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Kalopanax septemlobus

Botanical Name : Kalopanax septemlobus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus: Kalopanax
Species:K. septemlobus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: K. pictus. (Thunb.)Nakai. K. ricinifolium. Acanthopanax ricinifolium. Acer pictum. Acer septemlobus

Common Names:Tree Aralia, Castor aralia, Prickly castor oil tree

Habitat :Kalopanax septemlobus is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. It grows in cool deciduous forests from near sea level to elevations of 2500 metres.

Description:
Kalopanax septemlobus is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a slow rate with a trunk up to 1–1.5 metres (3.3–4.9 ft) diameter. The stems are often spiny, with stout spines up to 1 centimetre (0.39 in) long. The leaves are alternate, in appearance similar to a large Fatsia or Liquidambar (sweetgum) leaf, 15–35 centimetres (5.9–13.8 in) across, palmately lobed with five or seven lobes, each lobe with a finely toothed margin.

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The leaf lobes vary greatly in shape, from shallow lobes to cut nearly to the leaf base. Trees with deeply lobed leaves were formerly distinguished as K. septemlobus var. maximowiczii, but the variation is continuous and not correlated with geography, so it is no longer regarded as distinct.

The flowers are produced in late summer in large umbels 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) across at the apex of a stem, each flower with 4-5 small white petals. The fruit is a small black drupe containing 2 seeds.

It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a deep fertile moisture-retentive soil in sun or part shade. Young shoots, especially on young plants, can die back over winter if they are not fully ripened. Young plants are slow-growing. The tree is widely cultivated for timber in China. A polymorphic species.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed probably requires a period of cold stratification and should be sown as soon as possible. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings in late winter

Edible Uses: Young leaves and young shoots – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Antifungal; Expectorant; Hepatic; Skin; Stomachic.

The bark contains a range of bio-active constituents, including saponins, flavonoids and lignans. It has antifungal and liver protecting properties. It is used in Korea in the treatment of contusions, beri-beri, lumbago, neuralgia and pleurisy. An infusion of the leaves is used to make a stomachic tea. The root is expectorant. A decoction of the wood is used for skin diseases.

Other Uses:  The tree is cultivated as an ornamental tree for the “tropical” appearance of its large palmate leaves in Europe and North America; despite its tropical looks, it is very hardy, tolerating temperatures down to at least ?40 °C (?40 °F) The bark and the leaves are used as an insecticide. Wood is very useful.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalopanax
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Kalopanax+septemlobus

Celtis sinensis

Botanical Name: Celtis sinensis
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species:C. sinensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Celtis japonica.

Common Names: Chinese hackberry, Japanese Hackberry

Habitat: Celtis sinensis is native to slopes in East AsiaChina, Japan, Korea. It grows on lowland and hills all over Japan. Roadsides and slopes at elevations of 100 – 1500 metres in China.

Description:
Celtis sinensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a medium rate.
It’s bark is gray. The fruit is a globose drupe, 5–7(–8) mm in diameter. Flowering occurs in March–April, and fruiting in September–October and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, they often do not fully ripen their wood when growing in this country and they are then very subject to die-back in winter. Trees can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years. This species is closely allied to C. bungeana. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed is best given 2 – 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings

Edible Uses: …Fruit – raw. The fruit is up to 8mm in diameter. We have no further information, but the fruit is liable to consist of a thin, sweet, though dry and mealy flesh around a large seed. Leaves – cooked. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.
Medicinal Uses:…The root bark is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, poor appetite, shortness of breath and swollen feet Leaves and bark are used in Korean medicine to treat menstruation and lung abscess.
Other Uses: As an ornamental plant, it is used in classical East Asian garden design.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_sinensis
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Celtis+sinensis

Celtis reticulata

Botanical Name : Celtis reticulata
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species: C. reticulata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Celtis reticulata. (Torr.)L.Benson.
Common Names: Netleaf hackberry, Western hackberry, Douglas hackberry, Netleaf sugar hackberry, Palo blanco, and Acibuche

Habitat : Celtis reticulata is native to South-western N. America – Kansas to Texas, Colorado and California. It grows on dry hills, often on limestone or basalt, ravine banks, rocky outcrops, and occasionally in sandy soils at elevations of 300 – 2300 metres.

Description:
Celtis reticulata is a deciduous Tree. It usually grows to a small-sized tree, twenty to thirty feet (6 to 10 m) in height and mature at six to ten inches (15 to 25 cm) in diameter, although some individuals are known up to 70 feet high. It is often scraggly, stunted or even a large bush. It grows at elevations from 500–1,700 metres (1,600–5,600 ft).

Hackberry bark is grey to brownish grey with the trunk bark forming vertical corky ridges that are checkered between the furrows. The young twigs are covered with very fine hairs (puberulent). The blade of the leaves can be half an inch to three inches (2-8 cm) long, usually about two inches (5-6 cm). They are lanceolate to ovate, unequal at the base, leathery, entire to serrate (tending toward serrate), clearly net-veined, base obtuse to more or less cordate, tip obtuse to acuminate, and scabrous, with a dark green upper surface and a yellowish-green lower surface. The small stalks attaching the leaf blade to the stem (the petioles) are generally about 5 to 6 mm long.

It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

The flowers are very small averaging 1/12 of an inch (2 mm) across. They form singly, or in cymose clusters pedicel in fr 4-15 mm. Fruit is a rigid, brownish to purple berry, 5 to 12 mm in diameter, pulp thin.

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C. reticulata is often confused with the related species Celtis pallida, the spiny hackberry or desert hackberry, Celtis occidentalis, the common hackberry, and Celtis laevigata, the sugarberry or southern hackberry.

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. A moderate to slow-growing tree in the wild. It prefers hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, so it often does not fully ripen its wood when growing in this country and is then very subject to die-back in winter. Trees can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years. Considered by some botanists to be no more than a sub-species of C. laevigata. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed is best given 2 – 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings

Edible Uses:
The berries and seeds have long been used as a food source by Native Americans of the Southwestern United States, including the Apache (Chiricahua and Mescalero), both fresh and preserved.
Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and fleshy. The fruit can also be made into a jelly or used as a seasoning for savoury foods. It can be dried and stored for winter use. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter, it has a thin flesh with a single large seed.

Medicinal Uses : The plant has been used in the treatment of indigestion.

Other Uses:
The leaves are eaten by a number of insects, particularly certain moth caterpillars.A brown or red dye can be obtained from the leaves and branches. Wood  is  heavy but soft and weak, it is not commercially important. It can be used as a firewood.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_reticulata
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Celtis+reticulata

Viburnum lantanoides

Botanical Name : Viburnum lantanoides
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:V. lantanoides
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; not Deep Shade

Common Names: Hobble-bush, Witch-hobble, Alder-leaved viburnum, American wayfaring tree, and Moosewood

Habitat : Viburnum lantanoides is found in the eastern U.S. and Canada from Georgia to the Canadian Maritimes. It grows in rich, moist acidic woods, stream banks, and swamps.

Description:
Viburnum lantanoides is a deciduous perennial shrub, growing 2–4 meters (6–12 ft) high with pendulous branches that take root where they touch the ground. These rooted branches form obstacles which easily trip (or hobble) walkers – hence the common name.

The shrub forms large clusters of white to pink flowers in May–June. The flowers on the outer edge of the clusters are much larger (3–5 cm across). The whole cluster is typically 10 cm across. It has large, cardioid leaves which are serrate, 10–20 cm long. The bark is gray-brown and warty and the fruit is a drupe which is red, turning to black when ripened….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in a shady position. Requires a moist acid soil and woodland conditions but without competition from other plants. Another report says that it requires an exposed position. Dislikes alkaline soils. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Plants are often self-layering in the wild and form thickets. This species is closely related to V. furcatum.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring[80]. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and palatable, tasting somewhat like raisins or dates. The fruits have a large seed and a thin flesh. The taste is best after a frost. The ovoid fruit is about 15mm long and contains a single large seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Blood purifier; Infertility.

The leaves are analgesic. They have been mashed and applied to the head as a poultice to ease a migraine. A decoction of the roots has been used as a blood medicine. The decoction has been used as a fertility aid by women.

Other Uses : The flowers provide nectar for the Celastrina ladon (Spring Azure) butterfly. Mammals and birds feed on its fruit, twigs, and leaves. The large showy flowers are decorative to flower garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_lantanoides
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+lantanoides

Abronia fragrans

Botanical Name : Abronia fragrans
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Genus: Abronia
Species:A. fragrans
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Caryophyllales

Common Names: Snowball Sand Verbena, Sweet sand-verbena, Prairie snowball, Fragrant verbena

Habitat : The native range of sweet sand-verbena extends from Northern Arizona to western Texas and Oklahoma north through the Rocky Mountain and western plains regions of the United States and south to Chihuahua, Mexico. Sweet sand-verbena occurs in prairies, plains, and savannas where it can be found growing in loose, dry, sandy soils.

Description:
Abronia fragrans, Sweet sand-verbena, is an herbaceous perennial with an upright or sprawling growth habit, reaching 8-40 inches (about 20–102 cm). It grows from a taproot with sticky, hairy stems growing from 7.1 inches to 3.3 feet (18–100 cm) long.

The flowers consist of 4 to 5 petaloid sepals and sepaloid bracts with a tubular corolla borne in clusters of 25 to 80 at the ends of stems. The blossoms are usually white but may be green-, lavender-, or pink-tinged. The sticky leaves are simple and opposite, up to 3.5″ (8.89 cm) long and 1.2″ (3 cm) wide, and elliptical or linear. The fruits are egg-shaped achenes about 0.1″ (.25 cm) long, lustrous, and black or brown. The achene is enclosed within a leathery top-shaped calyx base which may or may not be winged.

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It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers of this plant open in the evening and close again in the morning, a habit which gives the Nyctaginaceae family its common name of Four O’clocks. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Prefers a light well-drained sandy soil in full sun. This species is not very hardy in Britain, though it should succeed outdoors in the southern part of the country, especially if given a warm sheltered site. The flowers are produced in terminal clusters, they only open in the coolness of the evening, diffusing a vanilla-like perfume. Seed is rarely ripened on plants growing in Britain.
Propagation:
Seed – sow autumn or early spring very shallowly in pots of sandy soil in a greenhouse. Germination can be very slow unless you peel off the outer skin and pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 2 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Seedlings are prone to damp off and so should be kept well-ventilated[200]. Plant out in late spring, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings in spring, rooted in sand.
Edible Uses:
Root – cooked. Dried then ground into a powder and mixed with corn. Use of the root was said by some North American Indian tribes to give one a good appetite and make them fat.The Acoma and the Laguna mix the ground roots with cornmeal and eat the mixture as food.

Medicinal Uses:

Cathartic; Diaphoretic; Emetic.

The plant is cathartic, diaphoretic and emetic. The roots and flowers were used by the North American Indians to treat stomach cramps and as a general panacea or ‘life’ medicine. A cold infusion was used as a lotion for sores or sore mouths and also to bathe perspiring feet.
The Ute use as a roots and flowers for stomach and bowel troubles, whereas the Zuni use the fresh flowers alone for stomachaches.
The Indigenous peoples of the Southwest use the plant as a wash for sores and insect bites, to treat stomachache, and as an appetite booster. Among the Navajo, it is used medicinally for boils and taken internally when a spider was swallowed. The Kayenta Navajo use it as a cathartic, for insect bites, as a sudorific, as an emetic, for stomach cramps, and as a general panacea. The Ramah Navajo use it as a lotion for sores or sore mouth and to bathe perspiring feet.
The Keres mix ground roots of the plant with corn flour, and eat to gain weight.
Other Uses: Sweet sand-verbena is grown in gardens for its attractive blossoms and fragrance, and to attract butterflies.The Keres mix ground roots of the plant with corn flour and use this mixture to keep from becoming greedy, and they make ceremonial necklaces from the plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abronia+fragrans
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abronia_fragrans