Tag Archives: French Polynesia

Cerbera manghas

 

Botanical Name : Cerbera manghas
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Cerbera
Species: C. manghas
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Cerbera , Sea mango

Indigenous Names:
*Madagascar – Tanguin, Samanta, Tangena
*Samoa – Leva
*Tonga – Toto
*Fiji – Vasa
*Indonesia, Malay, Sunda – Bintaro….CLICK & SEE :
*Sri Lanka /Sinhalese – Kaduru
*Japan / Ryukyuan – Mifukuragi (also applied for the Japanese common name of this species

Habitat:
Cerbera manghas is naturally distributed from the Seychelle Islands in the Indian Ocean eastward to French Polynesia. It occupies
coastal habitats and is often associated with mangrove forests.This tree has been introduced to Hawaii and other tropical locations as an
ornamental.
Description:
Cerbera manghas is a shrub or a small to medium-sized tree up to 12 metres (39 ft) tall with white latex in all parts, glabrous; bole up to 70 cm in diameter; bark thick,
rough, peeling off, with large lenticels, grey to dark brown; branches thick and succulent, with many conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves   arranged spirally, clustered at the ends of branches, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; blade narrowly obovate, 5–30  cm × 1–8 cm, cuneate at base, shortly acuminate at apex, leathery, pinnately veined with 15–40 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence a  terminal cyme up to 25 cm × 15 cm, many-flowered; peduncle 1.5–12 cm long; bracts about as long as sepals, deciduous. Flowers bisexual,  regular, 5-merous, fragrant; pedicel 0.5–3 cm long; sepals ovate or obovate, (0.5–)1–3.5 cm × c. 0.5 cm, spreading to recurved; corolla tube  funnel-shaped, 1.5–5.5 cm long, widened at apex, pale green with white or pale yellow scales in the throat, hairy inside, lobes obliquely  elliptical or obovate, 1.5–3 cm × 1–2 cm, spreading to recurved, white but pink at base; stamens inserted just below the top of corolla tube, included, covered by scales of corolla tube, anthers sessile; ovary superior, globose, consisting of 2 separate carpels, style long and slender,  pistil head consisting of a 5-ridged basal part, a veil and a cone-shaped apex. Fruit consisting of 1 or 2 separate or basally fused, drupe-like,  ellipsoid follicles 5–12 cm × 3–7 cm, rounded at both ends, dark red when mature, indehiscent, usually 1-seeded. Seed flattened orbicular, c.  2.5 cm in diameter, with small wing at apex. Seedling with hypogeal germination..CLICK & SEE :
The flowers of Cerbera manghas are pollinated by insects. The fruits, which are fibrous inside, float in water and can be distributed by sea  currents; they are quite commonly washed up on shores…..…CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Properties:

The seeds contain glycosides derived from the cardenolides tanghinigenin and digitoxigenin, such as cerberin, neriifolin, thevetin B and 2’-O-acetyl-thevetin B. The principal cardenolides contained in the bark and roots are gentiobiosyl-thevetoside and glucosyl-thevetoside along with other thevetosides derived from tanghinigenin. The amount of cardenolides in the leaves varies according to the season. Some of the cardenolides showed antiproliferative activity against human colon cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines, as well as anti-oestrogenic activity. Cerberin acts on plain muscle preparations as a definite stimulant both with regard to tone and peristaltic movements. As such it behaves as a parasympatomimetic poison. It acts on both the rhythm and amplitude of the heart. In moderate doses cerberin has positive inotropic properties, but in high, toxic doses it produces a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect. Phytochemical investigations also revealed the presence of a series of lignans derived from olivil (cerberalignans) and monoterpenoids such as cerberidol. Ethanolic extracts of Cerbera manghas have shown selective activity against vesicular stomatis virus (VSV). Olivil, carinol and cycloolivil showed antioxidant activities.
The wood is lightweight to medium-weight, with the white to pale yellow-brown heartwood not demarcated from the sapwood; grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture fine and uneven. The shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate, and the wood works easily. It is not durable, highly susceptible to blue-staining fungi, and resistant to preservative treatment under pressure.

Medicinal Uses:
Used much like digitalis.
The seeds of Cerbera manghas are used in traditional medicine in Madagascar to treat cardiac disorders. However they are very poisonous and were used until the middle of the 19th century as ordeal poison. In tropical Asia the seeds are used to treat scabies and itch, to prepare a hair tonic and as fish poison, the bark is used as a laxative and antipyretic and in the treatment of dysuria and ringworm, the flowers to treat haemorrhoids, and roots, bark and leaves to prepare a purgative.

Other Uses:
In Sri Lanka, this wood is used for making masks particularly because it is a light wood. The wood is also used in tropical Asia for mouldings, interior trim, fruit cases, core veneer, matches, shuttering, clogs, plain furniture and carving, and also for charcoal. Cerbera manghas is planted as an ornamental and the fibrous fruits, of which the skin and soft parts have decayed, are used in flower arrangements.

Mythology:.…….Because of its deadly poisonous seeds, the genus name is derived from Cerberus, the hell dog from the Greek mythology, thus
indicating the toxicity of the seeds. In Madagascar, the seeds were used in sentence rituals to poison kings and queens.

Known Hazards: ……Poison….The leaves and the fruits contain the potent cardiac glycoside cerberin, which is extremely poisonous if   ingested.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources::
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerbera_manghas
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Cerbera_manghas_(PROTA)

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Gardenia jasminoides

Botanical Name : Gardenia jasminoides
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Gardenia
Species: G. jasminoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Common gardenia, Cape jasmine or Cape jessamine (The common names cape jasmine and cape jessamine derive from the earlier belief that the flower originated in Cape of Good Hope, South Africa)

Bengali Name: Gandharaj

Habitat :It originated in Asia and is most commonly found growing in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan and India.

Description:
Gardenia jasminoides is a fragrant flowering evergreen tropical plant  with greyish bark and dark green shiny leaves with prominent veins. The white flowers bloom in spring and summer and are highly fragrant. They are followed by small oval fruit.

CLICK & SEE  THE  PICTURES 

You may click to see more pictures: 

It is  favorite in gardens worldwide.  With its shiny green leaves and fragrant white summer flowers, it is widely used in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates. It has been in cultivation in China for at least a thousand years, and was introduced to English gardens in the mid 18th century. Many varieties have been bred for horticulture, with low growing, and large- and long-flowering forms.

Cultivation:
Gardenia jasminoides is generally considered to be somewhat difficult to take care of.

As a tropical plant, it thrives best in warm temperatures in humid environments. Getting those conditions is rather hard when in non tropical latitudes, reason for which gardenias are usually cultivated indoors or in greenhouses. In warm places, though, it can be grown outdoors. Either way, it prefers bright indirect sunlight or partial shade, rather than direct sunlight.

Apart from the difficulties in creating the suitable conditions for the plant to live, Gardenias need to be planted in an acidic soil (it is an acidophile plant). If the soil is not acid enough, many of its nutrients (especially iron compounds) will not be available for the plant, since they won’t dilute in water and therefore won’t be absorbed via the roots. It this happens, gardenias start to develop chlorosis, whose main symptom is a yellowing of the leaves. (See Soil ph).

For this reason, it’s advisable not to water Gardenias with very hard water. When having to water with hard water, it is possible to add some vinegar or lemon juice to it before doing so, this will lower the pH of the water.

Iron chelate can be added to the soil in order to lower the pH, but care must be taken since an overdose can kill the plant, as with any other inorganic soil amendment.

Some gardeners will spill vinegar over the soil to effectively keep the pH low and prevent chlorosis. This can be carried out either regularly or when the first symptoms of chlorosis have been spotted.

Medicinal Uses:
It is used as a tea for feverish states, inflammations of the liver (chronic hepatitis), gastrointestinal tract (with impaired digestion, minor constipation), genitourinary tract (cystitis), and as an antidyscratic (blood purifier) and anti-inflammatory for atopic eczema and chronic rheumatic complaints.

Traditional uses:
Gardenia jasminoides fructus (fruit) is used within Traditional Chinese Medicine to “drain fire” and thereby treat certain febrile conditions.

Pharmacological research:
Studies in animals indicate some pharmacological potential, but there is no evidence from clinical studies in humans. In one animal study Gardenia jasminoides significantly lowered serum IL-1? and TNF-? levels in rheumatoid arthritis rats, and its effect had a close relation with inhibitory development of rheumatoid arthritis in the rats.

A mice study found that genipin was an active constituent in Gardenia that regulated inflammatory activity. Geniposide from Gardenia enhanced glutathione content in rat livers. Glutathione is an important immune system amino acid that helps determine modulation of immune response, including cytokine production

Other Uses:
It is widely used as a garden plant in warm temperate and subtropical gardens. It can be used as a hedge.

The fruit is used as a yellow dye, which is used for clothes and food (including the Korean mung bean jelly called hwangpomuk).

Polynesian people in the pacific islands use these fragrant blooms in their flower necklaces, which are called Ei in the Cook Islands, Hei in French Polynesia and Lei in Hawai’i

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardenia_jasminoides
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Sida cordifolia

Botanical Name : Sida cordifolia
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Sida
Species: S. cordifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Name :Bala, Country mallow, Heart-leaf sida or Flannel weed

English Name: Country Mallow
Hindi Name: Khareti, Bala, Barial, Kumghi.

Parts used: Root, bark, leaves, flowers and seeds.

Habitat :Sida cordifolia is native to India. It has naturalized throughout the world, and is considered an invasive weed in Africa, Australia, the southern United States, Hawaiian Islands, New Guinea, and French Polynesia. The specific name, cordifolia, refers to the heart-shaped leaf.

Description:
S. cordifolia is an erect perennial that reaches 50 to 200 cm (20 to 79 in) tall, with the entire plant covered with soft white felt-like hair that is responsible for one of its common names, “flannel weed”. The stems are yellow-green, hairy, long, and slender. The yellow-green leaves are oblong-ovate, covered with hairs, and 3.5 to 7.5 cm (1.4 to 3.0 in) long by 2.5 to 6 cm (0.98 to 2.4 in) wide. The flowers are dark yellow, sometimes with a darker orange center, with a hairy 5-lobed calyx and 5-lobed corolla.
...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Flowers yellow, peduncles, axillary, jointed much above the panicles, upper flowers nearly sessile and fasciculate towards the tip of the branches forming subspicate inflorescence. Fruits subdiscoid, 6-8 mm across, mericarps 10, 3 sided. Seeds trigonous, glabours, tufted-pubescent near the hilum.

As a weed, it invades cultivated and overgrazed fields, competing with more desired species and contaminating hay.

Chemical constituents: Asparagin, alkaloids: ephedrine, hypaphorine, vasicinone, vasicine and vasicinol (Ghosal, Chauhan, and Mehta 1975), phytosterols, mucin, gelatin, potassium nitrate and rutin. Ephedrine content of whole plant is 0.085 %. The seeds contain 0.32% of alkaloid. A study reported 0.112% of ephedrine in whole plant of Sida cordifolia (Khatoon, Srivastava, Rawat and Mehrotra 2005). The seeds contain more alkaloids that that is found in the stems, roots or leaves.  Non-polar constituents have been reported from plant growing in Bangladesh (Khan, Rashid, Huq and Ahmad 1989).

No tannin or glycosides have been identified from the plant. The roots and stems contain the alkaloid ephedrine, normally observed in the different varieties of the gymnosperm genus Ephedra. Recent analyses have revealed that ephedrine and pseudoephedrine constitute the major alkaloids from the aerial parts of the plant, which also show traces of sitosterol and palmitic, stearic and hexacosanoic acids. The flavones: 5,7-dihydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone (2), ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol have been isolated from the plant. The analgesic alkaloid (5?-Hydroxymethyl-1?-(1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-pyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-1-yl)-heptan-1-one)has also been found. Sterculic, malvalic and coronaric acids have been isolated from the seed oil, along with other fatty acids (Chem. Ind. 1985. 483).

Medicinal Uses:
According to Ayurveda, the plant is tonic, astringent, emollient, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of respiratory system related troubles. Bark is considered as cooling. It is useful in blood, throat, urinary system related troubles, piles, phthisis, insanity etc.

Sida cordifolia is used in the treatment of leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, general debility and rheumatism. Expressed juice of the whole plant is useful in premature ejaculation. The juice obtained from the roots is applied to unhealthy sores. Decoction of the root bark is given in sciatica and rheumatism.

S. cordifolia is used in Ayurvedic medicine, known as “malva branca”, is a plant used in the folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, blenorrhea, asthmatic bronchitis and nasal congestion, stomatits, of asthma and nasal congestion and in many parts of Africa for various ailments, particularly for respiratory problems.It has been investigated as an anti-inflammatory, for treating cancer, and for encouraging liver re-growth. Due to its ephedrine content, it possesses psychostimulant properties, affecting the central nervous system and also the heart.

A 50% ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia tested on rats showed potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, activity comparable with the standard drug deprenyl.

The plant has demonstrated anti-pyretic and anti-ulcerogenic properties.

The aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia stimulates liver regeneration in rats.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sida_cordifolia
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Sida_cordifolia
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/bala.html
http://www.ethnoleaflets.com/leaflets/bala.htm

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Calophyllum Inophyllum


Botanical names :
Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
Family : Clusiaceae /Mangosteen
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Tribe: Calophylleae
Genus: Calophyllum
Species:C. inophyllum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Synonyms : Calophyllum Bintagor Roxb
Common names :  Punnappoovu
English :Alexandrian Laurel, Tamanu, Pannay Tree, Sweet Scented Calophyllum.
Borneo Mahagany… Bengali: Punnang… Marathi: Undi… Burmese: Pongnyet… Cutchi: Udi… Hindi: Undi, Surpan, Surpunka, Sultan Champa… Konkani: Undee-phal… Malyalam: Cherupuna, Ponnakum, Sinhalese: Domba, Dombagaha, Teldomba, Sultanchampa… Tamil:Nagam,Nameru, Pinmai,Punnagam, Punnai, Punnagum, Punnaivirai. Pinnay…Telagu: Pumagamu, Ponnvittulu, Ponnachettu…Hawaiian: Kamani

Habitat : Bitaog (as it is most usually called) is found throughout the Philippines along the seashores. It is native to Tropical Asia and its geographical distribution area also includes Melanesia and Polynesia. It grows near the sea coast throughout India. In French Polynesia, the Tamanu tree is widespread on most of the islands. It grows primarily in the coral sands and on the sea shore, although specimens may be found in valleys. Its seeds sprout easily in muddy and saline soils. The Motu (coral reefs), which surround the volcanic islands, are covered with Tamanu trees; they are very much appreciated for their fragrant flowers and elegant foliage and are thus planted along avenues. Kamani, as it is also known, was brought north to Hawai from the South Pacific islands in early migrations of Polynesian settlers. Also called Alexandrian laurel, true kamaniwas probably introduced by seed, which is how it is propagated. This native of the Pacific and of tropical Africa, grows slowly along sandy shores and in lowland forests. It was cultivated in villages, near houses and also in groves away from villages. When found growing in windy areas, it is sometimes in a picturesque form.

Cultivated for in Manila and large towns use as shade tree on lawns, avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.


Description:

The tree is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters  and has a thick trunk covered with a rough, black and cracked bark. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9-18 cm long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers have a sweet, lime-like fragrance. The tree, which flowers twice a year, is said to attain a great age Fruit is round, yellow, smooth, pulpy, 3-4 cm in diameter.

You may click to see the pictures…...(01).…….(1)……(2).(3)…..(4)

 

The numerous fruits, arranged in clusters, are spherical drupes. Once ripe, their smooth, yellow epidermis discloses a thin layer of pulp, which tastes somewhat of apple. The gray, ligneous and rather soft nut contains a pale yellow kernel, which is odourless when fresh.

Constituents :
*Kernels reported to contain 70-75% bitaog oil.
*Oil is reported to contain a poisonous resin to which its color and oder are due.
*Bark yields 11.9 % tannin; exudes oleoresin when cut.
*Resin reported to contain benzoic acids.
*Seeds contain coumarins: calanolide A and B.
*Study yields inocalophyllins A, B and methylesters from the seeds. source

Medicinal Uses:-
Parts Used :Kernels, bark, leaves.

Properties:

*Oil is considered vulnerary, cicatrising, rubefacient and irritant.
*Resinn considered sudorific.
*Fruit infusion is considered pectoral.
*Bark is considered astringent, emetic, purgative, demulcent.
*Considered antiinflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial.
*Milky juice is irritant and blinding to the eye.

Folkloric :
*Gas pains, indigestion, colic: Crush some kernels and apply on abdomen.
*Infusion or decotion of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
*Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant.
*Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments.
*Gum resin from the bark applied to wounds and old sores.
*Oil used as external application for indigestion and colic.
*Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
*Pounded bark applied to orchitis.
*Infusion of leaves taken for heatstroke.
*Oil used externally as an antiinflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
*Crushed kernels on affected joints in rheumatism.
*In Hawaii, bark resin used for ulcers.

*In the Netherland Indies, decoction of bark taken internally after childbirth.
*In Java, used for its diuretic properties.
*In Fiji, leaves usedas lotion for sore eyes.
*In Indo-China, pounded bark used used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds.
Astringent juice from the bark used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.
*In Samoa, leaves used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
*In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
Oil used for scabies.
*In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea.

*In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. source.


Other Uses:

*Trees are normally planted along the highways, roads to stop soil erosion.
*The tree is  a popular ornamental plant.
*Wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding.
*Fragrant flowers used for boquets and wreaths; also, used to decorate women’s hair.
*The thin, rounded seed shells used as containers for “buri” sugar which are sold as confection.
*Oil used as illuminant; for making soap; also used as varnish.
*Oil used in many cosmetic products.
*Considered a biodiesel potential.
*In Samoa, the plant is used for production of arrow poison.

Studies:-
•Anti-tumor / Chemopreventive: Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum: A screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from C inophyllum showed some of them might have a potential for cancer chemoprevention.
• Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum: Study yielded a new prenylated xanthone, caloxanthone N, with two other known constituents. Study showed compounds with cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense: Some of the compounds isolated (protocatechuic acid and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone) showed antimicrobial activity, confirming and justifying the traditional use of the plants to treat infectious processes.
• Inophylline A / Larvicidal: Study of roots yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A, with triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol and suggests a potential for a natural larvicide.
• Antitumor: Study of ten 4-phenylcoumarins of Calophyllum inophyllum showed some of them with a potential as cancer chemoprotective agents.
Xanthones: Study of the leaves of C inophyllum isolated a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A and four known compounds: pancixanthone A, gerontoxanthone b, jacareubin and pyranojacareubin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum
http://www.stuartxchange.com/PaloMaria.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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Stop Bad-Mouthing Yourself

 

 

Stop Bad-Mouthing Yourself
Neglect daily care of your mouth and you put yourself at risk for real oral health issues.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURE

Your regular brushing, flossing, and rinsing routine is a good foundation for a healthy mouth, but some areas need more love than others. Target these top problem spots to safeguard your smile — and your life.

Cavities:

Problem Spot: Between your back teeth (top and bottom)

click & see

Reason: It’s where you do most of your chewing.

Quick Fix: Instead of a straight up-and-down flossing motion, wrap the floss around each tooth, slide it just under the gum, and then floss like you would shine a shoe, says Craig Valentine, D.M.D., of the Academy of General Dentistry.

Canker sores:

Problem Spot: The inside of your bottom lip

click & see

Reason:
Nervous lip biting may trigger canker sores, but the cause is usually viral.

Quick Fix: Use Colgate’s Orabase with benzocaine, which was voted the best treatment by members of the American Pharmacists Association.

Receding Gums:

Problem Spot: The gum that surrounds both your top left canine tooth and the premolar behind it…click & see

Reason:
The top canines are your most prominent teeth, so they take extra abuse from brushing. (Righties will do more harm to the left tooth.)

Quick Fix:
Brush gently and in only one direction — from the gum down to the bottom of the tooth.

Oral Cancer


Problem Spot:
Your tongue

click  & see

Reason: Its location makes it more susceptible to toxins such as cigarette smoke.

Quick Fix: Ban smoke from your body and eat more avocados. Ohio State University researchers found that chemical compounds in avocados may reduce the risk of oral cancer.

Plaque

Problem Spot: The two bottom teeth in the front and center.

click & see

Reason:
They’re closest to your salivary glands, and a protein in saliva has been shown to promote plaque buildup.

Quick Fix:
Snack on raisins; they contain phytochemicals that block plaque from latching onto your teeth, say researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Do more for your mouth:
Researchers from Case Western University found that regular exercise and a healthful diet may cut your risk of gum disease by up to 29 percent.

Sources:MSN’S HEALTH

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