Tag Archives: Fabaceae

Astragalus complanatus

Botanical Name: Astragalus complanatus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabaless


Synonyms: Sha Yuan Zi, Flatstem Milkvetch Seed, Flatstem Tribulus

Common Names: Bei Bian Huang Qi

Habitat: Astragalus complanatus is native to East AsiaChina. It grows on dry slopes, meadows and gravelly soils at elevations of 1000-2400 metres in Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, Yunnan.

Description:
Astragali Complanati Perennial herb of Leguminosae family,Height 30~100cm. Root thick and long,stem weak and slim,little flat,small white pubes growing at stem root.Feather like leaves grows intercross,small leaves 9~21,egg shape,long 0.7~2 cm,width 3~8 cm,margin slight concave.flower 3~9,flower bud white soft hair surfaced,flower yellow color,bloosom during july to september,fruiting september to october.

It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. Seed is flat shaped kidney,2~2.5mm length,thick 1 mm,colored brown green or pale brown.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Medicinal Uses:
This species has been used for almost 2,000 years in China as a liver and kidney tonic. The seed is hepatic and ophthalmic. It is used in the treatment of kidney diseases, lumbago, spontaneous seminal emissions, frequent micturation, vertigo and decreased sight.
Known Hazards: Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+complanatus
https://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper04502.html
http://www.herballove.com/herbs-minerals/astragalus-complanatus

Indigo

Botanical Name : Indigofera tinctoria
Family: Fabaceae
Genus:     Indigofera
Species: tinctoria
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Angiosperms
Class:     Eudicots
Order:     Fabales

Synonyms: Pigmentum Indicum

Common name : Indigo or True indigo

Habitat:Native habitat of Indigofera tinctoria is unknown .But  it has been in cultivation worldwide for many centuries. Today most dye is synthetic, but natural dye from indigofera tinctoria is still available, marketed as natural coloring. The plant is also widely grown as a soil-improving groundcover.

Description:
Indigofera is a large genus of over 750 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Fabaceae.
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True indigo is a shrub one to two meters high. It may be an annual, biennial, or perennial, depending on the climate in which it is grown. It has light green pinnate leaves and sheafs of pink or violet flowers. The plant is a legume, so it is rotated into fields to improve the soil in the same way that other legume crops such as alfalfa and beans are.

A blue dyestuff is obtained from the processing of the plant’s leaves. They are soaked in water and fermented in order to convert the glycoside indican naturally present in the plant to the blue dye indigotin. The precipitate from the fermented leaf solution is mixed with a strong base such as lye,

It does not exist ready formed, but is produced during fermentation from another agent existing in the plant. This is called Indocan, and is yellow, amorphous, of a nauseous bitter taste with an acid reaction; readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.

Medicinal Uses:
-Indigo was at one time much used in medicine, but now is rarely employed.

Several species of this group are used to alleviate pain. The herbs are generally regarded as an analgesic with anti-inflammatory activity, rather than an anodyne. Indigofera articulata (Khedaish in Arabic) was used for toothache, and Indigofera oblongifolia (hasr in Arabic) was used as an anti-inflammatory for insect stings, snakebites, and swellings.

Indigofera suffruticosa and Indigofera aspalthoides have also been used as anti-inflammatories.[4] A patent was granted for use of Indigofera arrecta extract to relieve ulcer pain.

The Maasai people of Kenya use parts of Indigofera brevicalyx and I. swaziensis as toothbrushes

Main Uses:
Several species, especially Indigofera tinctoria and Indigofera suffruticosa, are used to produce the dye indigo. Colonial planters in the Caribbean grew indigo and transported its cultivation when they settled in the colony of South Carolina and North Carolina Where people of the Tuscarora confederacy adopted the dying process for head wraps and clothing. Exports of the crop did not expand until the mid-to late 18th century. When Eliza Lucas Pinckney and enslaved Africans successfully cultivated new strains near Charleston it became the second most important cash crop in the colony (after rice) before the American Revolution. It comprised more than one-third of all exports in value.

The chemical aniline, from which many important dyes are derived, was first synthesized from I. suffruticosa (syn. I. anil, whence the name aniline).

In Indonesia, the Sundanese use Indigofera tinctoria (known locally as tarum) as dye for batik.

It is a very well-known and highly important dye, millions of pounds being exported from India annually.

Known Hazards: It is said to produce nausea and vomiting.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/indigo05.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigofera_tinctoria
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigofera

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Tadehagi triquetrum

Botanical Name :Tadehagi triquetrum
Family: Fabaceae (Pea family)
Subfamily: Faboideae
Order: Fabales
Tribes: Desmodieae
Subtribes: Desmodiinae
Genus: Tadehagi
Species: Tadehagi triquetrum
Subspecies: T. t. subsp. auriculatum – T. t. subsp. pseudotriquetrum – T. t. subsp. triquetrum

Synonyms: Desmodium triquetrum, Hedysarum triquetrum, Pteroloma triquetrum

Common name: Trefle Gros • Malayalam: Adkhapanal, Chattagai, Kattarali • Telugu: Dammidi • Kannada: Dodotte, Molada gida • Assamese: Ulucha • Mizo: Arhrikreh,Hu Lu Ch’a

Habitat :Grows in India, Bangladesh,Srilanka and also in Several places in Asia &   Southeast Asia

Description:
Trefle Gros is a subshrub, growing up to 3 m tall,t with erect stems which are almost woody. Branches are triangular in cross section, velvety. Leaves are alternately arranged, and the leaf stalk has prominently wings. Leaves are linear-oblong, ovate or heart-shaped, with a tapering tip. Flowers arise in many-flowered racemes in leaf axils. Flowers are small, shaped like pea flowers, pale violet. Legumes are hairy, 5-8 jointed. Flowering: nearly all year…

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Medicinal uses:
Trefle Gros is used to expel worms, treats spasms in infants, indigestion, piles and abscesses (whole plant); for invigorating the spleen and promoting digestion (decoction of whole plant); for hemorrhoids (leaves); for stomach discomfort (infusion of leaves); as a poultice on bruises and drunk daily for chronic coughs and tuberculosis (decoction of roots); to treat kidney complaints (infusion of roots); eaten or used in baths for gastro-intestinal and urinary problems ranging from an upset stomach to hepatitis (infusion or decoction of roots).

Whole plant: expels intestinal worms; treats spasms in infants, indigestion, piles, abscesses. Whole plant decoction is drunk as hematinic and used medicinally as an antipyretic, diuretic, for invigorating the spleen, and promoting digestion.  Leaves employed as a tonic and hemorrhoid remedy.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.flowersofindia.in/catalog/slides/Trefle%20Gros.html
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tadehagi_triquetrum
http://www.hkwildlife.net/viewthread.php?tid=7001
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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Crotalaria retusa

Botanical Name : Crotalaria retusa
Family : Fabaceae – Pea family
Genus : Crotalaria L. – rattlebox
Species: Crotalaria retusa L. – rattleweed
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales

Common Names: Rattleweed, shak-shak, rattlebox,rattlepods, wedge-leaf.(The common name rattlepod or rattlebox is derived from the fact that the seeds become loose in the pod as they mature, and rattle when the pod is shaken. The name derives from the Greek, meaning “castanet”,which refers to the musical percussion instrument  and is the same root as the name for the rattlesnakes (Crotalus).) Bengali Name is Otoshi

Habitat :Crotalaria retusa is native to Africa, now it grow various places arround the world.(Some 600 or more species of Crotalaria are described worldwide, mostly from the tropics; at least 500 species are known from Africa.)Crotalaria spectabilis Roth was introduced to the US from India for green manure. As a legume that supports nitrogen fixing bacteria, it is considered a “soil builder.” However, it is also poisonous to cattle (as are many legumes), and has spread rapidly throughout the Southeastern United States where it is now considered an invasive species.

Description:
Crotalaria retusa is   an annual herbaceous plant growing up to 2 feet tall it is common in Surinam.  It produces bright yellow flowers that are borne on an upright spike which is presented promindantly above a mass of jade green leaves. For ornamental purposes, this plant is best grown in mass in either a flowerbed or as a border plant.The seeds become loose in the pod as they mature, and rattle when the pod is shaken.

 

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Edible Uses:
Flowers and leaves are both edible as vegetables due to their low alkaloid content and are purportedly sweet. Seeds are roasted and eaten in Vietnam.

Medicinal Uses:
Occasionally used in folk medicine in tropical regions to treat stomach disorders and colic. The leaves and flowers are used in Grenada to make a cold-cure tea, where healers are said to favor parts of the plant that caterpillars are attracted.  It is used in homeopathic medicine.

Other Uses:
Some species of Crotalaria are grown as ornamentals.Besides being useful as an ornamental plant, Crotalaria retusa has an interesting characteristic that will probably interest kids. The pod-like fruit this plant produces, when mature and dry, becomes a rattlebox that can be shaken and heard.

Like other legumes, Crotalaria retusa can be grown as a green manure, where mature plants can be worked back into the soil to add nitrogen. It is also grown as a source of plant-derived fibre and dye.

This plant is also nematode-resistant and studies have found dried plant parts can be worked into the soil as a soil amendments to deter and reduce root galling by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

Crotalaria retusa is a butterfly host plant. According to the Butterfly Circle website, Crotalaria retusa is the food plant for the pea blue butterfly (Lampides boeticus). Unlike other butterfly caterpillars that chew up leaves, the first two instars of the pea blue bore into flower buds of this plant and consume the flower parts contained within. The larger 3rd and final instar caterpillars will move on to eat the developing seeds within seed pods. For more information on the pea blue butterfly you may click & see:
http://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/2009_09_12_archive.html

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.tropilab.com/crotalaria-ret.html
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRRE4
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalaria
http://gardeningwithwilson.com/2010/01/15/crotalaria_retusa/
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Prairie Clover

Botanical Name : Dalea purpurea
Family :Fabaceae – Pea family
Genus: Dalea L. – prairie clover
Species: Dalea purpurea Vent. – purple prairie clover
Kingdom :Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division :Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class :Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass; Rosidae
Order :Fabales

Synonyms: Petalostemon violaceum. Michx.

Common Name : Clover, Velvet Prairie,Prairie Clover

Habitat :Native in Eastern and central United States. It grows in dry desert and alluvial soils to 2000 metres. Sandy prairies in Texas.

Description:
Purple prairie clover is a perennial forb, 8 to 35 inches (20-90 cm) tall, with a woody stem. The numerous leaves are 0.4-1.6 inches (1-4 cm) long, with 3 to 7 leaflets. The inflorescence is a 0.4- to 2.6-inch (1-7 cm) spike located at the ends of the branches. Branches are numerous, usually 3 per stem, but sometimes as many as 10 to 12. The mature purple prairie clover has a coarse, nonfibrous root system with a strong woody taproot that is 5.5 to 6.5 feet (1.7-2.0 m) deep. The taproot gives rise to several minutely branched lateral roots. The fruit is a 1- to-2-seeded pod enclosed in bracts

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Bloom Time: June – August
Bloom Color: Rose/Purple

Cultivation :
Requires a well-drained soil in full sun. A deep-rooted plant, it prefers a sandy loam with added leaf mould. This species is well-suited to informal and naturalistic plantings, especially as part of a collection of native species. Plants are monocarpic, living for a number of years without flowering and then dying after flowering. The stems, leaves and flowers are dotted with glands, making the plant look blistered. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation :
Seed – pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and sow in early spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summe

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.
 Tea.…….The root was used for chewing. A pleasant sweet flavour. The dried leaves are a tea substitute

Medicinal Uses:
This was one of the favored plants of the Native Americans of the prairies. A tea made from the leaves was applied to open wounds and a tea made from the bruised leaves steeped in hot water was used to aid in the healing of wounds as well. Some tribes pulverized the root and made a tea from that powder that was a very healthy drink and a preventative medicine. Some tribes used the entire plant as a prophylactic. Early settlers mixed the bark of the white oak tree and the flowers of this species to make a medicine for diarrhea.  The Chippewa Indians made a decoction of the leaves and blossoms to be used in the treatment of heart problems. The Meskwaki Indians used it to treat diarrhea, and they also made an infusion of the roots in the treatment of measles. The Navajo used the plant to treat pneumonia.

A poultice of the steeped bruised leaves has been applied to fresh wounds. A decoction of the leaves and blossoms has been used in the treatment of heart problems, diarrhoea. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of measles.
Other Uses: Broom……The tough, elastic stems have been made into brooms.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=J970
http://www.prairienursery.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_plant_info&products_id=197
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/dalpur/all.html#DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DAPU5&photoID=dapu5_4v.jpg

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dalea+purpurea

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