Tag Archives: Foot (unit)

Bunions

Definition:
A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe (hallux) may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender.

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The term is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is partly due to the swollen bursal sac and/or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways to stick out at its top.

Although they’re more common in older people, they can begin at any age, and even children can develop them. A similar bump, but on the outer edge of the foot at the base of the smallest toe, is known as a bunionette.

The term “hallux valgus” or “hallux abducto-valgus” are the most commonly used medical terms associated with a bunion anomaly, where “hallux” refers to the great toe, “valgus” refers to the abnormal angulation of the great toe commonly associated with bunion anomalies, and “abductus/-o” refers to the abnormal drifting or inward leaning of the great toe towards the second toe, which is also commonly associated with bunions. It is important to state that “hallux abducto refers to the motion the great toe moves away from the body’s midline. Deformities of the lower extremity are usually named in accordance to the body’s midline, or the line bisecting the body longitudinally into two halves.

Bunions most commonly affect women. Some studies report that bunions occur nearly 10 times more frequently in women then men.

Symptoms:
Bunions may or may not cause symptoms. A frequent symptom is pain in the involved area when walking or wearing shoes that is relieved by resting. A bunion causes enlargement of the base of the big toe and is usually associated with positioning of the big toe toward the smaller toes. This leads to intermittent or chronic pain at the base of the big toe.

Bunions that cause marked pain are often associated with swelling of the soft tissues, redness, and local tenderness.

The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Blisters may form more easily around the site of the bunion as well.

Having bunions can also make it harder to find shoes that fit properly; bunions may force a person to have to buy a larger size shoe to accommodate the width the bunion creates. When bunion deformity becomes severe enough, the foot can hurt in different places even without the constriction of shoes because it then becomes a mechanical function problem of the forefoot.

Risk Factors & Causes:
It is found  that tight-fitting shoes, especially high-heel and narrow-toed, might increase the risk for bunion formation.
Bunions are reported to be more prevalent in people who wear shoes than in barefoot people. There also seem to be inherited (genetic) factors that predispose to the development of bunions, especially when they occur in younger individuals.

Other risk factors for the development of bunions include congenital (present from birth) abnormal formation of the bones of the foot, nerve conditions that affect the foot, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury to the foot. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.

Bunions are mostly genetic and consist of certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal that are positioned differently. This bio-mechanical anomaly may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot – such as flat feet, excessive flexibility of ligaments, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are often considered genetic. Although some experts are convinced that poor-fitting footwear is the main cause of bunion formation, other sources concede only that footwear exacerbates the problem caused by the original genetic structure.

Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe toward the second toe, and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (which help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. Arthritis of the big toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.

Diagnosis:
A doctor can usually diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot and, in some cases, arthritis.

The doctor considers a bunion when noting the symptoms described above. The anatomy of the foot is assessed during the examination. Radiographs (x-ray films) of the foot can be helpful to determine the integrity of the joints of the foot and to screen for underlying conditions, such as arthritis or gout. X-ray films are an excellent method of calculating the alignment of the toes.

Treatment:
Bunions may be treated conservatively with changes in shoe gear, different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding), rest, ice, and medications. These sorts of treatments address symptoms more than they correct the actual deformity. Surgery, by an orthopedic surgeon or a podiatrist, may be necessary if discomfort is severe enough or when correction of the deformity is desired.

Orthotics are splints, regulators while conservative measures include various footwear like gelled toe spacers, bunion / toes separators, bunion regulators, bunion splints, and bunion cushions.

Surgery:
Procedures are designed and chosen to correct a variety of pathologies that may be associated with the bunion. For instance, procedures may address some combination of:

*removing the abnormal bony enlargement of the first metatarsal,
*realigning the first metatarsal bone relative to the adjacent metatarsal bone,
*straightening the great toe relative to the first metatarsal and adjacent toes,
*realigning the cartilagenous surfaces of the great toe joint,
*addressing arthritic changes associated with the great toe joint,
*repositioning the sesamoid bones beneath the first metatarsal bone,
*shortening, lengthening, raising, or lowering the first metatarsal bone, and
*correcting any abnormal bowing or misalignment within the great toe.

At present there are many different bunion surgeries for different effects. Ultimately, surgery should always have function of the foot in mind besides its look. Can the proposed surgery help resolve the pain and callus under the middle metatarsal heads? Can one return to sports? Can the foot enjoy fashionable or high heel shoes like normal feet without undue discomfort? Does the proposed surgery prevent recurrence with any specific built-in mechanism? These are very reasonable challenges for any truly functional bunion surgeries but may not be so for esthetic bunion surgeries.

The age, health, lifestyle, and activity level of the patient may also play a role in the choice of procedure.

Bunion surgery can be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthetic. The trend has moved strongly toward using the less invasive local anesthesia over the years. A patient can expect a 6- to 8-week recovery period during which crutches are usually required for aid in mobility. An orthopedic cast is much less common today as newer, more stable procedures and better forms of fixation (stabilizing the bone with screws and other hardware) are used.

Prognosis:
The prognosis depends on your age and activities, and the severity of the bunion. Teenagers may have more trouble treating a bunion than adults. Many adults do well by caring for the bunion when it first starts to develop, and wearing different shoes. Surgery reduces the pain in many, but not all, people with bunions.

Possible Complications:

*Chronic foot pain
*Foot deformity
*Stiff foot
*Hallux varus (occurs with surgical over-correction, where the toe points away from the second toe

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.medicinenet.com/bunions/page2.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001231.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunion
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bunions.shtml

http://www.consumerreports.org/health/conditions-and-treatments/bunions/what-is-it.htm

http://www.cafai.com/bunions.html

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Corns and Calluses

Callus evolution.

Image via Wikipedia

 

The foot is an engineering marvel that cannot be duplicated by robotics. It is composed of 26 bones, 33 joints and around a hundred tendons, ligaments and muscles of various sizes, well oiled and sliding smoothly over each other.

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The foot is encased in thick and leathery skin that protects it from injury. Our feet take us everywhere from the time we first learn to walk till we are finally laid to rest. Yet, somehow, we tend to take our feet for granted until they malfunction, cause pain or refuse to perform as instructed.

Some orthopaedic abnormalities of the feet, like clubfoot, flat feet, congenitally dislocated hips or knock knees, are present from birth. Sometimes shoes may be purchased for conformity to fashion disregarding the requirements of the feet. They maybe ill fitting, too tight or too large. Pointed toe stilettos are notoriously guilty. The gait becomes abnormal as pressure is applied unevenly to the skin of the foot. Irregularity may also occur in old age as a result of arthritis or injury.

When pressure is exerted unevenly on the foot, the skin tends to thicken abnormally. This callused skin may remain like that or develop into a corn. This happens in areas where the skin is rubbed persistently or where the skin is under uneven pressure. Common places are the heel, the ball of the foot and the sides of the toes.

The skin over the unsightly hardened area on the foot, a callus, is dead. So there is no inflammation or pain. Eventually the callus may harden to form a corn. The corn has a central area of inflammation and is painful and tender. It is usually situated near the base of the fifth toe. If the feet are pushed into tight fitting shoes, corns will form between the toes as well. Perspiration and moisture cannot escape from this area causing the corn to become macerated and tender.

If a callus or corn is beginning to develop, the first step would be to determine if there is any source of pressure which has set off the thickening of the skin. Sometimes it may even be due to a sudden increase in the level of exercise or interest in some new sport. Once the cause has been identified it should be removed, or else the callus will exacerbate.

The foot should first be soaked in warm water with rock salt and commercially available liquid soap. After 10 minutes the affected area should be gently rubbed with a pumice stone or a foot scrubber. Some baby oil or moisturiser should then be applied. This gets rid of the corn (or callus) at an early stage.

If the callus is hard and the punctum or tip of the corn is easily visible, commercially advertised OTC (over the counter) corn plasters may be used. Most of them contain salicylic acid — a keratolytic agent that softens and breaks down hard skin. They need to be applied on a dry foot and left in place till the corn softens and falls out. They should not be used on soft corns between the toes.

Wearing loose footwear with low heels and a well-cushioned insole can also relieve the pain. Slippers should be made of soft rubber like MCR (micro cellular rubber). Acupressure slippers are also helpful.

If the corn does not respond to these simple measures, it has to be surgically removed. A qualified dermatologist or surgeon can do it as an outpatient office procedure.

Newer, relatively painless techniques involve freezing the corn with liquid nitrogen or dry ice or removing it with laser technology. It is dangerous to perform “home surgery” — slicing off the corn with a knife or blade. Dangerous debilitating infections can occur due to such amateur attempts.

Diabetics need to take particular care of their corns and calluses and consult their physicians if they have a problem. They may have compromised blood supply to their feet or numbness of the nerves. This may make them insensitive to the pain making them inadvertently ignore the corn. Any self-treatment (especially salicylic corn plasters) is likely to result in dangerous infection.

Some simple rules one should follow:

• Wear proper footwear and socks

• Wash the feet well at night before going to bed

• Moisturise the feet with oil or cream once a day

• Keep the areas between the toes dry, particularly after a bath

• Treat arthritis, blisters, corns and calluses promptly

Appropriate footwear for various sports should be used. One pair of “canvas” shoes should not be used for all activities.

You may click to see more information on Corns and Calluses

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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