lowest spurs longer than the others and projecting over the throat of the flower. The upper spurs end in miniature brushes which are intended to prevent the pollen being scattered at the side and wasted. When a bee visitor comes in search of the honey lying round the ovary at the bottom of the petal tube, it knocks against the projecting anther spurs, which sets free the pollen, so that it falls on the insect’s head. On visiting the next flower, the bee will then rub its dusty head against the outstanding stigma which terminates the style, or long thread placed on the ovary and projects beyond the stamens, and thus cross-fertilization is effected. But though this is the normal arrangement, other and smaller flowers are sometimes found, which suggests that self- fertilization is aimed at. In these, the corolla elongates after opening, and as the stamens are attached to it, their heads are gradually brought almost up to the stigma and eventually their pollen will fertilize it.

The seeds in all kinds of the flowers are produced in tiny, flattened capsules, and are numerous and ribbed.

The Eyebright will not grow readily in a garden if transplanted, unless ‘protected’ apparently, by grass. The reason for this is that it is a semi-parasite, relying for part of its nourishment on the roots of other plants. Above ground, it appears to be a perfectly normal plant, with normal flowers and bright green leaves – the leaves of fully parasitic plants are almost devoid of green colouring matter – but below the surface, suckers from its roots spread round and lie on the rootlets of the grassplants among which it grows. Where they are in contact, tiny nodules form and send absorption cells into the grass rootlets. The grass preyed upon does not, however, suffer very much, as the cells penetrate but a slight distance, moreover the Eyebright being an annual, renewing itself from year to year, the suckers on the grass roots to which it is attached also wither in the autumn, so there is no permanent drain of strength from the grass.

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Herb.(Parts used include the leaf, the stem, and small pieces of the flowers. Typical preparations include a warm compress or tea. Eyebright preparations are also available as an extract or capsule.)
Constituents: The precise chemical constituents of the herb have not yet been recorded; it is known to contain a peculiar tannin, termed Euphrasia-Tannin acid (which gives a dark-green precipitate with ferric salts and is only obtainable by combination with lead) and also Mannite and Glucose, but the volatile oil and acrid and bitter principle have not yet been chemically analyzed.

Uses: Although neglected nowadays by the faculty, modern herbalists still retain faith in this herb and recommend its use in diseases of the sight, weakness of the eyes, ophthalmia, etc., combining it often with Golden Seal in a lotion stated to be excellent for general disorders of the eyes. The juice obtained by expression from the plant in the fresh state is sometimes employed, or an infusion in milk, but the simple infusion in water is the more usual form in which it is applied. An infusion of 1 OZ. of the herb to a pint of boiling water should be used and the eyes bathed three or four times a day. When there is much pain, it is considered desirable to use a warm infusion rather more frequently for inflamed eyes till the pain is removed. In ordinary cases, the cold application is found sufficient.It was also used to treat bad memory and vertigo.


In Iceland, the expressed juice is used for most ailments of the eye, and in Scotland the Highlanders make an infusion of the herb in milk and anoint weak or inflamed eyes with a feather dipped in it.

The dried herb is an ingredient in British Herbal Tobacco, which is smoked most usefully for chronic bronchial colds.

Homoeopathists hold that Eyebright belongs to the order of scrofula-curing plants, and Dr. Fernie tells us that it has recently been found by experiment:
‘to possess a distinct sphere of curative operation, within which it manifests virtues which are as unvarying as they are potential. It acts specifically on the mucous lining of the eyes and nose and the upper part of the throat to the top of the windpipe, causing when given so largely as to be injurious, a profuse secretion from these parts; if given of reduced strength, it cures the troublesome symptoms due to catarrh. Hay Fever, and acute attacks of cold in the head may be checked by an immediate dose of the infusion repeated every two hours. A medicinal tincture is prepared from the whole plant with spirits of wine, of which a lotion is made with rose-water, for simple inflammation of the eyes. Thirty drops of the tincture should be mixed with a wineglassful of rose-water for making this lotion, which may be used several times a day.’ click to see

Herbalists use eyebright as a poultice with or without concurrent administration of a tea for the redness, swelling, and visual disturbances caused by blepharitis and conjunctivitis. The herb is also used for eyestrain and to relieve inflammation caused by colds, coughs, sinus infections, sore throats and hay fever.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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Herbs & Plants

Sage, Clary

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Botanical Name : Salvia sclarea
Family: N.O. Labiatae
Synonyms: Clary. Horminum. Gallitricum. Clear Eye. See Bright.
(German) Muskateller Salbei.
Parts Used: Herb, leaves, seeds.Parts Used—The herb and leaves, used both fresh and dry, dried in the same manner as the Garden Sage. Formerly the root was used, dry, in domestic medicine, and also the seeds.
Habitat: The Common Clary, like the Garden Sage, is not a native of Great Britain, having first been introduced into English cultivation in the year 1562. It is a native of Syria, Italy, southern France and Switzerland, but will thrive well upon almost any soil that is not too wet, though it will frequently rot upon moist ground in the winter.
Gerard describes and figures several varieties of Clary, under the names of Horminum and Gallitricum. He describes it as growing ‘in divers barren places almost in every country, especially in the fields of Holborne neare unto Grayes Inne . . . and at the end of Chelsea.’

Salmon, in 1710, in The English Herbal, gives a number of varieties of the Garden Clary, which he calls Horminum hortense, in distinction to H. Sylvestre, the Wild Clary, subdividing it into the Common Clary (H. commune), the True Garden Clary of Dioscorides (H. sativum verum Dioscorides), the Yellow Clary (Calus Jovis), and the Small or German Clary (H. humile Germanicum or Gallitricum alterum Gerardi). This last variety being termed Gerardi, indicates that Gerard classified this species when it was first brought over from the Continent, evidently taking great pains to trace its history, giving in his Herbal its Greek name and its various Latin ones. That the Clary was known in ancient times is shown by the second variety, the True Garden Clary, being termed Dioscoridis.

Another variety of Horminum is given in The Treasury of Botany, called H. pyrenaicum, and described as ‘a tufted perennial herb, with numerous root-leaves, simple almost leafless stems and purplish-blue flowers which grow in whorls of six, all turned the same way. It is a native of the temperate parts of Europe, on the mountains.’

Description: The Common Garden Clary, is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb in the genus Salvia, native to Europe east to central Asia. It grows to 1 m tall, with opposite leaves 10-20 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, with a thick woolly texture. The flowers are white to pink or pale purple. Its strong and unusual odour is considered unpleasant by some, while others find it very attractive.its square, brownish stems growing 2 to 3 feet high, hairy and with few branches. The leaves are arranged in pairs, almost stalkless and are almost as large as the hand, oblong and heart-shaped, wrinkled, irregularly toothed at the margins and covered with velvety hairs. The flowers are in a long, loose, terminal spike, on which they are set in whorls. The lipped corollas, similar to the Garden Sage, but smaller, are of a pale blue or white. The flowers are interspersed with large coloured, membraneous bracts, longer than the spiny calyx. Both corollas and bracts are generally variegated with pale purple and yellowish-white. The seeds are blackish brown, ‘contained in long, toothed husks,’ as an old writer describes the calyx. The whole plant possesses a very strong, aromatic scent, somewhat resembling that of Tolu while thck to see the picturee taste is also aromatic, warm and sightly bitter.

click to see the picture

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According to Ettmueller, this herb was first brought into use by the wine merchants of Germany, who employed it as an adulterant, infusing it with Elder flowers, and then adding the liquid to the Rhenish wine, which converted it into the likeness of Muscatel. It is still called in Germany Muskateller Salbei (Muscatel Sage).

Waller (1822) states it was also employed in this country as a substitute for Hops, for sophisticating beer, communicating considerable bitterness and intoxicating property, which produced an effect of insane exhilaration of spirits, succeeded by severe headache. Lobel says:
‘Some brewers of Ale and Beere doe put it into their drinke to make it more heady, fit to please drunkards, who thereby, according to their several dispositions, become either dead drunke, or foolish drunke, or madde drunke.’
In some parts of the country a wine has been made from the herb in flower, boiled with sugar, which has a flavour not unlike Frontiniac.
The English name Clary originates in the Latin name sclarea, a word derived from clarus (clear). Clary was gradually modified into ‘Clear Eye,’ one of its popular names, and from the fact that the seeds have been used for clearing the sight.

Sometimes we find the plant not only called ‘Clear Eye,’ but also ‘See Bright’ and even ‘Eyebright,’ though this name belongs to another plant – Euphrasia officinalis.

Cultivation: Clary is propagated by seed, which should be sown in spring. When fit to move, the seedlings should be transplanted to an open spot of ground, a foot apart each way, if required in large quantities. After the plants have taken root, they will require no further care but to keep them free of weeds. The winter and spring following, the leaves will be in perfection. As the plant is a biennial only, dying off the second summer, after it has ripened seeds, there should be young plants annually raised for use.

Constituents—Salvia sclarea yields an oil with a highly aromatic odour, resembling that of ambergris. It is known commercially as Clary oil, or Muscatel Sage, and is largely used as a fixer of perfumes. Pinene, cineol and linalol have been isolated from this oil.

French oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.895 to 0.930, and is soluble in two volumes of 80 per cent alcohol. German oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.910 to 0.960, and is soluble in two volumes of 90 per cent alcohol.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, balsamic, carminative, tonic, aromatic, aperitive, astringent, and pectoral.
The plant has been used, both fresh and dry, either alone or with other herbs, as an infusion or a tincture. It has mostly been employed in disordered states of the digestion, as a stomachic, and has also proved useful in kidney diseases.

For violent cases of hysteria or wind colic, a spirituous tincture has been found of use, made by macerating in warm water for 14 days, 2 OZ. of dried Clary leaves and flowers, 1 OZ. of Chamomile flowers, 1/2 ox. bruised Avens root, 2 drachms of bruised Caraway and Coriander seeds, and 3 drachms of bruised Burdock seeds, adding 2 pints of proof spirit, then filtering and diluting with double quantity of water – a wineglassful being the dose.

Culpepper says:

‘For tumours, swellings, etc., make a mucilage of the seeds and apply to the spot. This will also draw splinters and thorns out of the flesh…. For hot inflammation and boils before they rupture, use a salve made of the leaves boiled with hot vinegar, honey being added later till the required consistency is obtained.’ He recommends a powder of the dry roots taken as snuff to relieve headache, and ‘the fresh leaves, fried in butter, first dipped in a batter of flour, egges, and a little milke, serve as a dish to the table that is not unpleasant to any and exceedingly profitable.’
The juice of the herb drunk in ale and beer, as well as the ordinary infusion, has been recommended as very helpful in all women’s diseases and ailments.
In Jamaica, where the plant is found, it was much in use among the negroes, who considered it cooling and cleansing for ulcers, and also used it for inflammations of the eyes. A decoction of the leaves boiled in coco-nut oil was used by them to cure the stings of scorpions. Clary and a Jamaican species of Vervain form two of the ingredients of an aromatic warm bath sometimes prescribed there with benefit.

The distilled essential oil is occasionally found in specialty stores such as natural food stores and “scent shops”. The odour is sometimes described as “sweaty”, spicy or “hay-like”. Clary seeds have a mucilaginous coat, and so old herbals recommended putting a seed into the eye of someone with a foreign object in it, to adhere to the object and make it easy to remove.

The leaves have been used as a vegetable in cookery. Clary was used as a flavouring in ales before the use of hops became common, and also in wine, notably muscatel. It is also used as a flavouring in some tobacco products. Clary can be used as a tea or in aromatherapy, and is supposed to have a calming effect.

It is also the primary ingredient in Norambrolide, an ingredient claimed by the herbal-supplement industry to promote fat catabolism and therefore weight loss.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Infections

Reflexively reaching for over-the-counter eyedrops when your eyes become watery, itchy, red, or inflamed may actually make matters worse. Instead, give one of nature’s gentle remedies a try — it may be just what the doctor ordered.



Pinkness or redness in the whites of the eyes.
Thick, oozing greenish yellow or white discharge from the eye.
Excessive tearing.
Dried crusts on the eyelid and eyelashes that form during sleep.
Sensation of sand or grit in the eye when blinking.
Swollen or flaking eyelids.
A small, painful red bump at the base of an eyelash (sty).

When to Call Your Doctor
If the eye is red or swollen, with a thick discharge-you may need antibiotics for a bacterial infection. If you wear contact lenses, remove them.
If the eye is painful or sensitive to sunlight, or you have blurring or loss of vision.
If the pupils are different sizes or an object is lodged in an eye.
If mild symptoms don’t begin to wane in four days of self-care.
Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

What It Is
Eye infections are usually related to pinkeye (conjunctivitis), an inflammation of the sensitive mucous membranes that line the eyelids. Other causes of redness and irritation are a persistent scaliness on the eyelid edges (called blepharitis) and inflamed, painful bumps at the base of the eyelashes (known as styes). A doctor should evaluate eyes that are red and painful to determine the proper course of treatment and rule out more serious ailments, such as glaucoma.

What Causes It
Viruses and bacteria cause eye infections. Inflammation and redness may also occur as a result of injuries to the eye, allergies, or irritants (such as smoke, makeup, or chlorine in a swimming pool).

How Supplements Can Help
Any serious eye infection or injury requires immediate medical care. Mild eye infections can be treated at home with natural remedies, but see your doctor if the symptoms don’t begin to clear up within three or four days.

What Else You Can Do
Wash your hands often with an antiseptic soap, and don’t touch or rub your eyes. Change pillowcases and towels frequently; don’t share them with others. Most eye infections are highly contagious.
Avoid wearing eye makeup or contact lenses during an eye infection.
Wipe the discharge from the infected eye with a tissue and dispose of it immediately to prevent the infection from spreading.
For styes, apply a warm, moist compress for 10 minutes three or four times a day until the sty comes to a head and drains.
For blepharitis, try a warm, moist compress; apply for 15 minutes to loosen the infected scaliness on the eyelids. Then scrub the eyelid gently with water and baking soda, or with diluted baby shampoo.
Use a separate compress or eyecup for each eye to prevent inadvertently spreading any infection.
Make sure herbal teas are sterile when you use them as eyewashes. Otherwise, you could cause further infection. To avoid contamination, strain the cooled teas through a sterile gauze pad or cheesecloth and store them in sealed containers. Prepare a fresh batch of tea daily.
In addition to their use as eyewashes, herbal teas made from eyebright, chamomile, or fennel are good to drink and will help relieve your symptoms. Have two or three cups a day.
Try to avoid using nonprescription eyedrops meant to relieve red, tired eyes. They have been shown to cause some forms of conjunctivitis, according to a recent report in the Archives of Ophthalmology. And overuse of eyedrops that reduce redness by narrowing blood vessels may be problematic for some people.

Supplement Recommendations

Vitamin A
Vitamin C


Dosage: 1 tsp. dried herb per pint of hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.

Vitamin A
Dosage: 50,000 IU twice a day for 7 days, then 25,000 IU daily for 3 weeks.
Comments: Women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy should not exceed 5,000 IU a day.

Vitamin C

Dosage: 1,000 mg 3 times a day for 1 month.
Comments: Reduce dose if diarrhea develops.

Dosage: 30 mg a day for 1 month.
Comments: Do not exceed 150 mg zinc a day from all sources.


Dosage: 2 or 3 tsp. dried herb per cup hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.


Dosage: 1 tsp. dried herb per pint of hot water; cool and strain.
Comments: Store in sealed container. Prepare fresh daily. Use an eyecup to wash affected eye 3 times a day.

You may click to see :
*Conjunctivitis/Eye Infection  ….
*Eye Problems – Eye Infections…
*How to Prevent This Eye Infection….
*A Quick Peek on Eye Infections Associated With Contact Lenses…


Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs

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