Tag Archives: Fertilizer

Senecio pseudoarnica

Botanical N ame: Senecio pseudoarnica
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Madiinae
Genus: Arnica
Division:  Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order:Asterales
Kind:Senecio
Kingdom:Plantae

Synonyms :Asteraceae Arnica maritima. Senecio pseudo-arnica

Common Name: Seaside Ragwort

Habitat: Senecio pseudoarnica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on shingle by the sea.

Description:
Senecio pseudoarnica is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure…...CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in most well-drained moderately fertile soils. Prefers a sandy soil. Judging by its native habitat, this plant should tolerate maritime exposure. Hardy to about -15°c.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. Make sure the compost does not dry out. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in early summer if they have grown sufficiently. Otherwise, grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out the following year after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Root cuttings in early spring.

Edible Uses: The fleshy stems and young leaves – cooked. Only the young plant should be used and it should be cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses: A poultice of the leaves has been used to drain cuts and boils.

Known Hazards: Although no mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus that contains a number of plants with a cumulative poisonous effect on the liver. Some caution is advised.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica
http://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+pseudoarnica

Arnica cordifolia

Botanical Name: Arnica cordifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. cordifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Arnica cordifolia Hook. var. cordifolia
*Arnica cordifolia Hook. var. pumila (Rydb.) Maguire

Common Name: Heartleaf arnica

Habitat :Arnica cordifolia is native to western North America from Alaska to California to New Mexico, as far east as Ontario and Michigan. It is a plant of many habitat types, including coniferous forests and mountain meadows.
Description:
This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing one or more erect stems reaching a maximum height near half a meter. It has two to four pairs of leaves on the stem, each on a long petiole. The leaves are heart-shaped to arrowhead-shaped and finely toothed along the edges. The inflorescence bears one or more daisylike flower heads lined with white-haired phyllaries and sometimes studded with resin glands. The center of each head contains golden yellow disc florets and a fringe of bright golden ray florets approaching 3 centimeters in maximum length. Blooms: April – July

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The fruit is a hairy achene up to a centimeter long, not counting its off-white pappus. Seeds are dispersed on the wind. An individual plant can live twelve years, surviving periodic wildfire by resprouting from its long, slender rhizome afterward.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring.
Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory and vulnerary. When applied intravenously or orally it causes a rise in body temperature. All parts of the plant may be used, but the flowers are used in preference to the root. They have a discutient property and a tincture is used as an external application to swellings, sprains, bruises and wounds. A salve applied to cuts helps to keep down infections.

Other Uses: This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are available.

Known Hazards; The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_cordifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+cordifolia
http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Arnica&Species=cordifolia

Nuphar lutea

Botanical Name: Nuphar lutea
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nuphar
Species: N. lutea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Nymphaeales

Synonyms: Nuphar lutea advena. (Ait.)Kartesz.&Gandhi.

Common Names: Yellow Water-lily, Brandy-Bottle, Common Spatterdock, Yellow pond-lily, Varigated yellow pond-lily
Habitat:Nuphar lutea is native to Southeastern N. America – Labrador and Nova Scotia, south to Florida, Texas and Utah.It grows in ponds, lakes, sluggish streams and rivers, springs, marshes, ditches, canals, sloughs, and tidal waters from sea level to 450 metres.
Description:
Nuphar lutea is a perennial aqqatic plant. The plant grows with its roots in the sediment and its leaves floating on the water surface; it can grow in water up to 5 metres deep.It is usually found in shallower water than the white water lily, and often in beaver ponds
It is in flower from Jul to August.Since the flooded soils are deficient in oxygen, aerenchyma in the leaves and rhizome transport oxygen to the rhizome. Often there is mass flow from the young leaves into the rhizome, and out through the older leaves. The rhizomes are often consumed by muskrats. The flower is solitary, terminal, held above the water surface; it is hermaphrodite, 2–4 cm diameter, with five or six large bright yellow sepals and numerous small yellow petals largely concealed by the sepals. Flowering is from June to September, and pollination is entomophilous, by flies attracted to the alcoholic scent. The flower is followed by a green bottle-shaped fruit, containing numerous seeds which are dispersed by water currents. The species is less tolerant of water pollution than water-lilies in the genus Nymphaea.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.

Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It can grow in water.
Cultivation:
A water plant requiring a rich soil and a sunny position. It is best if grown in still water that is up to 60cm deep but it also tolerates slow moving water. Succeeds in light shade. A very ornamental plant. Nuphar advena is extremely variable and intergrades with N . orbiculata , N . ulvacea , and N . sagittifolia in areas where their ranges overlap.

Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse in pots submerged under 25mm of water. Prick out into individual pots as soon as the first true leaf appears and grow them on in water in a greenhouse for at least two years before planting them out in late spring. The seed is collected by wrapping the developing seed head in a muslin bag to avoid the seed being lost. Harvest it 10 days after it sinks below the soil surface or as soon as it reappears. Division in May. Each portion must have at least one eye. Submerge in pots in shallow water until established.
Edible Uses: 
Root – raw or cooked. The root can be soaked in water in order to remove a bitter taste. After long boiling, it has a taste like sheep’s liver. The root can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a thickener in soups, or can be added to cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be roasted, then ground into a powder and eaten raw or used to thicken soups etc. The seed can also be toasted like popcorn.

Medicinal Uses:
The rhizomes are used medicinally. They are currently being investigated for their physiological effects. In small doses these constituents have a cardiotonic action and they are included in certain pharmaceutical preparations prescribed in Europe. They affect the central nervous system and in large amounts they may cause paralysis. Yellow Water lily is not used in herbal medicine but tinctures are used in homeopathy. It should be used only under medical supervision. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of ‘sexual irritability’, blood diseases, chills etc. The root is poulticed and applied to swellings, inflammations, cuts etc. The root contains steroids and is a folk remedy for infertility.

The pulverized dried rhizomes have been used to arrest bleeding. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea etc. A poultice made from the roots is used in the treatment of swellings, boils, tumours, inflamed skin etc.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuphar_lutea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Nuphar+lutea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Viola cucullata

Botanical Name: Viola cucullata
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. cucullata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Synonyms: Viola obliqua Hill

Common Names: Hooded blue violet, Marsh blue violet or Purple violet

Habitat : Viola cucullata is native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Georgia. It grows on wet places, often in open woods. Wet meadows, springs, bogs, swamps etc.

Description:
Viola cucullata is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant up to 20 cm tall. The leaves form a basal cluster; they are simple, up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) broad, with an entire margin and a long petiole. It is in flower from May to July. The flowers are violet, dark blue and occasionally white. with five petals. The fruit is a capsule 10–15 mm long, which splits into three sections at maturity to release the numerous small seeds.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, cleistogamous.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a cool moist well-drained humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade and protection from scorching winds. Very intolerant of drought. Succeeds in dense shade. Tolerates sandstone and limestone soils but becomes chlorotic if the pH is too high. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5. This plant produces cleistogamous flowers as well as the usual insect pollinated flowers. It usually self-sows freely. All members of this genus have more or less edible leaves and flower buds, though those species with yellow flowers can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities. A polymorphic species. there are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves and flower buds – raw or cooked. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra[85, 159, 177]. A tea can be made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and dysentery. A poultice of the leaves has been used to reduce the pain of headaches. A poultice of the crushed root has been applied to boils.

Other Uses: Repellent and a good ground cover plant but it is slow to thicken up and may need weeding for the first year or so. An infusion of the root has been used to soak corn seeds before planting them in order to keep off insects.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_cucullata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viola+cucullata

Avena ludoviciana

Botanical Name: Avena ludoviciana
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Avena
Species:A. sterilis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Poales

Synonyms: Avena ludoviciana Durieu; Avena sterilis

Common Names: Animated oat, Sterile oat, Wild oat, Wild red oat, Winter wild oat
Common name in Hindi : Jangli Jai

Habitat :Avena ludoviciana is native to Europe – Mediterranean, to S.W. Asia. An introduced weed in Britain. It grows on dry wasteland, cultivated ground and meadows, especially on heavier soils. A spreading weed in the Mediterranean where it is becoming a pest.

Description:
Avena ludoviciana is an upright annual weed. It has long broad leaves having bright green colour. During early stage its plants resemble with wheat and cultivated oat, but at mature stage this weed is taller than wheat (120cm).

Roots: Fibrous root system.
Leaves: The leaves are linear and alternate, blade 60cm long and 0.5 to 1.5cm wide; ligule membranous; sheath on lower leaves.
Inflorescence:Panicles are composed of green spikelets and each spikelet has 2 to 5 pedicelled brownish green flowers; disarticulation above the glumes; glumes equal, two-toothed at the apex; awn twisted, about 3 to 8cm long, upper parts bent sharply at right angles to the twisted parts.
Seeds:Seeds are brown and black covered with black hairs.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.
Biology :
Annual plant, it reproduces by seeds. The first seed on the panicle had almost no dormancy and, thereafter, the seeds of the second, third and fourth positions germinated in turn. Seeds from the third and fourth positions did not germinate until the second and third years after sowing.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in full sun. Prefers a poor dry soil. This species is a weed of cultivated land, its seeds are somewhat smaller than the cultivated oats and the yields are rather lower. Oats are in general easily grown plants but, especially when grown on a small scale, the seed is often completely eaten out by birds. Some sort of netting seems to be the best answer on a garden scale.

Propagation:
Seed – sow in situ in early spring or in the autumn. Only just cover the seed. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.

Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked. The seed ripens in the latter half of summer and, when harvested and dried, can store for several years. It has a floury texture and a mild, somewhat creamy flavour. It can be used as a staple food crop in either savoury or sweet dishes. The seed can be cooked whole, though it is more commonly ground into a flour and used as a cereal in all the ways that oats are used, especially as a porridge but also to make biscuits, sourdough bread etc. The seed can also be sprouted and eaten raw or cooked in salads, stews etc. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Medicinal Uses: It is highly fibrous food, which is very good for constipation & some other forms of stomac disesses for regular bowel cleaning.
Other Uses:
Fibre; Mulch; Paper; Thatching.

The straw has a wide range of uses such as for bio-mass, fibre, mulch, paper-making and thatching. Some caution is advised in its use as a mulch since oat straw can infest strawberries with stem and bulb eelworm.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avena_sterilis
http://idao.cirad.fr/content/oscar/especes/a/avest/avest.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Avena+ludoviciana