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Herbs & Plants

Mishamitita (Coptis teeta)

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Botanical Name:Ranunculaceae/Yunnan goldthread/Coptis teeta WAL
Family: Ranunculaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Coptis
Species: C. teeta
Common name: Yun lian

Arabic: mamiran chini
Assamese: misimi tita
Hindi: haladiya bachnaga, mahamirana, mamira, mamiram, mamiran, mimira, mishmitita
Malayalam: pitarohini
Sanskrit: mamira, mamirah, mishamitita, mishamlita, pita, pitamula, supita, tikta, tiktamula
Tamil : pitarohini, pitarokini, peetarogini, pidarokini, mamiran
Urdu : mameeran, mameesa (mamira,mamiran), mamiran-i-chini, mamira
Other Common Names: From various places around the Web, may not be correct. See below.
Altin Ipligi [E], Chih Lien [E], Chonlin [H], Chuen-lien [H], Coptidis Radix [H], Coptidis Rhizoma [H], Honglane [H], Huang Lien [E], Hwang-lien [H], Mahmira [H], Mishmi Bitter [H], Mishmi Tita [H], Mu-lien [H], Tita [H], Wang Lien [E]

Mainly Used: In Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha L.

Parts Used: Dried Root

Habitat :E. Asia – N. China to the temperate regions of the Himalayas. Few species are endemic to India recorded only in the Himalayan region across Darjeeling in the West Bengal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in an altitude range of 2500-3000 m. It has been recorded in Lohit district, Dibang Valley district, Siang and upper Subansiri districts of Arunachal Pradesh.

Description: An evergreen perennial growing to 0.15m. . It is in leaf all year. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. We rate it 1 out of 5 for usefulness.

click to see the pictures...

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Coptis teeta is a rare species of flowering plant in the buttercup family. It is a species of importance in Chinese herbology. Known as Yunnan goldthread, its rhizome is used as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. A number of factors contribute to its endangerment. It is endemic to a very small area in the eastern Himalayas where its habitat is rapidly declining, due in part to deforestation, it is overcollected for medicinal use, and its reproductive success is low. The plant is cultivated on a small scale in Yunnan using techniques that aim to conserve the species within its natural habitat. The Lisu people of the local area earn much of their income from cultivation of the plant, which they grow using traditional agroforestry methods that have little adverse impact on the ecosystem.

Cultivation details
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. It is cultivated as a medicinal plant in China. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus.

Succeeds in a light moist humus-rich slightly acidic soil with a northerly aspect or light shade.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in an ericaceous compost[164]. Seal the pot in a polythene bag until germination takes place, which is usually within 1 – 6 months at 10°c. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible. Four weeks cold stratification may be beneficial. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in mid-autumn or in spring.
The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried.


Medicinal Uses:

Alterative; Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Antibacterial; Antispasmodic; Febrifuge; Ophthalmic; Pectoral.

The root is a pungent, very bitter, cooling herb that controls bacterial and viral infections, relaxes spasms, lowers fevers and stimulates the circulation. It is locally analgesic and anaesthetic and is used in Chinese medicine as a general panacea with alterative, ophthalmic and pectoral activity. The root contains several compounds that are effective in inhibiting various bacteria and they are a safe and effective treatment for many ailments, such as some forms of dysentery, that are caused by bacteria.

Improves appetite, restores digestion, gas, visceral obstructions, jaundice,improves bile flow, chronic gall bladder inflammation, debility, convalescence after fevers, debilitating diseases, atonic indigestion, mild forms of intermittent fevers, catarrhal and rheumatic conjunctivitis, dries excessive body moisture (e.g., water retention), all Pitta disorders, anal fissure, ulcerative colitis, vaginal infections, tumors, boils, carbuncles, inflammatory skin conditions, externally applied to sores (including mouth sores).

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptis_teeta
http://www.bicco.com/herb_photo.html
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Coptis+teeta

http://envis.frlht.org.in/botanical_search.php?gesp=634%7CCoptis+teeta+WALL.

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Herbs & Plants

Visnaga

Botanical Name: Ammi visnaga
Family: Umbelliferae/Apiaceae – Carrot family
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: MagnoliophytaFlowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order : Apiales
Genus : Ammi L. – ammi
Species : Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. – toothpickweed

Habitat: Fields and sandy places, Native in C.Europeto W. Asia and N.Africa

Description:
Annual/Biennial growing to 0.75m by 0.4m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.The seeds are harvested in late summer before they have fully ripened and are dried for later use.

Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position, succeeding in ordinary garden soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.8 to 8.3. This species is not fully winter-hardy in the colder areas of Britain, though it should be possible to grow it as a spring-sown annual. This plant is sold as toothpicks in Egyptian markets.

Propagation
Seed – sow spring in situ

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves – raw. Chewed for their pleasant aromatic flavour.

Medicinal Uses

Antiasthmatic; Diuretic; Lithontripic; Vasodilator.

Visnaga is an effective muscle relaxant and has been used for centuries to alleviate the excruciating pain of kidney stones. Modern research has confirmed the validity of this traditional use. Visnagin contains khellin, from which particularly safe pharmaceutical drugs for the treatment of asthma have been made. The seeds are diuretic and lithontripic.

They contain a fatty oil that includes the substance ‘khellin’. This has been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of asthma. Taken internally, the seeds have a strongly antispasmodic action on the smaller bronchial muscles, they also dilate the bronchial, urinary and blood vessels without affecting blood pressure. The affect last for about 6 hours and the plant has practically no side effects. The seeds are used in the treatment of asthma, angina, coronary arteriosclerosis and kidney stones. By relaxing the muscles of the urethra, visnaga reduces the pain caused by trapped kidney stones and helps ease the stone down into the bladder.

Visnaga is a relative of Queen Anne’s Lace and is commonly known to Arabs as “toothpick” plant. Centuries ago, Arabs found the small grayish fruits of this plant effective in treating numerous complaints such as the stabbing pain of angina pectoris. The main component of Visnaga is khellin, which acts as a selective coronary vasodilator. Khellin expands only the arteries that feed the heart, offering fast relief when angina is brought on by constricted or partly blocked coronary arteries. This substance is also a bronchodilator and was used by Arabs for treating the bronchial spasms that accompany asthma or severe allergies. The asthma drug Intal, is derived from khellin. Visnaga fruit also has diuretic properties.

Visnaga Uses & Scientific Evidence For
Today, Visnaga is used to help improve circulation to the heart, which eases angina. It does not; however, lower blood pressure. This plant is also used safely for treating asthma in children and adults, and even though it does not always relieve acute attacks, it does help prevent a recurrence. It is also used in treating bronchitis, emphysema, and whooping cough. Visnaga increases urine production and helps relax the muscles of the ureter, therefore, it works well in treating kidney stones. In Spain, this plant is used to clean the teeth.

Visnaga Dosage Information
Visnaga comes in many forms and can be found in various products. It is best to consult with your physician before using this herb if you want to use it to treat any of the above listed conditions.

Other Uses
Teeth.
The fruiting pedicel is used as a toothpick whilst the seeds have been used as a tooth cleaner.

Scented Plants
Plant: Crushed
The plant has an aromatic bitter scent and flavour.

Visnaga Safety & Interaction Information
Even though Visnaga is relatively safe for treating many conditions, it is not without its side effects. Prolonged use causes a build up of khellin in the body which can bring on nausea and vomiting. Again, it is best to consult with your physician for the treatment of your condition.

You may click to learn more about Ammi visnaga…………(1)...(2)..(3)(4)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Ammi+visnaga
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AMVI2
http://www.insensual.com/visnaga.html

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Herbs & Plants

Colocasia (Bengali Kochu)

Botanical Name:Colocasia antiquorum
Kingdom: Planta
Division: Magnoliophy
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Common Names
: Polynesian Names: Kalo, Poi, Callaloo, Cocoyam, Dasheen, Eddo, Eddoe, Eddy Root, Tara, Tarro, Tarrow, Dalo, Kochu(in Bengali), English Names:Taro,Swamp Taro ,Elephant’s Ear
Habitat:India, Pakisthan, Bangladesh,Srilanka, Burma Philipines. Hawaii, Taro was probably first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia (taloes). Estimates are that taro was in cultivation in wet tropical India before 5000 B.C., presumably coming from Malaysia, and from India further transported westward to ancient Egypt, where it was described by Greek and Roman historians as an important crop.

Description:Colocasia is a genus of six to eight species of flowering plants .They are herbaceous perennial plants with a large rhizome on or just below the ground surface. The leaves are large to very large, 20-150 cm long, with a sagittate shape. The elephant’s-ear plant gets its name from the leaves, which are shaped like a large ear or shield.

Click to see the pictures.>……(01)...(1)……...(2)...  (3)…...(4)……...(5).……....(6)……..

It is a herb with clusters of long heart- or arrowhead-shaped leaves that point earthward. Taro leaves grow on erect stems that may be green, red (lehua), black or variegated.
The new leaves and stems push out of the innermost stalk, unrolling as they emerge. The stems are usually several feet high. Taro bears a short underground stem called a corm, where the plant stores starch produced by the leaves. In the eight to sixteen months of its development, the corm can grow as large as six inches in diameter. People raise taro to obtain this valuable starchy root. When the plant reaches maturity, it will produce a flower stalk in some leaf axils. Near the apex of the flower stalk appears the yellow-white, tubular spathe, or modified leaf, which covers and protects the flower cluster within. Inside grows an erect spike called the spadix. The spadix bears two kinds of flowers: the male and the female flowers. The male flowers lie toward the upper part of the spadix, and the female flowers lie toward the lower part. Tiny new plants appear around the base of the root corm.

Click to see different pictures of Colocasia esculenta , Taro ,Kalo

Species of Colocasia:

* Colocasia affinis (syn. C. marshallii)
* Colocasia bicolor
* Colocasia coryli
* Colocasia esculenta (syn. C. antiquorum) – Taro or Elephant-ear
* Colocasia fontanesii
* Colocasia gigantea – Giant Taro
* Colocasia lihengiae
* Colocasia macrorrhiza
* Colocasia menglaensis

Colocasia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Palpifer murinus and Palpifer sexnotatus.

Cultivation and uses:

Colocasia esculenta and other members of the genus are cultivated for their edible tubers, a traditional starch staple in many tropical areas. The edible types are grown in the South Pacific and eaten like potatoes and known as taro, eddo, and dasheen. This famous root vegetable is known as “Arbi/Arvi” in the Indian subcontinent where its leaves are also cherished. A favorite Hawaiian dish is made by boiling the starchy underground stem of the plant” (World Book Encyclopedia).

In Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka state (India), they are used to make Patrode – a popular delicacy; in Kerala state (India) they are used to make chembila curry – a tasty delicacy. The stem & root are also used in the preparation of delicacies ( ishtu moru curry etc.). In Andhrapradesh state of India, several delicacies are made either with root or leaves of Chaama. In Gujarat, they are used to make a popular dish called Patra. They are grown outside year-round in subtropical and tropical areas. In temperate regions, they are grown as ornamental plants, planted out for the summer and dug up and stored over winter; they can be grown in almost any temperature zone as long as the summer is warm. The plant can be grown in the ground or in large containers.

The root tuber is typically planted close to the surface. The first signs of growth will appear in 1 to 3 weeks. The adult plant will need a minimum of at least 1m of space for good growth. They do best in compost-rich soil and in shade, but will grow reasonably well in average soil provided it is moisture-retentive. The plants should not be left to go dry for too long; if this does happen, the leaves will wilt; watering will allow the plant to recover if done before they get too dry. Periodic fertilisation (every 3 to 4 weeks) with a common plant fertiliser will increase yields.

Its primary use, however, is the consumption of its edible corm and leaves. In its raw form the plant is toxic due to the presence of calcium oxalate, although the toxin is destroyed by cooking and the presence of needle-shaped raphides in the plant cells. However it can be rendered palatable by cooking, or by steeping in cold water overnight.

Corms of the small round variety are peeled and boiled, sold either frozen, bagged in its own liquids, or canned. The leaves are rich in vitamins and minerals.

It is also sold an ornamental aquatic plant.

Growth is best at temperatures between 20°C to 30°C. The plants can be damaged if temperatures fall below 10°C for more than a few days. When cultivated in climates with colder winters, the tuber must be dug up and stored during the colder, winter months in a cool, dry place protected from frost and with good ventilation to reduce the risk of fungal diseases. Replanting in spring is done when the chance of frost has passed.

Leaves and tuber of this plant are used as food items in the Indian subcontinent. The plant is known as Arabi or Ghuiya in local language as well as Patra.

Medicinal Uses:
The following are a few of the medicinal uses of poi and the Kalo plant. Poi is used to settle the stomach.
Mixed with ripe Noni fruit, it can be applied for boils. Poi can be mixed with pia (arrowroot starch) and taken for diarrhea. Some infections respond to the use of Taro leaves mashed with Hawai’i salt. This poultice can be applied to an injury, covered and wrapped with a large Taro leaf.
Undiluted poi is sometimes used as a poultice on infected sores. A piece of Taro stem, haha, can be touched to the skin to stop surface bleeding. For a sting from an insect, the stem leaf (petiole) can be cut and rubbed on the afflicted area, preventing swelling and pain.
(Whistler,W.A. 1992. Polynesian Herbal Medicine.)
The raw juice of Taro could be mixed with other juices to reduce fever. Also as a cure for thrush (‘ea), the Hawaiians grated the corm and mixed it with the ash of burnt coconut (niu) meat.
(Lucas, L. 1982. Plants of Old Hawaii.)
The following preparation was regularly used as a laxative: the scraped inside of a peeled Taro is mixed with the juice of white sugar cane, the meat of one fully matured coconut and two ripe Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruits. The mixture is then strained with the fiber of the Cyperus laevigata. The dose is taken five times in succession.
(Kaaiakamanu,D.M. and Akina,J.K. 1922. Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value.)
In Fiji a decoction of the leaves with the scraped root of yasi yasi (Syzygium effusum) is drunk to treat stomach disorders. A decoction of the shredded leaves is drunk to promote menstruation while a decoction of the leaves and those of wabula (Merremia peltata) is used for the treatment of cysts, while the sap of the leaf stalk is used to treat conjunctivitis. The scraped steams of dalo and those of mulomulo (Thespesia populnea), kavika (Syzygium malaccense) and titi (unidentified) are added to a little water to provide a drink to encourage young children to eat when there is a loss of appetite.

Dangerous/Poisonous:
Before Taro can be eaten, all parts of the plant must be cooked, in order to break down the needle-like calcium oxalate crystals present in the leaves, stem and corm. These crystals could be extremely irritating to the throat and mouth lining, causing burning and stinging sensation.
Scientific Research:
The young leaves of Taro are rich in vitamin C and the roots are rich in a starch composed of amylase (28%) and amylopectin (72%). Taro contains thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin, oxalic acid, calcium oxalate and a sapotoxin.
The tubers contain aminoacids and high molecular weight proteins which inhibit human salivary (and the porcine) pancreatic amylases. The corms contain the anthocyanins pelargonidin 3-glucoside, cyaniding 3-rhamnoside, and cyaniding 3-glucoside. Hydroxycinnamoyl amides have been obtained from the inflorescences and two new dihydroxysterols have been isolated from the tubers.

CLICK & READ….> To deliver drugs, try veggies..

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colocasia
http://www.ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=3155&rid=143

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Gentians

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Botanical Name: Gentiana lutea
Family: Gentianaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Gentiana L.

Common Name:  Great yellow gentian

Habitat:This is a cosmopolitan genus, occurring in alpine habitats of temperate regions of Asia, Europe and the Americas. Some species also occur in northwest Africa, eastern Australia and New Zealand. They consist of annual, biennial and perennial plants. Some are evergreen, others are not.

The Gentians are an extensive group of plants, numbering about 400 species, distributed throughout all climates, though mostly in temperate regions and high mountains, being rare in the Arctic. In South America and New Zealand, the prevailing colour of the flower is red, in Europe blue (yellow and white being of rarer occurrence).

Gentiana is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Gentian family (Gentianaceae), tribe Gentianeae and monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae.

The name of the genus is derived from Gentius, an ancient King of Illyria (180-167 B.C.), who, according to Pliny and Dioscorides, discovered the medicinal value of these plants. During the Middle Ages, Gentian was commonly employed as an antidote to poison. Tragus, in 1552, mentions it as a means of diluting wounds.

Descriptions:
Gentians have opposite leaves that are sometimes arranged in a basal rosette, and trumpet-shaped flowers that are usually deep blue or azure, but may vary from white, creamy and yellow to red. Many species also show considerable polymorphism with respect to flower color. Typically, blue-flowered species predominate in the Northern Hemisphere, with red-flowered species dominant in the Andes (where bird pollination is probably more heavily favored by natural selection). White-flowered species are scattered throughout the range of the genus but dominate in New Zealand. All gentian species have terminal tubular flowers and most are pentamerous, i.e. with 5 corolla lobes (petals), and 5 sepals, but 4-7 in some species. The style is rather short or absent. The corolla shows folds (= plicae) between the lobes. The ovary is mostly sessile and has nectary glands.

Click to see the pictures

Gentians are fully hardy and like full sun or partial shade, and neutral to acid soil that is rich in humus and well drained. They are popular in rock gardens.

Species:-
Gentiana acaulis (‘Stemless Gentian’)
Gentiana affinis (‘Pleated Gentian’)
Gentiana alba (‘Plain Gentian’)
Gentiana algida (‘Whitish Gentian’)
Gentiana alpina (‘Alpine Gentian’)
Gentiana altaica (‘Altai Gentian’)
Gentiana amarella (‘Autumn Dwarf Gentian’)
Gentiana amoena
Gentiana andrewsii (‘Closed bottle Gentian’)
Gentiana angustifolia
Gentiana asclepiadea (‘Willow Gentian’)
Gentiana austromontana (‘Appalachian Gentian’)
Gentiana autumnalis (‘Pinebarren Gentian’)
Gentiana bavarica (‘Bavarian Gentian’)
Gentiana bellidifolia
Gentiana boryi
Gentiana brachyphylla
Gentiana bulleyana
Gentiana burseri
Gentiana cachemirica
Gentiana calycosa (‘Rainier Pleated Gentian‘)
Gentiana catesbaei (‘Elliott’s Gentian’)
Gentiana cephalantha
Gentiana cerina
Gentiana clausa (‘Bottled Gentian’)
Gentiana clusii (‘Trumpet Gentian‘)
Gentiana crassicaulis
Gentiana crinita (‘Fringed Gentian’)
Gentiana cruciata (‘Cross Gentian’)
Gentiana dahurica
Gentiana decora (‘Showy Gentian’)
Gentiana decumbens
Gentiana dendrologii
Gentiana depressa
Gentiana dinarica
Gentiana douglasiana (‘Swamp Gentian’)
Gentiana elwesii
Gentiana farreri
Gentiana fetisowii
Gentiana flavida (‘Pale Gentian’)
Gentiana freyniana
Gentiana frigida
Gentiana froelichii
Gentiana fremontii (‘Moss Gentian’)
Gentiana gelida
Gentiana gilvo-striata
Gentiana glauca (‘Pale Gentian’)
Gentiana gracilipes
Gentiana grombczewskii
Gentiana heterosepala (‘Autumn Gentian’)
Gentiana hexaphylla
Gentiana kesselringii
Gentiana kurroo
Gentiana lawrencii
Gentiana lhassica
Gentiana linearis (‘Narrowleaf Gentian’)
Gentiana loderi
Gentiana lutea (‘Great Yellow Gentian‘)
Gentiana macrophylla (‘Bigleaf Gentian’)
Gentiana makinoi
Gentiana microdonta
Gentiana newberryi (‘Newberry’s Gentian’)
Gentiana nipponica
Gentiana nivalis (‘Snow Gentian’)

Gentiana nubigena
Gentiana nutans (‘Tundra Gentian’)
Gentiana ochroleuca
Gentiana olivieri
Gentiana ornata
Gentiana pannonica (‘Brown Gentian’)
Gentiana paradoxa
Gentiana parryi (‘Parry’s Gentian’)
Gentiana patula
Gentiana pennelliana (‘Wiregrass Gentian’)
Gentiana phyllocalyx
Gentiana platypetala (‘Broadpetal Gentian’)
Gentiana plurisetosa (‘Bristly Gentian’)
Gentiana pneumonanthe (‘Marsh Gentian’)
Gentiana prolata
Gentiana prostrata (‘Pygmy Gentian’)
Gentiana przewalskii
Gentiana pterocalyx
Gentiana puberulenta (‘Downy Gentian’)
Gentiana pumila
Gentiana punctata (‘Spotted Gentian’)
Gentiana purpurea (‘Purple Gentian’)
Gentiana pyrenaica
Gentiana quadrifolia
Gentiana rigescens
Gentiana rostanii
Gentiana rubricaulis (‘Closed Gentian’)
Gentiana saponaria (‘Harvestbells Gentian’)
Gentiana saxosa
Gentiana scabra
Gentiana scarlatina
Gentiana sceptrum (‘King’s scepter Gentian’)
Gentiana septemfida (‘Crested Gentian’)
Gentiana setigera (‘Mendocino Gentian’)
Gentiana setulifolia
Gentiana sikkimensis
Gentiana sikokiana
Gentiana sino-ornata
Gentiana siphonantha
Gentiana speciosa
Gentiana squarrosa
Gentiana stictantha
Gentiana stragulata
Gentiana straminea
Gentiana tenuifolia
Gentiana terglouensis (‘Triglav Gentian’)
Gentiana ternifolia
Gentiana tianshanica (‘Tienshan Gentian’)
Gentiana trichotoma
Gentiana triflora
Gentiana trinervis
Gentiana tubiflora
Gentiana utriculosa (‘Bladder Gentian’)
Gentiana veitchiorum
Gentiana venusta
Gentiana verna (‘Spring Gentian’)
Gentiana villosa (‘Striped Gentian’)
Gentiana waltonii
Gentiana wutaiensis
Gentiana yakushimensis
Gentiana zollingeri

Click to learn more about Genetians:->..……..(1)(2)

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This is an easily grown species, succeeding in most good garden soils, though it prefers a light loamy soil and lime-free conditions. It grows well in a pocket of soil amongst paving stones, so long as there is a gritty substrate. Plants dislike growing under the drip from trees. A very ornamental plant, there are many named varieties. It is a rare and protected species in the wild. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in early summer after the plant has flowered. Dig up the entire plant, divide it into 2 – 3 fair-sized clumps with a spade or knife, and replant immediately. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring or early summer. It is best to pot them up in a cold frame until well rooted, and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the whole plant is used externally to lighten freckles. This species is one of several species that are the source of the medicinal gentian root, the following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties

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Complete Gentian information from Drugs.com
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentian
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+acaulis

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Herbs & Plants

Indian Mallow

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Botanical Name: Abutilan Indicum.
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Abutilon
Species: A. indicum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms: Sida indica, Sida grandiflora, Abutilon graveolens, Sida rhombifolia

Common Names : Indian Abutilon, Indian Mallow

Vernacular Names:
Kanghi, Kangahi, Kakihiya, Kakahi, Nusht-ul-ghoul, Darakht-e-shaan (Unani); Thuthi (Siddha); Coongoonie (Hindi); Petaree (Bengali); Perin-tutte (Tamil); Nugubenda (Telagu) Thama-khyoke (Burmese); Anda (Cinghalese)
Sanskrit name: Atibalaa
Telugu name: Duvvena Kayalu “duvvena benda”

Nepal: Poti (Majhi); Kangiyo (Nepali)

China: Dong Kui Zi, Mi Lan Cao

Malaysia: Kembang Lohor

English: Country Mallow, Flowering Maples, Chinese Bell-flowers
Atibala, Kankatikaa, Rishyaproktaa, Vaatyaayani, Vaatyapushpi, Valikaa, Bhaaedwai, Uraksha gandhini, Naagbala, Vishvadevaa, Gavedhuka (Ayurvedic);

Habitat : Abutilan Indicum is native to tropic and subtropical regions. Present in sub-himalayan tract and hills upto 1,200 m and in hotter parts of india. It also occurs within parts of the Great Barrier Reef islands of the Coral Sea.

Description:
Abutilan Indicum is an annual shrub that can grow up to 2m high. It is an erect wood plant with velvet-like heart-shaped leaves. The leaves are stalked measuring 2.5-10cm long with 2-7.5cm wide, ovate or orbiculate to cordate, irregularly crenate or dentate, acuminated, minutely hoary tomentose on both surfaces. The flowers are orange-yellow in colour, solitary, axillary and bloom in the evening, with 4 cm diameter, maturing into button-shaped seed pods.The fruiting carpels 15-20 in number, flat-topped, forming a head, measuring 2-2.5cm across, black and hairy. The fruits are hispid, scarcely longer than the calyx and the awns are erect. The seeds are three to five in number, kidney-shaped, dark brown or black in colour, tubercled or with minutely stellate hairs.

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.The plant is covered with an aromatic oily substance.This oil coating is pronounced in well grown plants. Its bark,roots, leaves and seeds are all used in medicine.The plant contains an alkaloids asparagin.

Cultivation and uses:

Velvet leaf has been grown in China since around 2000 BCE for its strong, jute-like fibre. The seeds are eaten in China and Kashmir in India.

Velvet leaf grows primarily in cropland, especially corn fields, and it can also be found on roadsides and in gardens . Velvet leaf prefers rich and cultivated soils, such as those used in agriculture.

After being introduced to North America in the 1700s, velvetleaf has become an invasive species in agricultural regions of the eastern and midwestern United States. It is one of the most detrimental weeds to corn, costing hundreds of millions of dollars per year in control and damage. Velvetleaf is an extremely competitive plant, so much so that it can steal nutrients and water away from crops.

The roots and the bark of the plant increases the secretion and discharge of urin, besides providing to be pulmonary sedative.The herb is laxtative and tonic. It promotes libido and is useful in relieving feverishness and producing a feeling of coolness.

Chemical Constituents:

Gallic acid, asparagine, fructose, galactose, glucose, beta-sitosterone, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, fumaric acid, p-beta-D-glycosyloxybenzoic acid, leucine, histidine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and galacturonic acid, alantolactone, isoalantolactone, threonine, glutamine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, cycteine, methionine, isoleucine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine, arginine.

Medicinal uses:

Used in much the same way as marsh mallow as a demulcent.  The root and bark of Indian mallow are mucilaginous and are used to soothe and protect the mucous membranes of the respiratory and urinary systems.  A decoction of the root is given for chest conditions such as bronchitis.  The mucilaginous effect benefits the skin; an infusion, poultice, or paste made from the powdered root or bark is applied to wounds and used for conditions such as boils and ulcers.  The seeds are laxative and useful in killing threadworms, if the rectum of the affected child be exposed to the smoke of the powdered seeds (Herbs that Heal, H.K Bakhru, 1992)  The plant has an antiseptic effect within the urinary tract and can be used to treat and can be used to treat infections.

Traditional medicine:
In traditional medicine, A. indicum various parts of the plant are used as a demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic, sedative, astringent, expectorant, tonic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, and analgesic and to treat leprosy, ulcers, headaches, gonorrhea, and bladder infection. The whole plant is uprooted, dried and is powdered. In ancient days, maidens were made to consume a spoonful of this powder with a spoonful of honey, once in a day, for 6 months until the day of marriage, for safe and quick pregnancy.

The plant is very much used in Siddha medicines. The root, bark, flowers, leaves and seeds are all used for medicinal purposes by Tamils.[citation needed] The leaves are used as adjunct to medicines used for pile complaints. The flowers are used to increase semen in men.

Fevers:The leaves should be dried in the shade and powdered for use when required for any kind of fever. A decoction can also be extyracted from the herb.

Respiratory Disorders: A decoction of the herb can be given in bronchitis,catarrh and biliousness.

Skin Problems: The drug made from Indian Mallow has a very soothing effect on the skin and the mucous membranes.Its paste can be applied either by itself or mixed with coconut oil on the affected parts in case of abscess, carbuncle,scabies and itches.

Boils and Ulcers: A poultice of the leaves can alsop be applied on boils and ulcers. Its seeds are laxative and very effective in curing piles.

Threadworms: The seeds are useful in killing thread worms, if the rectum of the affected child be exposed to the smoke of the powdered seeds.

Other Uses:Indian mellow is useful in allaying irritation of the skin and in alleviatimng swelling and pain. Its decoction can be used effectively as fomentation on the painful parts of the body.It can also be used as a mouthwash for toothache and soft gums.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
Miracle Of Herbs,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutilon_theophrasti

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutilon_indicum

http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=83494:abutilon-indicum&Itemid=139

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