Herbs & Plants

Solanum aviculare

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Botanical Name : Solanum aviculare
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. aviculare

Synonyms: Solanum laciniatum Aiton

Common Names :Kangaroo Apple, New Zealand nightshade

Habitat: Solanum aviculare is native to Australia, New Zealand. It grows in the coastal and lowland forest margins and shrubland on North South and Chatham Islands in New Zealand.

Solanum aviculare is an evergreen Shrub growing up to 4 metres tall. The leaves are, 8–30 cm long, lobed or entire, with any lobes being 1–10 cm long.
Its hermaphroditic (having both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.

The flowers are white, mauve to blue-violet, 25–40 mm wide, and are followed by berries 10–15 mm wide that are poisonous while green, but edible once orange.


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Succeeds in most fertile soils in a sunny position. Tolerates temperatures down to at least -7°c in Australian gardens but is not very hardy in Britain. It sometimes succeeds as a shrub outdoors in the mildest areas of the country but is more usually cut to the ground by winter cold. It can, however, be grown at the foot of a warm sunny wall and be treated as a herbaceous perennial. As long as the roots are given a good mulch in autumn they should survive quite cold winters. Alternatively, it is possible to grow the plant as an annual. If the seed is sown in early spring in a warm greenhouse and planted out after the last frosts it can fruit in its first year though yields will be lower than from plants grown as perennials. A very ornamental plant, it has been cultivated for its edible fruit by the New Zealand Maoris. It is a fast-growing but short-lived plant. There is much confusion between this species and S. laciniatum. Some botanists unite the two under S. aviculare whilst others say that S. laciniatum is a tetraploid form of this species. S. laciniatum is treated as a distinct species here.
Seed – sow spring in a warm greenhouse. Germinates in 2 – 3 weeks at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing the plants as annuals, plant them out after the last expected frosts and give them some protection such as a cloche until they are growing well. If growing as a perennial, especially in areas at the limits of its cold-hardiness, it will probably be better to grow the plants on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Give them fairly large pots (12cm or larger) because they have very strong root growth. Top growth might die back over winter, but the roots should survive if temperatures in the greenhouse do not fall below about -5°c. Plant them out in early summer of the following year. The plants will be somewhat hardier in their second winter. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very easy, the cuttings root within a couple of weeks. Pot them up in fairly large pots and overwinter them in the greenhouse before planting out in early summer.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.

Fruit – raw or cooked. It must be thoroughly ripe because the unripe fruit is poisonous. It can be used as a sweet fruit or as a vegetable. Best harvested once it has fallen from the plant, the fruit will then have lost its unpleasant acidity. It tastes much worse than it looks, the fruit is sickly sweet and often bitter. The quality varies from plant to plant and even from year to year from the same plant The fruit is up to 2cm long and contains a large number of flat seeds.
Medicinal Uses:
A source of steroids, much used in the pharmaceutical industry. The unripe berries are the richest source.

Other Uses:    in warmer climates than Britain this plant is often used as a hedge
Known Hazards: All green parts of the plant are poisonous and so is the unripe fruit.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Positive thinking

It is Helpful to Keep & Maintain Diary

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A diary can play many roles. It can be a confidant, a vehicle of self expression, a tool that facilitates clarity of thought, or a repository of dreams. A diary can also be a powerful source of comfort during challenging or traumatic periods. When you record those insights and incidents that clearly demonstrate you are on the right track, you can return to your words days, weeks, or months later and find uniquely soothing reassurance. A diary with a specific purpose can be a good tool for keeping track of experiences before the passage of time can skew your perception of events. It reflects the immediacy of your life and thus provides you with a landmark to return to when you begin to doubt yourself. If doubt does arise, simply open your diary to reaffirm your experiences. The confidence, surety, passion, and bravery you felt in a single moment is preserved, giving you a means to recapture those feelings in any place, at any time.


Your diary serves as a repository of personalized encouragement. Since a diary is, by its very nature, as individual as you are, you should give some thought to the type of diary that will serve you best. A synchronicity-and-connections diary might describe those instances where seemingly random occurrences came together in a meaningful way, propelling you forward. Or you may find strength in the pages of a pride diary that makes note not only of those times you felt proud of yourself but also precisely why you were pleased with your efforts. And a cause-and-effect diary can help you become more decisive by reminding you of all the wise, life-affirming choices you have made. Your diary should be small enough to be readily portable and on hand whenever possible because the faster you put your thoughts down on paper, the more authentic your declarations are apt to be.

Regardless of the type of focused diary you choose to keep, your recollections will create a positive feedback loop that helps you cope with doubt in a constructive way
. Reading through your diary when life seems uncertain can show you that your misgivings are unfounded. As you draw consolation from your uplifting words, you will know without a doubt that you are indeed living your purpose and following the path that you committed to before birth.

Source:Daily OM