Tag Archives: Facial expression

Wrinkle

Definition:
Wrinkles are a natural part of aging. As you grow older, your skin gets thinner, drier and less elastic. And it becomes less able to protect itself from damage. As a result, wrinkles, lines and creases form in your skin. Although genetics are the most important determiner of skin texture, a major contributor to wrinkles is spending too much time in the sun. Smoking also can negatively affect how your skin looks.

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If your wrinkles are bothering you, you have more options than ever to help eliminate or at least diminish their appearance. Medications, skin resurfacing techniques, fillers, injectables and surgery top the list of effective wrinkle treatments.

Wrinkle treatments can smooth out your skin, but the results aren’t permanent. As you age, your skin continues to acquire new wrinkles. And sun exposure and smoking may hasten the development of new wrinkles. Though you can’t turn back the hands of time, you can take steps to protect your skin from further damage.

Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation or, temporarily, as the result of prolonged (more than a few minutes) immersion in water. Wrinkling in skin is caused by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors. With prolonged water exposure, the outer layer of skin starts to absorb water. The skin doesn’t expand evenly, however, and this causes your skin to wrinkle. Depletion of water in the body, as occurs with dehydration, can also cause this puckering of the skin.

Click to see:BASIC INFORMATION FOR WRINKLES OF THE SKIN

Symptoms:
Wrinkles are the lines and creases that form in your skin as you age. Some wrinkles can become deep crevices or furrows and may be especially noticeable around your eyes, mouth and neck.

Causes:
Wrinkles are caused by a combination of factors — some you can control, others you can’t.

Age. As you get older, your skin naturally thins and becomes less elastic and more fragile. Decreased production of natural oils makes your skin drier and more wrinkled. Fat in the deeper layers of the skin, which gives the skin a plump appearance, starts to lessen. This causes loose, saggy skin and more pronounced lines and crevices.

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Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Ultraviolet radiation speeds up the natural aging process and is the primary cause of early wrinkling. Exposure to UV light breaks down the skin’s connective tissue — collagen and elastin fibers, which lie in the deeper layer of skin (dermis). Without the supportive connective tissue, the skin loses its strength and flexibility. As a result, skin begins to sag and wrinkle prematurely….CLICK & SEE

Click to see:-> Danger: Sunburn

Smoking:
Smoking is a key factor in the development of wrinkles. Smoking robs the complexion of oxygen, decreasing blood circulation to facial skin and resulting in premature lines and wrinkles. Also, anyone puffing on a cigarette is essentially doing a lot of repetitive facial movements that add even more wrinkles.

Smoking can accelerate the normal aging process of your skin, contributing to wrinkles. This may be due to changes in the blood supply to the skin around the lips. In addition, repeated exposure to the heat from burning cigarettes and the facial expressions you make when smoking — such as pursing your lips when inhaling and squinting your eyes to keep out smoke — may contribute to wrinkles.

Repeated facial expressions:

Facial movements and expressions, such as squinting or smiling, lead to fine lines and wrinkles. Each time you use a facial muscle, a groove forms beneath the surface of the skin. And as skin ages, it loses its flexibility and is no longer able to spring back in place. These grooves then become permanent features on your face.
Tretinoin:
Although the exact mode of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells.

 

Pruney fingers
The wrinkles that occur in skin after prolonged exposure to water are sometimes referred to as pruney fingers or water aging. This is a temporary skin condition where the skin on the palms of the hand or feet becomes wrinkly. It is caused when the keratin-laden epithelial skin is immersed in water. The skin expands and the resultant larger surface area forces it to wrinkle. Usually the tips of the fingers and toes are the first to wrinkle because of a thicker layer of keratin and an absence of hairs which secrete the protective oil called sebum. Wrinkled fingers often occur after taking a shower or bath and last up to fifteen minutes afterwards, until the water has evaporated or is absorbed into the body.

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Prune fingers is named for the skins’ resemblance to the wrinkled, rough surface of a prune.

When you need medical advice
:
If you’re concerned about the appearance of your skin, see your dermatologist. He or she can help you create a personalized skin-care plan by assessing your skin type and evaluating your skin’s condition. A dermatologist can also recommend medical wrinkle treatments.

Treatments :
If your wrinkles are bothering you, you have many options to help eliminate or at least reduce their appearance. Wrinkle treatments include:

Medications

Topical retinoids. Derived from vitamin A, retinoids that you apply to your skin may be able to reduce fine wrinkles, splotchy pigmentation and skin roughness. Retinoids must be used with a skin-care program that includes sunscreen and protective clothing because the medication can make your skin burn more easily. It may also cause redness, dryness, itching, and a burning or tingling sensation. Tretinoin (Renova, Retin-A) and tazarotene (Avage, Tazorac) are examples of topical retinoids.

Nonprescription wrinkle creams.
The effectiveness of anti-wrinkle creams depends in part on the active ingredient or ingredients. Retinol, alpha hydroxy acids, kinetin, coenzyme Q10, copper peptides and antioxidants may result in slight to modest improvements in wrinkles. However, nonprescription wrinkle creams contain lower concentrations of active ingredients than do prescription creams. Therefore results, if any, are limited and usually short-lived.
Surgical procedures and other techniques:-
A variety of skin resurfacing techniques, injectables, fillers and surgical procedures are available to smooth out wrinkles. Each works a little differently and has its own set of potential results and side effects.

Dermabrasion. This procedure consists of sanding down (planing) the surface layer of your skin with a rapidly rotating brush. The planing removes the skin surface and a new layer of skin grows in its place. Redness, scabbing and swelling generally last a couple of weeks. It may take several months for the pinkness to fade and to see the desired results.
Microdermabrasion. This technique is similar to dermabrasion, but less surface skin is removed. It’s done using a vacuum suction over your face while aluminum oxide crystals essentially sandblast your skin. Only a fine layer of skin is removed. You may notice a slight redness to the treated areas. Microdermabrasion usually requires repeated treatments to maintain the subtle, temporary results.

Laser, light source and radio frequency treatments. In laser resurfacing, a laser beam destroys the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and heats the underlying skin (dermis), which stimulates the growth of new collagen fibers. As the wound heals, new skin forms that’s smoother and tighter. It can take up to several months to fully heal from laser resurfacing. Less intense lasers (nonablative lasers), pulsed light sources and radio frequency devices don’t injure the epidermis. These treatments heat the dermis and cause new collagen and elastin formation. After several treatments, skin feels firmer and appears refreshed. This means shorter recovery times, but treatment typically needs to be repeated more often and results are subtle.

Chemical peel. Your doctor applies an acid to the affected areas, which burns the outer layer of your skin. With medium-depth peels, the entire epidermis and a small portion of the dermis are removed. New skin forms to take its place. The new skin is usually smoother and less wrinkled than your old skin. Redness lasts up to several months. With superficial peels, only a portion of the epidermis is removed. After a series of peels, you may notice less fine wrinkling in your skin and a fading of brown spots.

Botulinum toxin type A (Botox). When injected in small doses into specific muscles, Botox blocks the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract. When the muscles can’t tighten, the skin flattens and appears smoother and less wrinkled. Botox works well on frown lines between the eyebrows and across the forehead, and crow’s-feet at the corners of the eyes. Results typically last about three to four months. Repeat injections are needed to maintain results.

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is manufactured by Allergan Inc (U.S.) for both therapeutic as well as cosmetic use. Besides its cosmetic application, Botox is used in the treatment of other conditions including migraine headache and cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck)
Soft tissue fillers.

Soft tissue fillers, which include fat, collagen and hyaluronic acid (Restylane, Juvederm), can be injected into deeper wrinkles on your face. They plump and smooth out wrinkles and furrows and give the skin more volume. You may experience temporary swelling, redness and bruising in the treated area. The procedure may need to be repeated every few months.

Restylane: Restylane is a non-animal, stabilized hyaluronic acid produced by Q-med in Sweden. The wrinkle- resolving gel is worldwide the most commonly used dermal filler since it was introduced in 1996. Particularly effective is it when used in a special injection technique; The Fern Pattern Technique. This technique was introduced by the Dutch cosmetic doctor Tom van Eijk in Sweden in 2005. The article on the subject was published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, August 2007.

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Face-lift. The face-lift procedure involves removing excess skin and fat in the lower face and neck and tightening the underlying muscle and connective tissue. The results typically last five to 10 years. Healing times can be lengthy after a face-lift. Bruising and swelling are usually evident for two to three weeks after

surgery. Keep in mind that results vary depending on the location of the wrinkles and how deep the wrinkles are. Plus, nothing stops the aging process of skin, so you’ll likely need the treatments repeated to maintain benefits.

You may click to see:->The Park Ridge Center for Plastic Surgery

These procedures aren’t usually covered by insurance. In addition, any of the procedures can have side effects, so be sure to discuss them with your doctor. Make sure your dermatologist or plastic surgeon is specially trained and experienced in the technique you’re considering.

Herbal Treatment:
THE HERBS listed below fight loss of skin suppleness and elasticity, a phenomenon linked to aging, smoking and sun damage and the underlying cause of wrinkles.

Evening primrose, flaxseed, kelp, glucosamine sulfate, aloe vera, alfalfa, burdock root, horsetail, oat straw, ginger root.

Click to see :-> Home Remedies for wrinkle on skin

Prevention:

Here are ways to improve and maintain your skin’s youthful appearance:

 Pranayam & Yoga Asanas  is the best way to maintain one’s skin and remain youthful

Protect your skin from the sun. Protect your skin — and prevent future wrinkles — by limiting the time you spend in the sun and always wearing protective clothing and hats. Also, use sunscreen when outdoors, even in winter.

Choose products with built-in sunscreen. When selecting skin-care products, choose those with a built-in sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. Also, be sure to select products that block both UVA and UVB rays.

Use moisturizers. Dry skin turns plump skin cells into shriveled ones, creating fine lines and wrinkles long before you’re due. Though moisturizers can’t prevent wrinkles, they can temporarily mask tiny lines and creases.

Don’t smoke. Even if you’ve smoked for years or smoked heavily when you were younger, you can still improve your skin tone and texture and prevent future wrinkles by quitting smoking.

You may click to see:->Skin care: Top 5 habits for healthy skin

Healthy skin: What role does diet play?

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/wrinkles/DS00890
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrinkle

Why Drunk People Take Risks

New brain imaging research shows that social drinkers have decreased sensitivity in brain regions involved in detecting threats, and increased activity in brain regions involved in reward.

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After alcohol exposure, threat-detecting brain circuits can’t tell the difference between a threatening and a non-threatening social situation.

Working with 12 healthy participants who drink socially, researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study activity in emotion-processing brain regions during alcohol exposure. When participants received a placebo instead of alcohol, they showed greater activity in the amygdala, insula, and parahippocampal gyrus — brain regions involved in fear and avoidance — when shown a picture of a fearful facial expression.

Alcohol, meanwhile, activated striatal areas of the brain that are important components of the reward system, but did not increase brain activity in areas involved in fear.

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Sources:

* Science Daily April 30, 2008

* The Journal of Neuroscience April 30, 2008

Facial Expression

Is your smile fake or genuine? Elena Conis unravels the myriad goings-on that bring about that enchanting facial expression .

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Mona Lisa’s smile is mysterious, the Cheshire Cat’s is devious, the Joker’s is mischievous and Buddha’s beatific.
Humans probably have been smiling for as long as they have been around. But despite the long history of smiles, scientists still haven’t figured out exactly how or why the brain tells the lips to curve, the nose to wrinkle, the eyes to twinkle and the cheeks to lift.

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Babies generally start smiling at about six to eight weeks. Throughout childhood, boys smile just about as much as girls. That changes soon after puberty. Grown women smile more than men, and they also smile wider. Smiling, studies suggest, makes people appear more attractive, kinder and, by some accounts,easier to remember.

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Smiles carry myriad meanings: joy, amusement, politeness, mockery, disdain, lechery and deceit, to name a few. But no matter the emotion, all smiles call on many muscles and nerves, starting with one called cranial nerve seven.

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Cranial nerve seven leaves the brain and heads for the face, and at the point where the jawbone meets the skull, it branches off. Some of its tributaries travel to the muscles of the forehead, some to the eyes, some to the nose and others to the cheeks, lips and chin. When cranial seven sends its message to the face, the face will smile.

All smiles share something else in common: an emotional foundation. But there’s subtlety here. Depending on what the emotion is, the brain sends different instructions to the face — such was the conclusion of a young, 19th century French doctor named Guillaume Duchenne.

In the 1840s, Duchenne went from hospital to hospital in Paris carrying a box-like contraption of his own making. Using the coil and electrodes in the box, he applied volts of electricity to the faces of his patients. As their faces contorted, he took notes, ultimately creating a map of the face muscles and nerves.

In the process, Duchenne noticed that the range of human facial expressions includes two kinds of smiles: one that stops at the lips, and one that extends across the face, to the eyes. A smile engaging the eyes, he concluded, was a genuine smile, one that is technically called a  Duchenne smile.

A century after Duchenne, scientists studying facial expressions began applying electrical currents directly to the brain. They found that stimulating certain areas could induce a smile, and that stronger stimulation could make a person laugh.

But not all scientists got the same results. In one experiment, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, were examining the brain of a 16-year-old to find where her chronic seizures were originating. When they electrically stimulated an area on the left side of the girl’s brain, she grinned. When they increased the current, her smile turned to genuine laughter.

In another case, this one in Switzerland, researchers were looking for the source of seizures in a 21-year-old man. Stimulating an area on the right side of his brain caused him to smile, and increasing the current made him laugh. Unlike the 16-year-old girl, he insisted that he felt no joy.

The precise brain regions involved in smiling are still debated, but evidence from patients with brain damage has made one thing clear: The areas involved in instigating a polite, or voluntary, smile (the kind exchanged with a bank teller, for example) are not the same ones involved in genuine smiling (such as the kind that emerges on seeing a loved one or hearing a funny joke).

Some stroke victims, for example, can’t force a smile on demand, but will grin easily when truly happy  is  an indication that the stroke destroyed part of the brain controlling voluntary smiles. But sometimes the converse occurs: A stroke destroys the brain region controlling involuntary movement. In this case, the victim is no longer able to smile or laugh out of joy but can still force the corners of his mouth up into a polite smile.

Researchers are now tapping into another of the smile’s mysteries: They have evidence that a smile that’s a prelude to laughter may actually help the body heal. Preliminary studies suggest that genuine laughter can jolt the immune system into gear.

Source:The Telegraph (Kolkata,India)

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