Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Glandular fever

Definition:
Glandular fever is a viral infection associated with a high fever.It’s also known as infectious mononucleosis or kissing disease (long ago it was realised that the infection was passed on through saliva – for example, by kissing).

It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Glandular Fever is often spread through oral acts such as kissing, which is why it is sometimes called “The Kissing Disease“. However, Glandular Fever can also be spread by airborne saliva droplets.

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Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed. Occasionally, the symptoms can reoccur at a later period. Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable symptoms or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries. As a result, the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. It is most common among adolescents and young adults.

Especially in adolescents and young adults, the disease is characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue, along with several other possible signs and symptoms. It is primarily diagnosed by observation of symptoms, but suspicion can be confirmed by several diagnostic tests.

The syndrome was described as an infectious process by Nil Filatov in 1887 and independently by Emil Pfeiffer in 1889.
Symptoms:-
The following are mainly the symptoms of Glandular Fever:
*Headache
*Fever
*Sore throat/hard to swallow
*Tiredness, fatigue and malaise
*Enlarged lymph nodes
*Loss of appetite
*Muscle aches
*Tender enlargement of the glands (lymph glands or lymph nodes)
*Skin rash
*Sweating
*Stomach pain and enlarged spleen
*Enlarged liver
*Jaundice
*Depression
*Joint pain
*Swelling around eyes
*Orange urine (or discolored
*High blood pressure

Causes:
Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This can attack only two types of cell in the body: those in the salivary glands and white blood cells known as B lymphocytes (B-cells).

The most common way of spreading the virus is through the transmission of saliva from one person to another. Coughing, sneezing, and sharing drink bottles, eating utensils and other personal items can also spread the virus. In addition, the virus can also be spread through blood transfusion and organ transplantation.

Infection begins in the salivary glands, which release large amounts of the virus into the saliva. The infection spreads to the B lymphocytes, causing them to multiply, and causing the lymph glands to swell and become painful.

Once infected, the virus remains dormant in the body’s cells for the rest of a person’s life.

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of glandular fever or infectious mononucleosis is based on your physical symptoms, and will include a blood test and a throat swab. Your doctor will perform a blood test to determine abnormalities in the white blood cells. A throat swab will help determine if you have glandular fever.

The most commonly used diagnostic criterion is the presence of 50% lymphocytes with at least 10% atypical lymphocytes (large, irregular nuclei), while the person also has fever, pharyngitis and adenopathy. Furthermore, it should be confirmed by a serological test.  The atypical lymphocytes resembled monocytes when they were first discovered, thus the moniker “mononucleosis” was coined. Diagnostic tests are used to confirm infectious mononucleosis but the disease should be suspected from symptoms prior to the results from hematology. These criteria are specific; however, they are not particularly sensitive and are more useful for research than for clinical use. Only half the patients presenting with the symptoms held by mononucleosis and a positive heterophile antibody test (monospot test) meet the entire criteria. One key procedure is to differentiate between infectious mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like symptoms.

There have been few studies on infectious mononucleosis in a primary care environment, the best of which studied 700 patients, of which 15 were found to have mononucleosis upon a heterophile antibody test. More useful in a diagnostic sense are the signs and symptoms themselves. The presence of splenomegaly, posterior cervical adenopathy, axillary adenopathy, and inguinal adenopathy are the most useful to suspect a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. On the other hand, the absence of cervical adenopathy and fatigue are the most useful to dismiss the idea of infectious mononucleosis as the correct diagnosis. The insensitivity of the physical examination in detecting splenomegaly means that it should not be used as evidence against infectious mononucleosis.

In the past the most common test for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis was the heterophile antibody test which involves testing heterophile antibodies by agglutination of guinea pig, sheep and horse red blood cells. As with the aforementioned criteria, this test is specific but not particularly sensitive (with a false-negative rate of as high as 25% in the first week, 5–10% in the second and 5% in the third). 90% of patients have heterophile antibodies by week 3, disappearing in under a year. The antibodies involved in the test do not interact with the Epstein-Barr virus or any of its antigens. More recently, tests that are more sensitive have been developed such as the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests. IgG, when positive, reflects a past infection, whereas IgM reflects a current infection. When negative, these tests are more accurate in ruling out infectious mononucleosis. However, when positive, they feature similar sensitivities to the heterophile antibody test. Therefore, these tests are useful for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in people with highly suggestive symptoms and a negative heterophile antibody test. Another test searches for the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen, while it is not normally recognizable until several weeks into the disease, and is useful for distinguishing between a recent-onset of infectious mononucleosis and symptoms caused by a previous infection. Elevated hepatic transaminase levels is highly suggestive of infectious mononucleosis, occurring in up to 50% of patients.

A fibrin ring granuloma may be present.

Diagnosis of acute infectious mononucleosis should also take into consideration acute cytomegalovirus infection and Toxoplasma gondii infections. These diseases are clinically very similar by their signs and symptoms. Because their management is much the same it is not always helpful, or possible, to distinguish between EBV mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus infection. However, in pregnant women, differentiation of mononucleosis from toxoplasmosis is associated with significant consequences for the fetus.

Acute HIV infection can mimic signs similar to those of infectious mononucleosis and tests should be performed for pregnant women for the same reason as toxoplasmosis.

Other conditions from which to distinguish infectious mononucleosis include leukemia, tonsillitis, diphtheria, common cold and influenza

Treatment:
Self care:
Infectious mononucleosis is generally self-limiting and only symptomatic and/or supportive treatments are used.  Rest is recommended during the acute phase of the infection, but activity should be resumed once acute symptoms have resolved. Nevertheless heavy physical activity and contact sports should be avoided to mitigate the risk of splenic rupture, for at least one month following initial infection or splenomegaly has resolved, as determined by a treating physician.

MedicationsIn terms of pharmacotherapies, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen may be used to reduce fever and pain. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory to reduce symptoms of pharyngeal pain, odynophagia, or enlarged tonsils, although its use remains controversial due to the rather limited benefit and the potential of side effects. Intravenous corticosteroids, usually hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, are not recommended for routine use but may be useful if there is a risk of airway obstruction, severe thrombocytopenia, or hemolytic anemia. There is little evidence to support the use of aciclovir, although it may reduce initial viral shedding. However, the antiviral drug valacyclovir has recently been shown to lower or eliminate the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus in subjects afflicted with acute mononucleosis, leading to a significant decrease in the severity of symptoms. Although antivirals are not recommended for patients presenting with simple infectious mononuscleosis, they may be useful (in conjunction with steroids) in the management of patients with severe EBV manifestations, such as EBV meningitis, peripheral neuritis, hepatitis, or hematologic complications. Antibiotics are not used as they are ineffective against viral infections. The antibiotics ampicillin and later the related amoxicillin   are relatively contraindicated in the case of any coinciding bacterial infections during mononucleosis because their use precipitates a non-allergic rash close to 99% of the time.

In a small percentage of cases, mononucleosis infection is complicated by co-infection with streptococcal infection in the throat and tonsils (strep throat). Penicillin or other antibiotics (with the exception of the two mentioned above) should be administered to treat the strep throat. Opioid analgesics are also relatively contraindicated due to risk of respiratory depression.
Prognosis:
Serious complications are uncommon, occurring in less than 5% of cases:

*CNS: Meningitis, encephalitis, hemiplegia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. EBV infection has also been proposed as a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), but this has not been confirmed.

*Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia (direct Coombs test is positive) and various cytopenias; Bleeding (caused by thrombocytopenia).[

*Mild jaundice

*Hepatitis (rare)

*Upper airway obstruction (tonsillar hypertrophy) (rare)

*Fulminant disease course (immunocompromised patients) (rare)

*Splenic rupture (rare)

*Myocarditis and pericarditis (rare)

Once the acute symptoms of an initial infection disappear, they often do not return. But once infected, the patient carries the virus for the rest of his or her life. The virus typically lives dormantly in B lymphocytes. Independent infections of mononucleosis may be contracted multiple times, regardless of whether the patient is already carrying the virus dormantly. Periodically, the virus can reactivate, during which time the patient is again infectious, but usually without any symptoms of illness.  Usually, a patient has few if any further symptoms or problems from the latent B lymphocyte infection. However, in susceptible hosts under the appropriate environmental stressors the virus can reactivate and cause vague physical complaints (or may be subclinical), and during this phase the virus can spread to others. Similar reactivation or chronic subclinical viral activity in susceptible hosts may trigger multiple host autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. Such chronic immunologic stimulation may also trigger multiple type of cancers, particularly lymphoma—strongest cancer associations with EBV are nasopharyngeal carcinomas, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. EBV’s potential to trigger such a wide range of autoimmune diseases and cancers probably relates to its primary infection of B lymphocytes (the primary antibody-producing cell of the immune system) and ability to alter both lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte antibody production.

Prevention:
A vaccine against the Epstein-Barr virus is under development. The infection is most contagious during the feverish stage, when contact with others should be avoided.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.nativeremedies.com/ailment/glandular-fever-symptoms-info.html
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glandular_fever
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glandular_fever
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/glandularfever2.shtml

http://www.treatfast.com/mononucleosis-xidc18255.html

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Categories
Healthy Tips

Blue Light May be Key to Fighting Winter Blues

As winter approaches and the days get shorter, your mood may get darker too. Sunlight deprivation can make people feel lethargic, gloomy, and irritable, and for some it can lead to the condition known as seasonal affective disorder, (SAD). or winter depression.
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This can make you feel lethargic, gloomy, and irritable. However, while daylight as a whole is beneficial to fight off the syndrome, different colors of light seem to affect your body in different ways.

Click to see :7 Signs of Seasonal Affective Disorder

Blue light can affect your mind, including mood. And according to a new study, blue light might play a key role in your brain‘s ability to process emotions. The study results suggest that spending more time in blue-enriched light could help prevent SAD.

CNN reports:
“Studies have shown that blue light improves alertness and mental performance … The researchers discovered that blue light, more so than the green light, seemed to stimulate and strengthen connections between areas of the brain involved in processing emotion and language.”

Resources:
*CNN October 27, 2010
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences November 9, 2010; 107(45):19549-54

Posted By Dr. Mercola | December 14 2010

Categories
Featured

Thyroid-Related Fatigue

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Not all fatigue or tiredness is due to thyroid malfunction, so how do you tell the difference?....CLICK & SEE

Thyroid-related fatigue begins to appear when you cannot sustain energy long enough, especially when compared to a past level of fitness or ability. If your thyroid foundation is weak, sustaining energy output is difficult. You will notice you just don’t seem to have the energy to do the things you used to be able to do.

Some of the key symptoms of thyroid fatigue include:

*Feeling like you don’t have the energy to exercise, and typically not exercising on a consistent basis.

*A heavy or tired head, especially in the afternoon, as your head is a very sensitive indicator of thyroid hormone status.

*Falling asleep as soon as you sit down and don’t have to do anything.

.If you wake up energized, maintain decent energy throughout the day, are able to maintain mental alertness/sharpness, have energy as needed to meet demands, and your muscles feel fit, you do not have thyroid-related fatigue. However, the more you do not feel like this, the greater chance there is a thyroid-related problem.

CLICK & READ FOR MORE KNOWLEDGE
Sources:
The Environmental Illness Resource April 18, 2008

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Safed Musli

Botanical Name: Chlorophytum Borivilianum

Family : Liliaceae,

English Name: Indian Spider Plant
Common Name: Safed Musli
Parts used: Tuberous Root and Seeds

Habitat:Chlorophytum is a genus of about 200-220 species of evergreen perennial flowering plants in the Agavaceae, native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia.
Chlorophytum comosum, the Spider Plant, a native of South Africa, is a very popular houseplant in its variegated form.

Description:
Safed Musli belongs to the family of Liliaceae, is a traditional medicinal plant found is natural forest right from east Assam to Gujarat. It is a pretty herb with erect lanceolate herbed leaves erect dense flowered racemoses of white colour.They grow to 10-60 cm tall, with a rosette of long, slender leaves 15-75 cm long and 0.5-2 cm broad, growing from a thick, fleshy rhizome. The flowers are small, usually white, produced on sparse panicles up to 120 cm long; in some species the panicle also bears plantlets, which take root on touching the ground.

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Different Species of Musli (Moosli):

In India about eight species of safed musli are reported out of them only Chlorophytum borivillianum, Chlorophytum arundinaceam and Chlorophytum tuberosum are commercially collected by our tribes from the forest. Chlorophytum borivillianum is the only species which is under commercial cultivation.

1.Chlorophytum borivillianum
2.Chlorophytum arundinaceum
3.Chlorophytum tuberocum
4.Chlorophytum malabericum
5.Chlorophytum attenuatum
6.Chlorophytum breviscapum
7.Asparagus filicinus
8.A. gonoclados
Medicinal Uses:
.Aphrodasiac, tonic, pain reliever and used to cure general debility and impotency. Its powder increases lactation in feeding mothers and lactating cows. It is being increasingly used in Ayurvedic and Pharmaceutical Industries.
Safed Musli is a rare divine-graced herb to offer all the effects required for achievement of health par excellence or for attaining the ultimate positive health. It treats male sexual inadequacies like oligospermia, lack of libido, impotency, etc, general debility. It is also used as major components in all kinds of sex-tonics and capsules.

Safed Musli is also gaining increasing acceptance as a vitalizer and health-giving tonic, a curative for pre-natal and post-natal problems, a restorative for immunity-improvement and as a remedy for diabetes and arthritis.

Chlorophytum borivilianum is eaten as a leaf vegetable in some parts of India, and its roots are used medicinally as a sex tonic under the name safed moosli. The medicinal value is thought to derive from its saponin content, up to 17 percent by dry weight. It has also recently been suggested that it may produce an aphrodisiac agent. It is a herb with lanceolate leaves, from tropical wet forests. As medicinal demand has increased, the plant has been brought under cultivation. The saponins and alkaloids present in the plant are the source of its alleged aphrodisiac properties.

Its tubers are used in Ayurvedic medicines; it contains about 27 alkaloids, steroid saponin (2-17%), polysaccaroids (40-45%), carbohydrates, proteins (7-10%), minerals, vitamins etc. White musli or Dhauli Musli is used for the preparation of health tonic used in general and sexual weekness. It contains spermametogic properties, decoction of safed musli for curing impotency as they are rich in glycosides.

Composition and Uses:
Safed Musli is a rich source of :
* Alkaloids
* Proteins
* Carbohydrates
* Steroid Saponins
* Vitamins
* Polysaccarods
Safed Musli is used as an –
* Aphrodisiac agent and vitalizer.
* As a general sex tonic.
* Remedy for Diabetes.
* As a cure for Arthritis.
* As a curative for Natal and Post-Natal problems.
* For Rheumetism and Joint Pains.

*For therapeutic application in ayurvedi, unani, Allopathic.

*Curative of many physical illness and weakness.

*It has spermatogenic property and helpful in curing impotency as they are rich in glycosides.

*For increasing general boddy immunity.

*Used in PAN and GUTKHA.

*Root powder fried in the GHEE, CHEWED in case of apthae of mouth and throat.

8*Curative of Natal and post Natal problems.

Above all these SAFED MUSLI (SAFED MOOSLI) is found very effective in increasing male potency.
It is considered as alternative to Viagra.

Demand:
The Demand of SAFED MOOSLI (35000 tons/Annum) is much higher then the supply/collection (5000 tons/annum).

Looking to the increasing demand and alarming dangers, it has become inevitable to undertake the commercial cultivation of the SAFED MUSLI

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/safedmoosli.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorophytum
http://www.apexherbex.com/herbs3.htm#Chlorophytum%20Borivilianum
http://www.jeevanherbs.com/safed-musli.html
http://www.motherherbs.com/safed-musli.html
http://hramit.en.ec21.com/product_detail.

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies Health Problems & Solutions

Fixing Upper Back and Neck Pain

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Being too tight to stand and sit upright instead of slouching forward is common, even among people who stretch regularly. The reason is that they usually practice stretching forward, rarely stretching the front muscles by stretching back. In turn, holding your body bent forward instead of upright perpetuates tightness. To get the stretch in the front chest (pectoral) muscles that you need to stop the slouching-tightness cycle, use the photo for reference and try this:

1.Stand facing a wall. Bend one elbow out to the side and put the inside surface of that arm against the wall, as in the left-hand photo.

2.Turn your whole body and feet away from the wall, letting the wall brace your bent arm behind you,

3.If you are doing this stretch right, you will feel a nice stretch in the front of your chest.

4.Keep your shoulders down and relaxed. Breathe. Smile.

5.Hold a few seconds, breathe in, change arms, and breathe out while stretching the other side for a few seconds.

6.Now drop both arms and turn to stand with your back against the wall again. If you did this pectoral stretch right, standing straight with the back of your head touching the wall should now feel more natural and comfortable and no longer a strain.

7.When you walk away from the wall don’t slouch forward again out of habit. Hold the easy new healthy positioning for everything you do.

CLICK. & SEE
Do the wall test and the pectoral stretch first thing every morning and several times every day to learn healthy positioning. Use this pectoral stretch instead of the stretch where you stand in a doorway or corner to stretch both arms at once, and instead of pulling your straight arm(s) behind you.

This pectoral stretch is one of two techniques to stop upper body tightness that prevents standing and moving in healthy ways. Remember that head and body position is voluntary. Hold your head up and shoulders back softly. By not letting your head hang forward all day, you will no longer need constant pills, adjustments, or treatments for pain. You will stop the cause.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.
Source: www.healthline.com